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What Is The Difference Between Parkinson’s And Alzheimer’s

What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinson Disease

What’s the Difference Between Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia?

Parkinson disease symptoms usually start out mild, and then progressively get much worse. The first signs are often so subtle that many people don’t seek medical attention at first. These are common symptoms of Parkinson disease:

  • Tremors that affect the face and jaw, legs, arms, and hands
  • Slow, stiff walking

What Is Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease , the most common form of dementia among older adults, is an irreversible degeneration of the brain that causes disruptions in memory, cognition, personality, and other functions that eventually lead to death from complete brain failure. Genetic and environmental factors including diet, activity, smoking, traumatic brain injury, diabetes, and other medical diseases contribute to the risk of developing this form of the disease. The hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease are the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques between nerve cells in the brain and neurofibrillary tangles, which are twisted fibers found inside the brain’s cells). These tangles consist primarily of a protein called tau.

Parkinson’s Alzheimer’s And Motor Neurone Disease

  • Alexander Steven Whitehead,
  • George Davey Smith
  • Lecturer in clinical epidemiology Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT
  • Professor of medical genetics Department of Genetics, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
  • Professor of clinical epidemiology Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2PR
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    Number Of People Affected

    Parkinsons disease is thought to affect about 2 percent of Americans over 65. Of those, about 50 to 80 percent will go on to develop Parkinsons-related dementia.1 The Parkinsons Foundation estimates that nearly 1 million Americans will be living with Parkinsons by 2020. The disease affects 1.5 times more men than women.7

    Approximately 5.8 million Americans are currently living with Alzheimers disease. That number is expected to increase to 14 million by 2050.8 There is little difference between numbers of men and women who develop Alzheimers, but there are more women with the disease, because women tend to live longer than men.3

    Psychotic Symptoms And More

    Dementia vs Alzheimers: What is the Difference?

    In addition to the symptoms we have already mentioned, there are others that can occur in both diseases. In Alzheimers disease, for example, delirium sometimes occurs. However, this only rarely occurs in Parkinsons. It is important to remember that delirium is an organic disorder that primarily affects consciousness and attention.

    In the case of psychotic symptoms, visual hallucinations may occur in both diseases, more or less in the same proportion. Delusions can also occur. They often occur with Alzheimers and sometimes with Parkinsons.

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    Caring For Someone With Parkinsons

    Practice patience and understanding when dealing with Parkinsons. You may be very frustrated and challenged as a caregiver, but those with Parkinsons are just as frustrated. Their physical and mental conditions can be debilitating, depressing, and humiliating.

    Diet and nutrition can have a huge impact on the health and comfort of a Parkinson patient. Eating well, getting more rest, sleeping well, fresh air, and exercise can make a difference. Getting the right medication and complementary therapies is also important.

    As Parkinsons impacts a patients motor skills, modifications to the living environment may have to be made to accommodate wheelchairs and limited mobility issues. Professional in-home assistance for Parkinsons can allow Parkinson patients to remain independent and can enhance quality of life.

    Most importantly, seek help and support from family, friends, and caregiving support groups. Take advantage of the resources in your community. Shouldering all the burden can take a toll on a caregiver.

    Take care of yourself or you wont be able to take care of your loved one. Follow the preventive advice provided above for yourself as well, and take deep breaths!

    Resources

    Unsupervised Machine Learning For Patient Clustering

    Based on the 15 dimensional SNP burden profile of each patient derived from SNP data we clustered patients. We here relied on sparse non-negative matrix factorization . Briefly, sNMF factorizes a patients times mechanisms matrix \ into a product of two non-negative matrices \ and \, where \ represents a sparse mapping of mechanisms to clusters and \ a soft assignment of patients to clusters,. That means, for each patient cluster it is possible to identify the most influencing mechanisms . Hence, sNMF effectively yields a bi-clustering. The entire clustering procedure is in practice is an iterative process that is dependent on the initialization of both matrices and should thus be repeated a number of times to yield a consensus. This consensus was used for further analysis.

