What Is Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is a progressive and debilitating disease of the central nervous system that disables the communication between the brain and other parts of the body. It involves an immune-mediated process in which an abnormal response of the bodys immune system is directed against the central nervous system.
Within the central nervous system , the immune system causes inflammation that damages myelinthe fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the nerve fibersas well as the nerve fibers themselves, and even the specialized cells that make myelin. When the nerve fibers are destroyed, messages within the CNS are altered or halted completely. Then, the damaged areas produce neurological symptoms that can vary among people in type and severity. These areas develop scar tissue, giving the disease its namemultiple areas of scarring or multiple sclerosis.
Multiple System Atrophy Formerly Called Shy
As predicted by the name of this parkinsonism, multiple system atrophy affects multiple systems of the body. It affects both the motor skills movement system and the involuntary system of the body. Though the symptoms can often be treated with medications, there is no cure. In addition, there are no drugs that are able to slow the progress of MSA.
Whats The Difference Between Drug
Parkinsons is a progressive disorder, which will become worse over time, while DIP does not. In DIP, Parkinson-like symptoms can begin within four days to one month of starting the medication. However, all the symptoms could completely subside once the effecting medication is stopped, though it may take up to 18 months for all the symptoms to subside.
Summary Parkinsons Vs Myasthenia Gravis
Parkinsons and myasthenia gravis are neurological disorders that have a very deteriorating impact on the quality of life of the patient. The main difference between Parkinsons and myasthenia gravis is their autoimmune component.
1. Kumar, Parveen J., and Michael L. Clark. Kumar & Clark clinical medicine. Edinburgh: W.B. Saunders, 2009.
1. Sir William Richard Gowers Parkinson Disease sketch 1886 2 By Sir_William_Richard_Gowers_Parkinson_Disease_sketch_1886.jpg:derivative work: Malyszkz Sir_William_Richard_Gowers_Parkinson_Disease_sketch_1886.jpg via Commons Wikimedia2. DiplopiaMG1 By James Heilman, MD Own work via Commons Wikimedia
Risk Factors For Depression In Ms
There appears to be a complex relation between disability, pain, fatigue, perception about prognosis, location of lesion, and depression in MS. Most of the magnetic resonance imaging studies have not located a depressogenic MS lesion except for a possible relation between severity of depression and right temporal lesions.
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Group Characteristics And Adherence
Fifteen people with MS, 16 age-match MS-Ctl, 16 people with PD , III , and IV ), and 15 age-matched PD-Ctl participated in the study. Table shows the demographics and activity characteristics of subjects who participated in this study. Age, height, and weight were similar between the MS and MS-Ctl and between the PD and PD-Ctl groups. Adherence to the weekly recordings for each subject group was similar with 60.19±11.02 hours in MS, 64.15±9.59 h in MS-Ctl, 67.66±12.53 h in PD, and 64.67±10.13 h in PD-Ctl of daily life data. The histogram in Fig. illustrates the number of strides in each bout during daily life, and it is evident that the stride range in a bout considered for the analysis in this study captures the major portion of participants daily activity.
Table 1 Demographics, adherence, and weekly activity of each group
What Is The Difference Between Parkinsons And Myasthenia Gravis
Parkinsons disease is a movement disorder characterized by a decline in the dopamine level of the brain whereas myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the production of antibodies that block the transmission of impulses across the neuromuscular junction. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease but Parkinsons is not considered as an autoimmune disease. This is the main difference between Parkinsons and myasthenia gravis. The appearance of Lewy bodies and loss of dopaminergic neurons in pars compacta of the substantia nigra region of midbrain are the hallmark morphological changes in Parkinsons disease. In contrast, the block of the transmission of nervous impulses at the neuromuscular junction due to the action of autoantibodies is the pathological basis of myasthenia gravis.
