What Are The Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease
Symptoms of Parkinsons disease and the rate of decline vary widely from person to person. The most common symptoms include:
Other symptoms include:
- Speech/vocal changes: Speech may be quick, become slurred or be soft in tone. You may hesitate before speaking. The pitch of your voice may become unchanged .
- Handwriting changes: You handwriting may become smaller and more difficult to read.
- Depression and anxiety.
- Sleeping disturbances including disrupted sleep, acting out your dreams, and restless leg syndrome.
- Pain, lack of interest , fatigue, change in weight, vision changes.
- Low blood pressure.
Problems Caused By Limited Mobility
Some people with Parkinsons might soil their underwear. This is because mobility problems can make it difficult to wipe after using the toilet. If this is the case, it might help to use wet wipes, a bidet, or an adapted bottom wiper. An occupational therapist or the Disabled Living Foundation can offer further advice.
Bowel problems are common. But you should tell your GP if there are any changes in your bowel habits, particularly if you see blood in your stool. Some problems are difficult to avoid, but there are things you can do to make them less likely to happen.
How Is Parkinson’s Treated In The Early Stages
Three main groups of medication are used to treat Parkinson’s in the early stages:
- Levodopa : is converted into dopamine in the brain.
- Dopamine agonists: stimulate the nerve receptors responsible for the uptake of dopamine.
- MAO-B inhibitors : block the breakdown of dopamine in the brain.
The medications are usually taken in tablet form. Some dopamine agonists are also available as patches.
In the early stages, some people with mild symptoms cope just fine without medication. If at some stage the symptoms become too much of a problem, levodopa and dopamine agonists are the main medication options. They work slightly differently to each other, and some products may cause side effects more often or have worse side effects than others. But both are very effective in the early stages of the illness. That helps many people with Parkinson’s to live a fairly symptom-free life for at least a few years.
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Management Of Sexual Dysfunction
Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with PD includes both behavioural and pharmacological options depending on the nature of the sexual dysfunction. Behavioural therapy may be used to treat SD, if considered as a learned maladaptive behaviour and may involve the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy . Pharmacological treatment of SD, on the other hand, requires either the reduction or elimination of drugs interfering with the sexual function or the introduction of drugs that improves sexual function . Ultimately, treatment options for SD may require multidisciplinary input from neurologists and psychologists for optimum results . Although phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors are standard treatment option for erectile dysfunction , intracavernosal alprostadil 1.2510 g injections can be used.
The management of hypersexuality as part of an impulse control disorder includes reduction/stopping of dopamine receptor agonist and practical therapeutic strategies including psychological therapies but not limited to counselling, psychotherapy, sex, couple and behavioural therapies . Hormonal treatment specifically testosterone has been tried in PD .
Eat Magnesium Rich Foods
Magnesium is one of the minerals found in food which is not only beneficial but has enzymic reactions in the body that are beneficial for the normal functioning of the body.
According to US NIH, 200 mg of magnesium in foods everyday can reduce water retention in women during PMS.
Therefore, you can go ahead and increase the intake of magnesium-rich foods like nuts, leafy green vegetables, dark chocolate, legumes, whole grains, etc
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Fit Quiz: How Essential Is Water For Your Body Find Out Here
Water retention may affect you after you have sat through your long office hours or a long flight. Many times, water retention can be a cause of a medical condition like kidney disease or heart related issues.
If you experience water retention suddenly, you may want to consult a doctor. But people who are more prone to water retention every now and then can follow these tips to prevent the condition.
Clean Intermittent Self Catheterization
The finding of a high post-void residue is unusual in patients with PD. If the PVR volume is consistently more than 100 mL, clean intermittent catheterization has been advocated. Specific issues related to dexterity in PD may make this challenging. Experienced health-care professionals, such as a continence adviser, should be involved in teaching the technique and exploring possible barriers to successful catheterization. Complications include UTI and trauma .
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Urinary Problems In Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinsons disease has many features that have little or nothing to do with movement. Among these non-motor symptoms are problems with the autonomic nervous system the part of the nervous system that controls automatic bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, sexual function and both gastrointestinal and urinary function. These symptoms are often among the most serious and complex issues faced by people with PD.
Unlike bowel dysfunction , which often occurs before Parkinsons movement symptoms, urinary dysfunction is not typically a problem until the later stages of the disease.
How Do I Prevent Falls From Common Hazards
- Floors: Remove all loose wires, cords, and throw rugs. Minimize clutter. Make sure rugs are anchored and smooth. Keep furniture in its usual place.
- Bathroom: Install grab bars and non-skid tape in the tub or shower. Use non-skid bath mats on the floor or install wall-to-wall carpeting.
- Lighting: Make sure halls, stairways, and entrances are well-lit. Install a night light in your bathroom or hallway and staircase. Turn lights on if you get up in the middle of the night. Make sure lamps or light switches are within reach of the bed if you have to get up during the night.