    The number of clusters \ corresponds to the number of columns of matrix \ and the number of rows of matrix \. We chose \ based on inspection of three statistical criteria and in comparison to a randomly permuted cluster assignment,,. We then decided for the minimal number of clusters \ yielding the most stable clustering solution that was at the same time exhibiting a significantly larger silhouette index and cophenetic correlation than expected by chance. Details are explained and shown in Supplements on page 28.

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    Theres No Cure For The Diseases But Some Therapies May Help

    Certain drugs, like cholinesterase inhibitors and antipsychotic medications, are prescribed as treatment for people with Parkinsons and dementia. And lifestyle changesfrom improved diet, sleep, exercise and socializinghave been shown to have beneficial effects on patients with these diseases.

    Oguh noted she hopes that improved treatments that will help some of the emotional and behavioral problems in these patients will be on the horizon soon.

    Im hoping that with the new advances in medication, well be able to control better, Oguh said. I believe there will be better medication to improve cognition in patients, and that that will be seen in the next five to 10 years.

    See A Doctor If Youre Noticing Symptoms Beyond Parkinsons

    What Is The Difference Between Alzheimer’s Disease And Dementia?

    Sometimes the mood or memory changes a person experiences cannot entirely be explained just by Parkinsons. If this is the case, the caregiver should explore other diagnoses, because if something cannot be explained by Parkinsons, theres certainly a risk of it being dementia, Oguh said.

    She added that some signs to look for include increased memory and behavioral problems, like mood swings, anxiety or depression. Psychiatric behaviors, like hallucinations, delusions or paranoia, cannot just be explained by Parkinsons, and are more likely to be caused by a form of dementia like Lewy body dementia.

    Oguh urged caregivers to be aware of changing symptoms like these.

    I think sometimes family members are able to realize sooner than the patient, Oguh said. Often the patient might lack insight as to what is happening. I would encourage family members to seek expert opinion and treatment options.

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    Acknowledgments And Conflict Of Interest Disclosure

    Data in this manuscript are original and were generated for the purpose of this study. Photomicrographs were taken from tissue provided by the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource, which is funded in part by a grant from the UK Medical Research Council , by Brains for Dementia research, a joint venture between Alzheimer’s Society and Alzheimer’s Research UK and by the NIHR Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre awarded to the Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and Newcastle University. DLB research is supported by NIHR Newcastle Biomedical Research Centre in Ageing and Long-Term Conditions. LW is funded by the Alzheimer’s Society. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

    Molecular Differences Between Clusters Can Be Linked To Known Disease Mechanisms

    We next explored GO terms and KEGG pathways that were enriched in the difference between one cluster to all others. In other words, we looked into differential expression and differential methylation between cluster 1 and all others, cluster 2 and all others, and so on. For each of these comparisons a larger number of biological processes and pathways could be identified in both AD and PD . In agreement to the findings in the last Section, significant differences between clusters in methylation could only be found in PD patients, but not in AD. Transcriptome differences between clusters were observed in both diseases.

    In the following, we highlight only selected examples : As explained previously, cluster 1 is strongly associated with the genetic burden on AKT signaling. At the transcriptional level we observed significant downregulation of genes in the cell cycle process in AD patients . Both can be linked together, as shown in Fig. A. AKT signaling influences acetylcholinesterase , which is thought to play a role in apoptotic processes and amyloid-beta formation. Amyloid-beta increases NAE1 via APP and influences the entire cell cycle process.

    Figure 6

    • clinical characteristics: e.g. post-mortem diagnosis, age at death, gender

    • genome-wide transcriptome and methylome data from post-mortem brain tissue

    Integrated AETIONOMY PD

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    Is Dementia A Symptom Of Both

    One of the biggest similarities between PD and LBD is dementia. Some studies have found that approximately 78 percent of PD patients will eventually develop dementia.4 More specifically, almost half of Parkinsons patients will develop a certain type of dementia called Parkinsons Dementia, usually 10-15 years after their initial PD diagnosis.3 People with Parkinsons Dementia commonly experience poor memory and concentration, slowed thinking, confusion, depression, emotional changes, delusions, and visual hallucinations.