In addition, there is no laboratory test for the exact identification of Parkinsons disease. However, investigations such as Anti ACh receptor antibodies in the serum, tensilon test, imaging studies, ESR and CRP can help to diagnose myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, anticholinesterases such as pyridostigmine, immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids, Thymectomy, Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins can help to manage myasthenia gravis. On the other hand, drugs such as dopamine receptor agonists and levodopa, which restore the dopamine activity of the brain, can alleviate motor symptoms in Parkinsons.
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Pool Therapy For Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Multiple Sclerosis is a condition that weakens muscles and movements over time. Thus, strength training early and often is one of the key ways to keeping the muscles from weakening. However, this can be understandably difficult for someone who has difficulty walking, picking up a fork to eat or simply waving hello. For Multiple Sclerosis sufferers, the HydroWorx therapy pool can be a place for them to more easily build lean muscle mass than would ever be possible on land. Even if they cannot walk down the street comfortably or safely, they can walk on a treadmill in the water without fear. Not only are they protected by the innate buoyancy of the water, but they are given a psychological boost because they arent afraid to fall.
In a case study that was recently done in Great Britain, a woman with Multiple Sclerosis was treated in the HydroWorx pool. She had complained of progressive weakness in her upper and lower left limbs during a two-year period. She had to walk with a cane, and tended to favor one of her legs over the other. This was causing serious gait problems.
How Are They Alike
These diseases both affect your nerves. MS can break down the coating, called myelin, that surrounds and protects your nerves. In Parkinsonâs, nerve cells in a part of your brain slowly die off.
Both can start out with mild symptoms, but they get worse over time.
Common symptoms of both diseases include:
- Shaky fingers, hands, lips, or limbs
- Slurred speech thatâs hard for others to understand
- Numb or weak limbs that make your walk unsteady
- Loss of muscle control that often affects one side of your body at first, then later both
- Spastic limb movements that are hard to control
- Loss of bladder or bowel control
- Poor balance
Depression is another symptom common to both conditions.
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Key Difference Ms Vs Parkinsons
MS and Parkinsons disease are two diseases affecting the central nervous system. Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune, T-cell mediated inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system. On the other hand, Parkinsons disease is a movement disorder characterized by a decline in the dopamine level of the brain. Although MS is an autoimmune disorder, there is no immune component in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease. This is the key difference between MS and Parkinsons.
Vitamin C And Vitamin E
An 18-year study followed 41,058 subjects in Sweden. Within that population, there were 465 cases of Parkinson’s disease. Researchers evaluated vitamin C and E to determine whether antioxidants and total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity were linked to a lower risk of Parkinsons disease.
Parkinsons And Multiple Sclerosis Case Study: Virginia
One recent case illustrating the power of water to combat problems related to major conditions involves a 67-year-old patient diagnosed with both Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinsons who sought treatment at a senior living campus. The woman, Virginia, has been wheelchair bound due to her illnesses, but was particularly concerned because her body had begun to lean to the left to the point where she could not easily read the newspaper, play the piano or easily put on her slacks.
Virginia was determined not to allow her conditions to stop her from having a good quality of life. Therefore, she turned to water therapy twice a week. When she began her rehabilitation, it was very difficult for her to bear any weight until she was significantly submerged and the buoyancy could prevent her from falling. After three months, she improved her core strength to the point where she could sit and stand upright, and could exercise in water depths that were lower than before.
As Virginias physical therapist now notes, she has improved to the point where she can stand against currents created by resistance jets. Additionally, her posture is much better. Most exciting of all from Virginias perspective was when she had a check-up with her neurologist who was amazed at the results. Now, Virginia plays the piano for up to 45 minutes at a time without leaning to the left, and can feel the positive effects of being stronger and more stable.
What Are Treatments For Symptoms Of Ms Vs Als
MS treatment is not a cure for multiple sclerosis. Treatments may help speed recovery from an MS exacerbation of symptoms and may slow the progression of the disease. Although a few patients may have mild symptoms, and not require treatment. Treatments for MS attacks can include corticosteroids and plasma exchange . For progressive recurrent MS, ocrelizumab is the only FDA-approved therapy. There are a number of other drugs for relapsing-remitting MS that may be prescribed by a neurologist to help reduce symptoms.