- Kitchen: Install non-skid rubber mats near the sink and stove. Clean spills immediately.
- Stairs: Make sure treads, rails, and rugs are secure. Install a rail on both sides of the stairs. If stairs are a threat, it might be helpful to arrange most of your activities on the lower level to reduce the number of times you must climb the stairs.
- Entrances and doorways: Install metal handles on the walls adjacent to the doorknobs of all doors to make it more secure as you travel through the doorway.
What Are The Different Stages Of Parkinsons Disease
Each person with Parkinsons disease experiences symptoms in in their own unique way. Not everyone experiences all symptoms of Parkinsons disease. You may not experience symptoms in the same order as others. Some people may have mild symptoms others may have intense symptoms. How quickly symptoms worsen also varies from individual to individual and is difficult to impossible to predict at the outset.
In general, the disease progresses from early stage to mid-stage to mid-late-stage to advanced stage. This is what typically occurs during each of these stages:
Early symptoms of Parkinsons disease are usually mild and typically occur slowly and do not interfere with daily activities. Sometimes early symptoms are not easy to detect or you may think early symptoms are simply normal signs of aging. You may have fatigue or a general sense of uneasiness. You may feel a slight tremor or have difficulty standing.
Often, a family member or friend notices some of the subtle signs before you do. They may notice things like body stiffness or lack of normal movement slow or small handwriting, lack of expression in your face, or difficulty getting out of a chair.
Standing and walking are becoming more difficult and may require assistance with a walker. You may need full time help to continue to live at home.
Bladder And Bowel Problems
Bladder and bowel problems are common in men and women of all ages, but people with Parkinsons are more likely to have these problems than people who dont have the condition.
If you have Parkinson’s, you may be more likely to have problems with your bladder or bowels than people of a similar age without the condition.
Some of these problems are common in men and women of all ages, whether they have Parkinson’s or not.
Bowel problems are very common in the general public. But any change in bowel habit, particularly if you see blood in your bowel motions, should be reported to your GP.
Whatever the reason for your bladder and bowel problems, you can usually do something to help. It may be that the problem can be cured completely. But if that isnt possible, there are many different ways of managing the symptoms so they dont rule your life.
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How Is Parkinsons Disease Diagnosed
Diagnosing Parkinsons disease is sometimes difficult, since early symptoms can mimic other disorders and there are no specific blood or other laboratory tests to diagnose the disease. Imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, may be used to rule out other disorders that cause similar symptoms.
To diagnose Parkinsons disease, you will be asked about your medical history and family history of neurologic disorders as well as your current symptoms, medications and possible exposure to toxins. Your doctor will look for signs of tremor and muscle rigidity, watch you walk, check your posture and coordination and look for slowness of movement.
If you think you may have Parkinsons disease, you should probably see a neurologist, preferably a movement disorders-trained neurologist. The treatment decisions made early in the illness can affect the long-term success of the treatment.
Menstrual Disorders Amenorrhea And Fertility
Results of a small RCT25 involving 96 women with fertility disorders suggested that patients receiving chasteberry achieved pregnancy more readily than did women in the placebo group. The subjects received chasteberry or placebo twice daily for three months. Hormone levels did not differ, but in women with amenorrhea or luteal insufficiency, pregnancy occurred in the active treatment group more than twice as often as in the group receiving placebo. However, the total number of patients conceiving was small , the treatment was only administered for three months, and the product used contains five additional herbs that are not approved by the German Commission E reports.2
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Ensure Proper Skin Care
Even if your loved ones edema is under control, it can still cause a great deal of discomfort and affect their skin integrity. Be sure to keep the affected areas clean, dry, well-conditioned, and protected with shoes or clothing to avoid cracking, splitting and injuries. Not only are these injuries painful, but they can also become infected very easily.
Management Of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction
Despite the high prevalence of LUT symptoms and impact on quality of life, treatment options are currently limited and are often poorly tolerated or ineffective in PD. Most treatment options are derived from guidance around general management of LUT symptoms in neurological patients. Comprehensive history taking is a sound starting point, as this provides insight into whether patients have storage dysfunction or voiding dysfunction, or both. Patients often have other medical comorbidities and the medications prescribed for these may contribute to LUTS, for example, diuretics used for managing hypertension increase urinary urgency and frequency. A review of concomitant medications provides an opportunity to review a patients anticholinergic burden, and adding an antimuscarinic medication may increase the risk for falls, cognitive impairment and all-cause mortality . Physical examination involves examining the abdomen, flank and pelvic and genital organs, and when appropriate, evaluating urogenital sensations, sacral cord-mediated reflexes and anal sphincter tone and contractions. Digital rectal examination in a male patient allows evaluation of the size and consistency of the prostate gland.