    Parkinsons dementia is different than LBD, mainly in which symptoms occur first . Patients with Parkinsons Dementia will first show Parkinsons motor symptoms, followed by dementia many years after diagnosis. Conversely, LBD patients will first show dementia symptoms and may show motor symptoms later.3

    Treatment Of Pdd And Dlb

    Twilight Zone: October 2016

    Unfortunately, since both types of Lewy Body Dementia often display similar symptoms, patients suffering from either PDD of DLB can get misdiagnosed and subsequently prescribed the incorrect medication and method of treatment. Caregivers and medical professionals alike can increase their understanding of symptoms for each disease to help them more quickly and accurately diagnose and treat each one.

    The Lewy Body Dementia Resource Center provides literature, support groups, and help for caregivers grappling with care and treatment of a loved one who has Lewy Body Dementia. Our helpline is available 12 hours a day, 7 days a week for caregivers who have questions or are in need of support. Our online resource center seeks to bring awareness and support to caregivers of those suffering with Lewy Body Dementia. Please dont hesitate to reach out to us.

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    The Differences Between Alzheimer’s And Parkinson’s

    16 October, 2020

    Do you know the differences between Alzheimers and Parkinsons? First of all, we must say that both diseases constitute two of the causes of dementia. Now, lets be a bit more specific. According to data from the WHO , dementia due to Alzheimers disease represents 60-70% of all cases of dementia in the world.

    However, its important to keep in mind that theyre very different diseases. Additionally, we must make clear that having either condition doesnt always lead to the development of dementia . In this sense, we know that between 20-60% of people with Parkinsons disease end up developing dementia.

    Buter et al. conducted a study that was published in the journal Neurology. It was conducted with 233 patients with Parkinsons disease. The researchers were able to observe that about 60% of them developed Parkinsons dementia in a period of 12 years.

    So whats dementia? It refers to the set of symptoms that arise as a consequence of neurological damage or disease. These symptoms involve the loss or weakening of the mental faculties and mainly affect three different areas: cognitive , behavioral , and personality .

    Potential For Therapeutic Targets

    The researchers add that their findings have the potential to provide new therapeutic targets for both Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease.

    Until now, nobody has really understood what the overlap between Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease was, or if it were important, says Jada Lewis, associate professor of neuroscience at the Centre for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease at the University of Florida. Our study ties these diseases together in a unique way.

    The researchers conclude that their findings show that LRRK2 genetic studies in human tauopathies may be warranted.

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    Symptoms Of Alzheimers Disease

    The most common symptoms of Alzheimers disease are associated with memory loss. However, the way that memories are stored and recalled is distinct in people with Alzheimers than other forms of dementia. Patients with this disease usually have strong recollections of deeply seated memories.

    However, they have trouble regurgitating information that they learned recently. Thats because Alzheimers changes the regions of the brain that are associated with learning.

    Some of the symptoms of Alzheimers disease include:

    • Trouble remembering new information
    • Confusion about time, places and events
    • Suspicions toward loved ones and caregivers
    • Difficulty speaking, walking or swallowing

    Alzheimers disease presents itself in different stages. Symptoms may vary, and the stages dont always correspond exactly with these, but understanding them may help you identify the condition in yourself or a loved one.

    The stages of Alzheimers disease include:

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    Dementia Caused By Huntingtons Disease

    What’s the difference between dementia and Alzheimer’s?

    Huntingtons disease is an inherited degenerative brain disease that affects the mind and body. It usually appears between the ages of 30 and 50, and is characterised by intellectual decline and irregular involuntary movement of the limbs or facial muscles. Other symptoms include personality change, memory disturbance, slurred speech, impaired judgement and psychiatric problems.There is no treatment available to stop the progression of this disease, but medication can control movement disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Dementia occurs in the majority of people with Huntingtons disease.