Treatment protocols for ALS and MS are best determined by your individual situation. Treatments are best determined in consultation with your primary care physician and a consultant such as a neurologist.
Testing For Parkinsons Disease
There is no lab or imaging test that is recommended or definitive for Parkinsons disease. However, in 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved an imaging scan called the DaTscan. This technique allows doctors to see detailed pictures of the brains dopamine system.
A DaTscan involves an injection of a small amount of a radioactive drug and a machine called a single-photon emission computed tomography scanner, similar to an MRI.
The drug binds to dopamine transmitters in the brain, showing where in the brain dopaminergic neurons are.
The results of a DaTscan cant show that you have Parkinsons, but they can help your doctor confirm a diagnosis or rule out a Parkinsons mimic.
Link Between Multiple Sclerosis Vs Parkinsons Disease
Researchers have found that nerve pathways in the gut and the brain may be linked to multiple sclerosis and Parkinsons disease. Dr. Anton Emmanuel explained, The gut and brain share the same nerve chemistry and have a dialogue. Thats why when you feel stress and other strong emotions, such as fear, it leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, like rushing to the .
The study suggests that an unhealthy gut can trigger the onset of brain disease as the signals from brain to gut can also travel in the opposite direction from gut to brain. The findings of the study were published in the journal Movement Disorders where researchers found that Parkinsons disease sufferers have a higher prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth .
The researchers suggest the bacteria produce toxic chemicals affecting the nerves in the gut and this way causing damage to the brain. This can bring about the onset of multiple sclerosis or Parkinsons disease.
Dr. Emmanuel said, We now think that neurological diseases such as MS and Parkinsons are linked to the gut being more leaky, permitting pathogens into the bloodstream and causing an antibody response. Either the pathogens, directly, or the immune response, indirectly, may damage nerve tissue.
Researchers are now exploring bacterial genomes that can help identify the bacteria so that doctors can specifically treat it as a means of preventing Parkinsons disease and multiple sclerosis.
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How Do Treatments Differ
MS treatments can ease your symptoms during an attack or slow down the diseaseâs effects on your body.
Plasma exchange is another therapy if steroids donât work. Your doctor will use a machine to remove the plasma portion of your blood. The plasma gets mixed with a protein solution and put back into your body.
Some people with both diseases who take anti-inflammatory medicines like steroids see their Parkinsonâs symptoms get better.
Disease-modifying treatments slow down MS nerve damage and disability. They include:
National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke: âTremor Fact Sheet.â
Neurology: âParkinsonâs Disease in Multiple Sclerosis – A Population-Based, Nationwide Study in Denmark .â
Mayo Clinic: âMultiple Sclerosis: Overview,â âMultiple Sclerosis: Symptoms and Causes,â âMultiple Sclerosis: Treatment,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Causes,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Definition,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Risk Factors,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Symptoms.â
Christopher Reeve Foundation: âHow the spinal cord works.â
National Association for Continence: âParkinsonâs Disease.â
National Multiple Sclerosis Society: âMS Symptoms,â âWho Gets MS? .â
National Parkinson Foundation: âNon-Motor Symptoms.â
Multiple Sclerosis Trust: âLhermitteâs sign.â
Johns Hopkins Medicine: âPlasmapheresis.â
Causes Of Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to a reduction in a chemical called dopamine in the brain.
Dopamine plays a vital role in regulating the movement of the body. A reduction in dopamine is responsible for many of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Exactly what causes the loss of nerve cells is unclear. Most experts think that a combination of genetic and environmental factors is responsible.
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What Causes Huntingtons Disease
Huntingtons disease is caused by a mutation in the HTT gene. The HTT gene is responsible for making the huntingtin protein, which is thought to play an important role in nerve cells of the brain.
