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Risk Of Parkinson’s Disease

Lewy Bodies And Alpha

What is Parkinson’s Disease?

In addition to the dopamine deficiency and neuronal loss, PD is also associated with a buildup of intracellular inclusions inside the neurons, called Lewy bodies. Studies have shown that the Lewy bodies are made mainly of a protein called alpha-synuclein.

They are not seen in brain imaging studies but have been detected in research studies that examine the brains of people who had PD and donated their own brains to science for the purpose of research. There is no known treatment or method of removing the Lewy bodies at this time.

In PD, Lewy bodies are found in the substantia nigra as well as other areas, including the amygdala and locus coeruleus , the raphe nucleus , and the olfactory nerve . The functions controlled by these regions can be impaired in PD, although the symptoms arent as noticeable as the tremors and muscle stiffness.

Lewy bodies are also present in the brains of people who have Alzheimers disease and other types of dementia, and they are considered a sign of neurodegeneration.

Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms Of Vitamin E In Pd

Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injections into the striatum can cause circling behaviours and biochemical abnormalities in rats. Cadet et al. found that pretreatment with either D-alpha-tocopherol or all-racemic-alpha-tocopherol significantly attenuated these pathological changes . Roghani and Behzadi and Sharma and Nehru also demonstrated the similar phenomenon in 6-OHDA-induced PD models and in rotenone-induced PD models, respectively. However, some studies have shown that vitamin E did not completely protect dopaminergic neurons from MPTP-mediated damage in PD models . The protective effects of vitamin E may be achieved through preventing oxidative stress in cells and inhibiting apoptosis. Moreover, one study has found that tocotrienol participates not only in antioxidant stress but also in estrogen receptor beta signal transduction . Then, Nakasos team demonstrated a protective effect of vitamin E via this signaling pathway. Firstly, they reported that -tocotrienol/-tocotrienol exerts neuroprotective effects through the ER-PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in SH-SY5Y cells by resisting 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion- induced toxicity . Secondly, they verified this mechanism in a mouse model of PD. Meanwhile, they found -tocotrienol administration can reduce the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ER inhibitors can attenuate this neuroprotective effect . These findings indicate vitamin E may be potential therapeutic agents for PD.

No One Definitive Cause Of Parkinsons

There are no biomarkers or objective screening tests that indicate one has Parkinsons. That said, medical experts have shown that a constellation of factors are linked to it.

Parkinsons causes are likely a blend of genetics and environmental or other unknown factors. About 10 to 20 percent of Parkinsons disease cases are linked to a genetic cause, says Ted Dawson, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Institute for Cell Engineering at Johns Hopkins. The types are either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive .

But that leaves the majority of Parkinsons cases as idiopathic, which means unknown. We think its probably a combination of environmental exposure to toxins or pesticides and your genetic makeup, says Dawson.

Age. The biggest risk factor for developing Parkinsons is advancing age. The average age of onset is 60.

Gender. Men are more likely to develop Parkinsons disease than women.

Genetics. Individuals with a parent or sibling who is affected have approximately two times the chance of developing Parkinsons. Theres been an enormous amount of new information about genetics and new genes identified over the past 10 or 15 years that have opened up a greater understanding of the disease, says Dawson.

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Pathogenesis Of Parkinsons Disease

A number of mechanisms have been implicated in PD pathogenesis, with -synuclein aggregation central to the development of the disease. Multiple other processes are thought to be involved, with several studies suggesting that abnormal protein clearance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation play a role in the onset and progression of PD. However, the relationship between these pathways remains unclear.

Can Parkinson’s Disease Be Cured


No, Parkinson’s disease is not curable. However, it is treatable, and many treatments are highly effective. It might also be possible to delay the progress and more severe symptoms of the disease.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Parkinson’s disease is a very common condition, and it is more likely to happen to people as they get older. While Parkinson’s isn’t curable, there are many different ways to treat this condition. They include several different classes of medications, surgery to implant brain-stimulation devices and more. Thanks to advances in treatment and care, many can live for years or even decades with this condition and can adapt to or receive treatment for the effects and symptoms.

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Probiotics & Parkinsons Disease

Probiotics refer to foods or nutritional supplements that contain micro-organisms meant to support health. Probiotics therefore make up a very large category of products, including certain yogurts as well as supplements in powder and pill form. You can review the use of probiotics for general health on the NIH website here. Probiotics may work by supporting a healthy balance of micro-organisms in the microbiome, defined as the trillions of microbes that live in the human gut, and possibly by modulating the bodys immune responses.

Recently, there has been concern in medical literature that the explosion of use of probiotics in the general population has outpaced our understanding of the science behind its use. Probiotics have been linked to infection, particularly in people who have compromised immune systems . Despite insufficient scientific data to support its widespread use however, ingestion of probiotics does not typically cause problems in those with normal immune systems.

In two past blogs, I wrote about the complex relationship between the gut and PD and discussed the possibility that the microbiome in patients with PD might be different than those without PD. This has led to a research interest of whether manipulating gut bacteria in PD can be therapeutic.