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    Living With Parkinsons Disease

    Depending on severity, life can look very different for a person coping with Parkinsons Disease. As a loved one, your top priority will be their comfort, peace of mind and safety. Dr. Shprecher offered some advice, regardless of the diseases progression. Besides movement issues Parkinsons Disease can cause a wide variety of symptoms including drooling, constipation, low blood pressure when standing up, voice problems, depression, anxiety, sleep problems, hallucinations and dementia. Therefore, regular visits with a neurologist experienced with Parkinsons are important to make sure the diagnosis is on target, and the symptoms are monitored and addressed. Because changes in your other medications can affect your Parkinsons symptoms, you should remind each member of your healthcare team to send a copy of your clinic note after every appointment.

    Dr. Shprecher also added that maintaining a healthy diet and getting regular exercise can help improve quality of life. Physical and speech therapists are welcome additions to any caregiving team.

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    How Is Parkinson Disease Diagnosed

    Parkinson disease can be hard to diagnose. No single test can identify it. Parkinson can be easily mistaken for another health condition. A healthcare provider will usually take a medical history, including a family history to find out if anyone else in your family has Parkinson’s disease. He or she will also do a neurological exam. Sometimes, an MRI or CT scan, or some other imaging scan of the brain can identify other problems or rule out other diseases.

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    Parkinsons Doesnt Always Cause Dementia

    While cognitive decline is common in both Alzheimers and Parkinsons, it is less likely to occur in Parkinsons patients. According to studies, only half of those with Parkinsons develop cognitive difficulties. This can range from mild forgetfulness to full-blown dementia.

    When dementia does manifest itself with Parkinson, it occurs in the subcortical area of the brain. Alzheimers dementia occurs in the cortical area of the brain. As a result of this, the clinical symptoms of these two dementias can be somewhat different.

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    Read Also: How Do You Treat Parkinson’s Disease Naturally

    Clinical And Neuropathological Differences Between Parkinson’s Disease Parkinson’s Disease Dementia And Dementia With Lewy Bodies Current Issues And Future Directions

    Institute of Neuroscience, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

    First Department of Neurology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece

    Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece

    Institute of Neuroscience, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

    First Department of Neurology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece

    Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece

    What Are The Complications Of Parkinson Disease

    Parkinson disease causes physical symptoms at first. Problems with cognitive function, including forgetfulness and trouble with concentration, may arise later. As the disease gets worse with time, many people develop dementia. This can cause profound memory loss and makes it hard to maintain relationships.

    Parkinson disease dementia can cause problems with:

    • Speaking and communicating with others
    • Problem solving
    • Forgetfulness
    • Paying attention

    If you have Parkinson disease and dementia, in time, you likely won’t be able to live by yourself. Dementia affects your ability to care of yourself, even if you can still physically do daily tasks.

    Experts don’t understand how or why dementia often occurs with Parkinson disease. Its clear, though, that dementia and problems with cognitive function are linked to changes in the brain that cause problems with movement. As with Parkinson disease, dementia occurs when nerve cells degenerate, leading to chemical changes in the brain. Parkinson disease dementia may be treated with medicines also used to treat Alzheimer’s disease, another type of dementia.

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    Key Brain Changes Are Different

    The key brain changes linked to Parkinsons disease and Parkinsons-related dementia are abnormal deposits of common brain proteins, called alpha-synuclein. These deposits are known as Lewy bodies, named after the doctor who discovered them. As more of these proteins clump in the brain, normal brain cells begin to die off.1

    In Alzheimers disease, the key brain changes include the buildup of different brain proteins, called amyloid and tau. When amyloid proteins clump together, they form abnormal structures known as plaques. Abnormal groups of tau proteins form tangles.3 Over time, the buildup of these proteins causes normal brain cells to die, and affected parts of the brain may shrink.5

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