What Causes The Tremors Of Parkinsons Disease
The cause of PD is still a mystery, but it is possible that there is a gut-brain connection in PD via at least 2 mechanisms: transmission of prion-like particles up the vagus nerve, and lipopolysaccharide production in the gut.
Related to the first mechanism involving the vagus nerve, many of the effects of the microbiota and/or probiotics on brain function have been shown to be dependent on the activation of the vagus nerve, the long nerve connecting the gastrointestinal tract to the brain. Although not proven conclusively, some scientists believe that in some cases, a problem in the gut travels through the vagus nerve to the brain, leading to PD.
Here is why: Most people have heard about the loss of dopamine neurons in PD cases. However, the hallmark of Parkinsons disease is the presence of clumps of alpha-synuclein, a protein in the brain. Scientists have found alpha-synuclein clumps in other parts of the body, including nerve cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies in animal models of PD have shown that clumps of alpha-synuclein in the stomach can travel through the vagus nerve, like proteinaceous infectious particles , to reach the brain. People with severed vagus nerves have a less likely chance of developing Parkinsons disease.
Another common non-motor symptom of PD is depression, which can also have roots in the gut.
A New Type Of Probiotic
Symprove is an oral drinkable probiotic that claims to be able to deliver live bacteria to the lower gut and it has a rather interesting backstory with roots in the farmyard.
Back in 1986, Barry Smith, an ex-military nurse, was concerned about what might be in the food he was giving his animals, and how antibiotics might be wiping out good bacteria and affecting their health. His solution was to developed a clean food of germinated grain that he laced with live bacteria to help support a balanced and healthy gut in his animals.
While initially, people were skeptical about his practices, in time they drew the attention of local vets who noticed Barrys livestock were healthier and less prone to infection. Interested in if this bacteria-rich food could have wider applications, vets carried out early studies with 100 cats and dogs diagnosed with colitis, a condition where parts of the gut become inflammed. When the food achieved a 95% clear up rate, it encouraged Barry to take his probiotic forward to see if it could also benefit people.
Today, the solution has been refined greatly since those early days and Symprove is now a unique multi-strain liquid probiotic that aims to get beneficial bacteria through the acidic stomach intact so they can reach and thrive in the gut and so help improve gut health. It does this as it is mostly water, which the Symprove team says avoids triggering digestion that could kill the bacteria in other types of probiotic.
Variance Stabilizing Transformation And Deseq2 Analyses
Since the DESeq2 approach does not account for zero-inflated data, the correction factors were calculated using the GMPR method that is based on geometric means of pairwise ratios. Euclidean, BC, and JSD distances were used as beta-diversity estimators after normalizing the data via VST through the DESeq2 package. Statistical differences between control and PD groups were tested using the adonis2 function as specified above. DAs were calculated using default DESeq2 parameters that include a negative binomial GLM fitting and a Wald test. Multiple testings were accounted for using BH P value correction.
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Clinical Evidence For Probiotic Supplementation In Parkinson’s Disease
Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of probiotic supplementation in PD patients, particularly as a treatment for constipation. Constipation is a very common symptom in PD, with a reported prevalence of up to 70%. Constipation causes significant distress to many patients and can sometimes lead to serious complications such as intestinal pseudo-obstruction, volvulus, and acute urinary retention. The problem is also often insufficiently responsive to currently available laxative treatments.
In an open-label study of 40 PD patients, supplementation of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota , together with diet therapy, for 6weeks was associated with a significant increase in the number of days of bowel opening with normal stool consistency and improvement in constipation-associated bloatedness, sense of incomplete emptying, and abdominal pain.
Two subsequent double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials have provided class I evidence for the use of probiotics as a treatment for constipation in PD., In the first RCT, 120 PD patients were randomized to receive either fermented milk containing multiple probiotic strains , combined with prebiotic fiber , or a placebo for 4weeks. There was a significant increase in the number of complete bowel movements per week, as measured by stool diary, as well as improvements in bowel frequency, stool consistency, and frequency of laxative usage, in the treatment group.
Probiotics Benefit Parkinson’s Disease In New Study
In a laboratory study using roundworms, researchers think they may have found a way of using probiotics to treat Parkinson’s disease. The researchers suggest that administering a specific strand of probiotic bacteria could prevent the accumulation of the alpha-synuclein in the gut. The way that these probiotics benefit Parkinson’s may lead to a more effective treatment of the disease if these findings are confirmed.
The study, which was conducted at the University of Edinburgh, involved genetically engineering a worm to develop with the human equivalent of the alpha-synuclein protein. Once they reached adulthood, the worms were fed a supplement that contained Bacillus subtilis PXN21, which is a strand of probiotic bacteria.
Upon examining the results, the researchers didn’t find a difference in the levels of the alpha-synuclein protein itself, but they did observe that it didn’t react with the gut in the same manner. Aggregates of the protein were cleared from the guts of the worms as the probiotic was introduced into their bodies. When compared to normal worms on a traditional diet, the genetically altered worms exhibited far lower levels of the aggregated protein while on the probiotic diet. The low level of protein aggregates remained consistent throughout the lives of the test worms.