In Huntingtons disease, a DNA segment within this gene, called the CAG trinucleotide repeat, is repeated more often than is normal.
New Diagnostic Standards For Parkinsons
Until recently, the gold-standard checklist for diagnosis came from the U.K.s Parkinsons Disease Society Brain Bank. It was a checklist that doctors followed to determine if the symptoms they saw fit the disease. But thats now considered outdated. Recently, new criteria from the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society have come into use. This list reflects the most current understanding of the condition. It allows doctors to reach a more accurate diagnosis so patients can begin treatment at earlier stages.
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Pool Therapy For Alzheimers Patients
Although its a condition that is not as understood as sufferers and their loved ones would like, Alzheimers disease is becoming clearer year after year. Characterized by a progressive inability to remember even the simplest items , Alzheimers most noticeable symptom is an unusual level of forgetfulness. The disease is the most common form of dementia, and according to the Alzheimers Association, it is also the sixth leading cause of death in the United States.
Along with the mental impairments associated with Alzheimers, patients may become fearful as they start to lose a connection with their past, present and future, they may even turn angry toward caregivers. When everyday tasks cease to be easy, the patient may lose confidence in his or her abilities this can and often does include walking or enjoying exercise. As the disease worsens, the patient will likely have difficulty walking, too. Its a heartbreaking condition, and there isnt a cure.
Is It Possible To Have Ms And Parkinsons Disease
Unfortunately, yes it is possible to have co-existing MS and Parkinsons disease. Given their similarities, you would think that they are too similar for them to co-exist together. They both affect the CNS, they are degenerative neurologic conditions, and it just wouldnt be fair.
However, MS is an autoimmune disease. Parkinsons is not. Given this fact alone, it is entirely possible for them to co-exist.
In 2015, a team of researchers set out to determine if co-existing MS and Parkinsons disease was coincidental or were a cause-effect situation meaning, in this particular study, did the presence of Parkinsons increase the likelihood of developing MS?
The researchers studied 8947 MS cases with 44735 control cases. According to the study, Our results suggest a causal effect of MS on PD in MS – whether this can be explained by the localization of lesions alone is not clear.
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Rating Scales For Depression Post
Rating scales for depression have two main uses after strokeas a screening instrument, and as a way of measuring change in symptoms over time. There are very few studies validating the use of rating scales for measuring change, but a number of studies have looked at validation of screening instruments.
On the whole there tends to be poor agreement between a variety of screening rating scales and clinical diagnosis based on operationalised criteria. For most of the scales that have been studied using receiver operating curves, sensitivity to depression is only gained by significant losses in specificity. A recent review of screening instruments produced for the Stroke Association recommended the following screening measures:
The First Sign Of Parkinson’s And Multiple Sclerosis: A Dodgy Tummy
- Study suggests that brain disease can be caused by an unhealthy gut
- ‘Butterflies in the stomach’ could be linked to Parkinson’s and MS
17:07 EDT, 21 June 2014 | Updated:
Gut feeling: Brain disease can be caused by an unhealthy stomach
Anxiety or anticipation can often lead to a feeling of butterflies in the stomach which usually dissipates along with the source of the consternation.
But scientists have discovered that the nerve pathways between the gut and the brain that cause this phenomenon may also be linked to degenerative illnesses such as Parkinsons disease and multiple sclerosis , as well as some mental health problems.
Dr Anton Emmanuel, consultant neuro-gastroenterologist at University College London and the National Hospital for Neurology, explained: The gut and brain share the same nerve chemistry and have a dialogue.
‘Thats why when you feel stress and other strong emotions, such as fear, it leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, like rushing to the loo.
A new study suggests that brain disease can be caused by an unhealthy gut because these signals also travel in the opposite direction.
The study, which was published in the journal Movement Disorders, found that sufferers of Parkinsons disease had a higher prevalence of a condition called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or SIBO.
In SIBO, normally harmless bacteria proliferate in large numbers in the small intestine.
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