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Assist With Compression Therapy
If your loved one has a specific limb or area that is affected by edema, it could be beneficial for them to wear a compression stocking, sleeve or glove. Placing added pressure on the area during the day can prevent fluid from collecting there. These products come in a range of compression levels and it is important to work with a physician to make sure the product fits properly and provides the right amount of pressure.
These garments can be difficult to put on and take time to get used to, but they should never be painful or uncomfortable. Work with your loved ones doctor to learn how to help put compression socks or other items on someone else, or look for products like compression stocking aids to make the process easier. Original Medicare does not cover compression socks in most cases, even if a doctor prescribes them, but some Medicare Advantage plans may offer coverage.
What Happens If Edema Is Left Untreated
It is important to seek medical attention for edema. If left untreated, it could result in painful swelling, difficulty walking, stiffness, stretched/itchy skin, scarring, poor blood circulation, and reduced elasticity in arteries, veins, and joints. Extreme swelling, often in the feet, ankles and legs, can lead to skin ulcers , weeping edema and dangerous skin infections like cellulitis. Family caregivers who suspect edema should address the concern immediately with a physician. Some medication changes may be in order to get a loved ones condition under control.
In some cases, edema can be a symptom of a dangerous underlying condition. Contact a doctor immediately if a senior with a heart or lung condition begins having trouble breathing, having chest pains, coughing and/or feeling fatigued. These may be signs of pulmonary edema, which requires swift treatment.
If a senior is largely sedentary, has recently undergone surgery, or has a blood clotting condition, persistent swelling and pain in one area, typically in the foot or leg, may indicate a blood clot in a deep vein. This condition is called deep vein thrombosis and can be fatal if the blood clot travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
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Parkinsons Disease: Medication For Parkinson’s Disease
Medications can relieve the symptoms of Parkinson’s. But they become less effective as the disease progresses, and their side effects get worse. Medication is very individual and has to be adjusted frequently.
People who have Parkinson’s don’t produce enough dopamine, which is an important chemical messenger in the body. This lack of dopamine means that nerve signals aren’t transmitted as effectively. That leads to abnormal movement and other problems. Treatment with Parkinson’s medication aims to balance out the lack of dopamine in the brain in order to relieve the symptoms. But these drugs can’t cure the disease.
Especially in the early stages of Parkinson’s, medication can greatly reduce the symptoms. Treatment becomes more difficult as the disease progresses. Side effects can also occur, and are sometimes quite severe.
What Does The Research Say About Massage Therapy For Fluid Retention
- Massage therapy for women with PMDD: The longer-term effects of massage therapy included a reduction in pain and water retention and overall menstrual distress.
- Intermittent massage is a therapeutic option in selected cases of compartment syndrome .
Massage Therapy for Fluid Retention Research
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2000 Mar 21:9-15.Hernandez-Reif M1, Martinez A, Field T, Quintero O, Hart S, Burman I.
Lymphology. 2009 Sep 42:105-11.Olszewski WL1, Ambujam PJ, Zaleska M, Cakala M.
Case Rep Vasc Med. 2018 May 2 2018:2679358. doi: 10.1155/2018/2679358. eCollection 2018.Pereira de Godoy JM1,2, de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy M3,4.
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How Is Parkinsons Disease Treated
There is no cure for Parkinsons disease. However, medications and other treatments can help relieve some of your symptoms. Exercise can help your Parkinsons symptoms significantly. In addition, physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language therapy can help with walking and balance problems, eating and swallowing challenges and speech problems. Surgery is an option for some patients.
What Should Be Considered When Taking The Medication
To be able to work properly, the medication should be taken at set times of the day. It’s not always easy to remember to take it regularly. It can help to always take the medication when you do a certain part of your daily routine, like when you brush your teeth. Writing yourself notes or using smartphone app reminders can also be helpful.
L-Dopa shouldn’t be taken less than an hour before or after eating protein-rich meals because protein-rich food can interfere with the absorption of L-Dopa into the blood. Dopamine agonists, on the other hand, are taken with meals. Taking medication at the wrong time of day can make the symptoms worse.
People often have to take more than one type of medication. If the symptoms can’t be reduced enough or side effects become too strong, many people switch to a different medication or start taking another one additionally.
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What Examinations May I Need To Have
Your GP or specialist will probably ask a series of questions to find out what the problem is. These may include:
- When did the trouble start?
- How often does it happen?
- Can you feel when your bladder or bowel is full?
- Are you having difficulty emptying your bladder or bowel?
- How often are you using the toilet?
Parkinson’s symptoms, such as slowness of movement and rigid muscles, affect the muscles in the bowel wall. This can make it harder to push stools out of the body. You may be asked to keep a chart for several days of how often you use the toilet and how much you drink.
You may also be asked for a urine sample to test for infection and they will normally carry out a physical examination.
Bladder or bowel problems can be complex in Parkinson’s, so sometimes specialist tests or X-rays may be needed. All of these can usually be done in an outpatient department or clinic.