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The Intestines As The Centre Of Diseases
Often enough, many years before the motoric symptoms, unspecific symptoms such as back and shoulder pain, altered handwriting, disturbances in circulatory regulation, smell impairment and constipation arise. The first signs of Parkinsons disease can be found in the gut if you look for it directly: Patients who were diagnosed with Parkinsons at an early stage showed a specific protein in the nervous system of the intestinal wall. This so-called Alpha-synuclein is responsible for killing off dopamine-producing nerve cells. Furthermore, Parkinson patients also have an altered gut-flora composition. These insights clearly show that the gut-brain, the so-called enteric nervous system, and the gut-brain-axis play a central role in the development of Parkinsons.
Home Remedyfor Parkinsons #5 Vitamin D & Vitamin E:
Inflammation and low immunity are two powerful factorsthat contribute to the development and worsening of Parkinsons disease. Bothvitamin D and vitamin E are strong anti-inflammatories and immune boosters. VitaminD & E also protect our brain cells and can even help damaged neurons regenerate. A deficiency of these key vitamins has also been linked to brain difficultiessuch as poor memory and recall attainability.
In regards to PD, a study of 157 Parkinsons patientsfound that the vast majority of them had severe to chronic vitamin Ddeficiencies. The findings, published in the Archives of Neurology in March of 2011, revealed a strong linkbetween inadequate levels of vitamin D and the onset of early Parkinson’sdisease.4
Back in 2002, another study was published in the Archives of Neurology which tracked themental decline of 3,000 men and women diagnosed with Parkinsons disease over a period of 7 years. The study found the participants whose supplemental vitamin E intakewas higher experienced a 36% reduction in theseverity of their symptoms compared to the rest of the group. Another study, whichappeared in the Lancet Neurology onlinemagazine in 2005, showed that vitamin E may actually prevent Parkinsonsdisease from developing in the first place! 8
Where to Get Your Vitamin D and Vitamin E From?
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Probiotics And Parkinsons Disease
Prim. Dr. Martin Heine: Chairman of the neurology department at the Feldbach/Fürstenfeld state hospital
Parkinsons is one of the most common neurological diseases and affects 1-3% of all 60-65-year-olds. Besides slowing down movement, main symptoms also include muscle stiffness and trembling. Many patients also suffer from indigestion, especially constipation, that not only hinders the absorption of medication but also drastically diminishes the quality of life of the affected.
The risk of developing Parkinsons disease significantly increases with age. Due to the fact that humanity is constantly getting older, the amount of Parkinson patients is also rising. Patients typically develop Parkinson between the age of 50 and 70, although 5% of patients are younger than 40. Scientists are still investigating the cause. Among others, genetic predispositions and environmental factors are associated with Parkinsons, and 5% of the disease is directly inherited.
Naturaltreatment For Parkinsons #9 Exercise And Other Alternative Therapies:
Regular exercise has been shown to help Parkinsonssufferers by reducing muscle stiffness, increasing mobility, and enhancing postureand balance. Exercise also increases oxygen levels and neurotransmitters, alongwith releasing potent mood elevating chemicals called endorphins.
The type of exercise performed for PD is crucial. Aqua orwater aerobics can be particularly useful as traditional exercise is usuallyquite difficult for many Parkinsons sufferers. Muscle decline, loss of strength,stiffness and loss of balance can make conventional exercises difficult toperform. The great thing about aqua aerobics is it still has the same benefits as other exercise regimens,but the risk of falling is eliminated.
Other types of exercises that can be beneficial for PDsufferers include Tai Chi, Yoga, dancing, walking, aerobic/jazzercise classes,and general stretching.
For more information on the different exercise programsavailable for Parkinsons patients, you can check out this website Exercise and Physical Therapy for ParkinsonsDisease
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Will I Be Able To Take Part In This Study
The researchers are no longer looking for participants.
Should the study be a success, it will hopefully lead to further research and larger scale clinical trials of the benefits of improving the gut microbiotia in Parkinsons.
If you are interested in searching for other research opportunities happening near you please go to our Take Part Hub.
Probiotics For Parkinson Patients
In light of this, the chief physician Dr Martin Heine, head of the neurology department at the Feldbach/Fürstenfeld state hospital, conducted a pilot study: Over a time period of 8 weeks, doctors studied the effects of special multi-species probiotics on the digestion and motor function of Parkinson patients. Results show that the stool frequency clearly increased through the use of the probiotics, and especially the form and consistency improved vastly: Before starting the probiotic therapy, the stool consistency was a clear indication of constipation . After the 8-week probiotics intake, patients had optimal faeces. Notably positive was the fact that the Parkinson patients didnt suffer from unwanted reactions such as diarrhoea or bloating, as opposed to standard laxatives.
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Naturalremedy For Parkinsons #7 Omega
Animal based omega-3 fatty acids are a powerful weapon inthe fight against Parkinsons disease. One of the main fatty acids, DHA, is oneof the essential building blocks for the human brain. Half of your brain andeyes are made up of fat and a large proportion of this is DHA fat.