Vitamins C And E Linked To Reduced Risk For Parkinsons Disease

Erik Greb

Higher intake of vitamins C and E was associated with a reduced risk for Parkinsons disease in an analysis of a national cohort study. Higher intake of both vitamins, as opposed to one, strengthened the association with lower PD risk.

In addition, body mass index and coffee consumption appeared to influence the magnitude of these vitamins effect on PD risk. Dietary beta-carotene and dietary nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity had no effect on this risk, however.

Dr Essi Hantikainen

Our findings suggest that the protective effect of dietary vitamins on Parkinsons disease risk might be limited to specific vitamins, such as vitamin E and C, Essi Hantikainen, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy, told Medscape Medical News. Therefore, implementing foods in the diet that are rich in vitamin E and C might help to prevent the development of Parkinsons disease, she said.

More research is needed to confirm these findings, she added. In addition, it is not yet clear what are the most beneficial amounts of vitamin E and C intake to reduce the risk of Parkinsons disease.

The research was January 6 in Neurology.

Insufficient production of dopamine prevents the execution of smooth and controlled movements, thus leading to symptoms like trembling, slurred speech, loss of flexibility of muscles, slowness of movement and gait, difficulty while walking and cognitive decline.

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How Does Environment Come Into It

Your environment is a hard one to pin down. Partly, that’s because it covers a lot of ground. It’s everything that’s not your genes, which could mean where you live, what you eat, chemicals you’ve come into contact with, and more.

Not only that, but it could take years for the effects from something in your environment to show up. So far, doctors have a lot of clues but no smoking gun. So you could have people who live or work in an area around chemicals tied to Parkinson’s, but many of them don’t get it.

Some research shows links between Parkinson’s and:

  • Agent Orange, a chemical used to destroy trees and crops in the Vietnam War.
  • Certain chemicals used in farming, such as insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides.
  • Some metals and chemicals used in factories, such as manganese, lead, and trichlorethylene .

These can come into play based on where you live, what you do for work, or if you served in the military. Sometimes, these chemicals seep into well water, so that’s one more way they can affect you.

Principles Of Supplementation In Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson’s Disease (Shaking Palsy) – Clinical Presentation and Pathophysiology

Parkinsons disease is not a condition you should manage yourself at home. You must take the help of a medical practitioner and seek appropriate treatment.

Supplementation falls under complementary and alternative therapies, which means that it is to be used along with or after trying medical treatment. Consult with your doctor before using any supplement regimen.

Supplementation in Parkinsons disease relies on 4 pillars:

  • Reduce Parkinsons Risk:It seems that once the Parkinsons cascade is set in motion, it is difficult to control it. But there are a few nutrients that are associated with a lower risk of developing Parkinsons. So they may help in prevention.
  • Slow Down Parkinsons Progression:Reducing oxidative stress and free radical damage in the brain cells will help. Can we use antioxidants for that? Unfortunately , nature has protected our brain through something called the blood-brain barrier, which is a layer of cells that shields the brain from many undesirable substances in the blood. It allows only certain nutrients to get into the brain. So we need those antioxidants that can cross over the blood-brain barrier. Not all of them do.Cell mitochondria need various nutrients for their proper functioning. Can we restore the impaired functioning of the neuron cell mitochondria?
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    What Is Parkinson Disease

    Parkinson disease is a movement disorder. It can cause the muscles to tighten and become rigid This makes it hard to walk and do other daily activities. People with Parkinsons disease also have tremors and may develop cognitive problems, including memory loss and dementia.

    Parkinson disease is most common in people who are older than 50. The average age at which it occurs is 60. But some younger people may also get Parkinson disease. When it affects someone younger than age 50, it’s called early-onset Parkinson disease. You may be more likely to get early-onset Parkinson disease if someone in your family has it. The older you are, the greater your risk of developing Parkinson disease. It’s also much more common in men than in women.

    Parkinson disease is a chronic and progressive disease. It doesn’t go away and continues to get worse over time.

    The #1 Worst Drink Increasing Your Risk Of Parkinson’s Disease New Study Finds

    If you need to quench your thirst, then you might want to stick with a glass of water. You could also opt for clear tea or black coffee if you’re looking for a beverage that can offer your body a range of health benefits.

    On the other hand, you may want to stop drinking milk on a regular basis due to the fact that it can increase your risk of Parkinson’s disease, according to new findings.

    In an extensive review that was published in Nutritional Neuroscience, those behind the research took a look at 52 studies that were conducted between 2000 and now. The randomized clinical trials and observational case-control studies, as well as follow-up studies focused on the ways nutrition affected the chances of developing Parkinson’s disease and how they might affect the progression of the disease.

    That included how coffee, alcohol, vitamins, polyphenols, and dairy products, as well as the Mediterranean diet, either increased or decreased the risk.

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    The resulting data showed that while polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, coffee, and the Mediterranean diet all helped to either reduce the development or progression of Parkinson’s disease, milk increased the risk.

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    How Is It Diagnosed

    Diagnosing Parkinson’s disease is mostly a clinical process, meaning it relies heavily on a healthcare provider examining your symptoms, asking you questions and reviewing your medical history. Some diagnostic and lab tests are possible, but these are usually needed to rule out other conditions or certain causes. However, most lab tests aren’t necessary unless you don’t respond to treatment for Parkinson’s disease, which can indicate you have another condition.