Omega-3 fatty acids have the unique ability to cross theblood-brain barrier, something most conventional drugs cannot do. They helpincrease dopamine levels and reduce neuroinflammation in the brain, while atthe same time, stimulating neuron growth. So basically, EPA and DHA help preventbrain cell damage and keep the nervous system in tip top working order! 4
Best sources of animal based omega-3s are either fishoil, cod liver oil or krill oil. High strength krill oil is the preferred option as thiscontains a substance called Astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is a potent brain food nutrientthat has been shown to prevent neurodegeneration and inflammation of the brain.For dosages, take AT LEAST the highest recommended amount listed on the bottle the same goes with fish oil or cod liver oil. You cant overdose on thesesupplements so theres nothing to be concerned about. In fact, the more omega-3syou can get into you the better the results!
In addition to this, try and eat some cold water fattyfish such as salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines or herring 3-4 times a week foran extra supply of DHA and EPA.
Probiotics & Parkinsons Disease
Probiotics refer to foods or nutritional supplements that contain micro-organisms meant to support health. Probiotics therefore make up a very large category of products, including certain yogurts as well as supplements in powder and pill form. You can review the use of probiotics for general health on the NIH website here. Probiotics may work by supporting a healthy balance of micro-organisms in the microbiome, defined as the trillions of microbes that live in the human gut, and possibly by modulating the bodys immune responses.
Recently, there has been concern in medical literature that the explosion of use of probiotics in the general population has outpaced our understanding of the science behind its use. Probiotics have been linked to infection, particularly in people who have compromised immune systems . Despite insufficient scientific data to support its widespread use however, ingestion of probiotics does not typically cause problems in those with normal immune systems.
In two past blogs, I wrote about the complex relationship between the gut and PD and discussed the possibility that the microbiome in patients with PD might be different than those without PD. This has led to a research interest of whether manipulating gut bacteria in PD can be therapeutic.
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Even Digestion Slows Down
Disturbances in the digestive system are one of the most common symptoms of Parkinson patients next to movement limitations, whereas most patients already suffer from constipation and bloating before their diagnosis . These afflictions are, on the one hand, a result of the slowing down of muscles that transport digested food through our stomach and intestines and, on the other hand, a loss of nerve cells in the brain and intestines that control the intestinal function. Furthermore, many Parkinson drugs cause constipation that intensifies existing symptoms. These severe digestive disturbances put more strain on patients and limit their quality of life.
Natural Remedy For Parkinsons #4 Chlorella And Borax:
If you have a neurological disease such as Parkinsons orAlzheimers, the importance of removing heavy metals from the body – especiallyfrom the brain and nervous system – cannot be overstated. Heavy metalsaccumulate in the brain and nervous system at a rapid rate and cause damage tothe neurological pathways and brain inflammation. Fluoride is one ofthe worst, however, mercury, lead, aluminium and cadmium are also extremely dangerous.Chlorella and borax not only remove these heavy metals completely, theycontinue to prevent further toxic build-ups.
Chlorella is a miracle blue-green algae and one of themost powerful detoxifiers and chelators yet discovered. Whenits combined with cilantro, its benefits are enhancedsignificantly. A Russian study found that chlorella, combined with cilantro,was able to remove all heavy metals from the body, including fluoride and mercury,with no adverse or harmful side effects. You can purchase chlorellain powdered form online or from most health food stores. Just make sure you buythe Broken Cell Wall Chlorella as this is the strongest and most bio-available.For dosage recommendations, simply follow the directions on the container.
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What Is Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons Disease is a progressive neurological disorder which affects around 120,000 people in the UK. Progressive means that it typically worsens over time and neurological means that it affects the nervous system . The main symptoms of Parkinsons are slowness of movement , rigidity, tremor and postural instability . While Parkinsons is typically described as a movement disorder, a person with Parkinsons may experience a range of other symptoms including constipation, low mood, fatigue, sleep and memory problems. Symptoms of Parkinsons can be grouped into two major categories motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms .
Parkinsons typically strikes in middle age, with around 80% of cases presenting between ages of 40 and 70, and progression of symptoms is generally slow and continuous. Younger people who develop Parkinsons are more likely to have a relative with the illness suggesting a stronger genetic component. Symptoms usually begin gradually and motor symptoms are often preceded by non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, loss of smell, depression, constipation and sweating abnormalities.
If you are concerned that you or a friend or family member has symptoms of Parkinsons, you or they should see a GP immediately.
What I Learned The Hard Way
Like many of you, I along with my doctor, thought that taking a probiotic to help keep my digestive system in check and help with the symptoms that usually accompany chronic constipation would be a no brainer. With so many products to choose from, she recommended a probiotic for women which she thought would also help decrease my recurrent urinary tract infections. I had already taken a couple of brands OTC but had not seen any real benefit, so I decided to try the brand she recommended. Shortly after, I began having fever and chills every day which lasted only about an hour or two varying throughout day. Aside from fever and chills, I did not feel ill. This went on for a couple of weeks until I realized that symptoms were occurring about an hour after I took the probiotic. Fortunately, I was able to recognize what was happening quickly. However, recent studies have indicated that many who take probiotics can develop a septicemia which can be dangerous if already frail, elderly, or in some way immune compromised.
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