    Family History And Genetics

    Risk factors for non

    Approximately 15 percent to 25 percent of people with PD have a relative with the disease.5 People with a close family member with Parkinsons have a small increased risk of developing the disease. About 15 percent to 25 percent of people with PD have a known relative with the disease.5 A number of genetic mutations have been identified that are associated with PD. Some of these appear to be more causal, while others simply increase a persons risk for the disease.5

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    Parkinsons Disease: Causes Symptoms And Treatments

    Parkinsons disease is a brain disorder that causes unintended or uncontrollable movements, such as shaking, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination.

    Symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen over time. As the disease progresses, people may have difficulty walking and talking. They may also have mental and behavioral changes, sleep problems, depression, memory difficulties, and fatigue.

    While virtually anyone could be at risk for developing Parkinsons, some research studies suggest this disease affects more men than women. Its unclear why, but studies are underway to understand factors that may increase a persons risk. One clear risk is age: Although most people with Parkinsons first develop the disease after age 60, about 5% to 10% experience onset before the age of 50. Early-onset forms of Parkinsons are often, but not always, inherited, and some forms have been linked to specific gene mutations.

    Basic Concepts Of The Mediterranean Diet

    The components of a Mediterranean diet include:

    • Eat mainlyplant-based foods, such as a variety of fruits and vegetables, along with whole grains, nuts, and legumes, including lentils, chickpeas, beans, and peas.
    • Consume a small amount of low-fat protein, either chicken or fatty fish, such as salmon, albacore tuna, or mackerel, a few times per week.
    • Limit red meat to a few times a month.
    • Avoid salt and instead flavor your meals with spices and herbs.
    • Drink red wine in moderation .
    • Replace butter with a healthier fat like extra virgin olive oil.
    • Limit dairy, including cream, milk, and ice cream.

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    Do You Need To Stop Drinking Milk

    While this study did identify a link between milk and Parkinson’s disease risk, Manaker explains that this observational research only found an association between the drink and the disease.

    “Association doesn’t mean causation, and until enough well-designed clinical trials are conducted that are focused on the topic, it is not recommended that people avoid dairy foods altogether,” she says, adding that there are benefits of consuming milk and other dairy products. “Dairy foods provide protein, calcium, magnesium, and many other important nutrients. And the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend people consume 3 dairy servings every single day.”6254a4d1642c605c54bf1cab17d50f1e

    “Instead of cutting out nutrient-dense dairy to reduce their Parkinson’s disease risk, people can focus on what they can add to their diet: coffee, flavonol-rich foods, and polyunsaturated fatty acids,” Manaker recommends.

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    What Causes Parkinsons Disease Dementia

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    A chemical messenger in the brain called dopamine helps control and coordinate muscle movement. Over time, Parkinsons disease destroys the nerve cells that make dopamine.

    Without this chemical messenger, the nerve cells cant properly relay instructions to the body. This causes a loss of muscle function and coordination. Researchers dont know why these brain cells disappear.

    Parkinsons disease also causes dramatic changes in a part of your brain that controls movement.

    Those with Parkinsons disease often experience motor symptoms as a preliminary sign of the condition. Tremors are one of the most common first symptoms of Parkinsons disease.

    As the disease progresses and spreads in your brain, it can affect the parts of your brain responsible for mental functions, memory, and judgment.

    Over time, your brain may not be able to use these areas as efficiently as it once did. As a result, you may begin experiencing symptoms of Parkinsons disease dementia.

    You have an increased risk of developing Parkinsons disease dementia if:

    • youre a person with a penis
    • youre older

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    What Should I Expect At An Appointment

    Herbal medicine is not regulated in many countries. It is therefore a good idea to ask your doctor or other healthcare professional for recommendations. Friends, family, other people with Parkinsons or your national Parkinsons association may also be able to advise based on personal experience.

    It is advisable to see a therapist who has experience of Parkinsons so do ask about their experience of the condition as well as their qualifications.

    The first consultation with a herbal therapist will probably last at least an hour, during which he or she will ask detailed questions about general health, medical and family history, lifestyle and emotional state.

    As the approach is holistic, treatment often includes advice on diet and lifestyle as well as herbal remedies. The medicines prescribed may well be made up of a variety of herbs, and will be tailored to individual needs. They can come in a wide range of formulations, including syrups, tinctures, lotions, creams, tablets, inhalations, gargles and washes.

    The herbalist may make a follow-up appointment after two weeks, and then monthly, to monitor progress, but this depends on the condition being treated and the individuals general state of health.

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    What Role Do Genes Play

    Your genes are like your body’s instruction book. So if you get a change in one of them, it can make your body work in a slightly different way. Sometimes, that means you’re more likely to get a certain disease.

    There are several genetic mutations that can raise your risk for Parkinson’s, each by a little bit. They have a part in about 1 in 10 cases.

    If you have one or more of these changes, it doesn’t mean you’ll get Parkinson’s. Some people will, but many won’t, and doctors don’t know why. It may have to do with other genes or something in your environment.

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