Problems With Skin And Scalp
About a year back my Mum was diagnosed with Parkinsons since then she has had terrible problems with her scalp becoming very itchy and flaky and also hair loss due to this. over the last couple of months she has started to have very red sore scabby blotches all over her body is this common and does anyone have any advice please.
Hi there, I have never experienced the symptoms you mentioned. It could be something unrelated to PD. Has your Mum visited the GP about this? Might be worth a visit and possibly a referral to see a Dermatologist.
Let us know how she gets on.
Seborrhea And Parkinson’s Disease
Seborrhea is defined as an elevated sebum secretion rate . To explain the association between SD and PD, Burton and colleagues proposed that SER could be increased by neuroendocrine stimulation via the parasympathetic system . Seventeen years later, the same group stated that There is no evidence of a neural control of sebaceous function, abandoning this hypothesis . This hypothesis was also excluded by Martignoni and colleagues who found little evidence of increased SER in PD , nor any relation with symptom severity or treatment type : Sebum excretion does not appear to be related to the abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system .
The two largest studies of SER in PD found no association in women . Both studies stratified male subjects and found an association in only a subset of men . Smaller studies reported conflicting results . Some studies reported that the administration of levodopa decreased SER , while others found no effect .
Though the link between subjective seborrhea and PD has been reported in older studies , the fact that seborrhea and SD were considered synonymous means these studies cannot be used to evaluate SER in PD. Therefore, we have found no compelling evidence of increased SER in PD. If such an increase exists, it must be of a small magnitude, requiring large studies to detect, and measure.
How Is Seborrhoeic Dermatitis Diagnosed
Seborrhoeic dermatitis is diagnosed by its clinical appearance and behaviour. As malassezia are a normal component of skin flora, their presence on microscopy of skin scrapings is not diagnostic.
Skin biopsy may be helpful but is rarely indicated. Histological findings specific to seborrhoeic dermatitis are superficial perivascular and perifollicular inflammatory infiltrates, psoriasiformhyperplasia, and parakeratosis around follicular openings.
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What Can Make Your Scalp Dry
Your dandruff may be a bummer, but it’s harmless to your health.
Dandruff is a “cosmetic” problem, says New York dermatologist Michele Green, MD. “It will not cause anything bad.”
No one knows precisely what causes dandruff, though a fungus called malassezia may play a role. It’s normal to have malassezia on your skin. Too much of it, though, is linked to dandruff.
These are some of the common reasons your scalp can get dry and itchy:
“We may see associations but we can’t say that, for example, vitamin D deficiency from lack of sunlight in winter causes dandruff,” says Benabio, a dermatologist with Kaiser Permanente in San Diego.
Eat a well-rounded diet for your overall health. A dry scalp doesn’t mean you’re lacking any particular nutrient, though.
What Are The Symptoms Of Alopecia Areata
Alopecia areata mostly affects hair, but in sometimes it can cause changes to the nails. People with the disease are usually healthy and have no other symptoms.
Alopecia areata typically begins with sudden loss of round or oval patches of hair on the scalp, but any part of the body may be affected, such as the beard area in men, or the eyebrows or eyelashes.
After a bare patch develops, several possible things may happen:
- The hair grows back within a few months. It may look white or gray at first but may regain its natural color over time.
- More bare patches develop. Sometimes hair grows back in the first patch while new bare patches form.
- Small patches join to form larger ones.
- In rare cases, all body hair is lost.
In most cases, the hair regrows, but more hair loss may follow.
Nail changes such as ridges and pits occur in some people, especially those who have hair loss over more parts of their body.
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The Relationship Between Creatine & Dht
The relationship between taking creatine and the levels of DHT in the system has been linked to causing hair loss. Since testosterone needs to be converted to DHT before it can perform its functions properly, creatine increases this process. Essentially, when you take creatine supplements, the conversion of testosterone to DHT increases in the system.
The increased levels of DHT alter hair growth by speeding up the cycle of each hair follicles, which can cause hair loss. Hence, taking creatine cause hair loss in individuals over some time. It isnt clear if the increase in DHT from taking creatine supplements can affect reproduction.
Regardless of the relationship between high levels of DHT and hair loss, there are different options to manage hair loss effectively. A good example is scalp micropigmentation. Scalp micropigmentation is a non-surgical process explicitly designed to help people who suffer from hair loss. This process entails applying a natural pigment within the dermal layer of the scalp in the hair losss precise spot. Thus, depicting a natural shaved head and showing zero signs of hair loss.
Scalp micropigmentation has become very famous amongst people who suffer from hair loss.
Stooping Or Hunched Posture
People who have Parkinsons disease may notice changes in their posture due to other symptoms of the disease, such as muscle rigidity.
People naturally stand so that their weight is evenly distributed over their feet. However, people who have Parkinsons disease may start bending forward, making them appear hunched or stooped over.
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What To Do If You Experience Drug
Not everyone will lose hair when taking these medications for health conditions. In most cases, its a rare side effect. But if you suspect your prescription contributed to hair thinning or alopecia, you should seek medical advice ASAP. Talk to your pharmacist about the possible side effects of your medications. Also, consult with your doctor to discuss alternative treatments and rule out other possible causes of hair loss. Keep in mind that diagnosing drug-induced alopecia can be difficult, and the only way to confirm it may be to see if an improvement occurs after you stop taking the suspected drug. However, do not stop taking the medication without first consulting your doctor.
Here’s What To Expect In More Severe Cases
In some severe cases, individuals with Parkinson’s may develop seborrhoeic dermatitis, which can lead to the scalp or other areas of skin becoming red, itchy, flaky, and inflamed.
To combat the condition, your doctor may prescribe a special shampoo that contains the ingredients ketoconazole and selenium sulfide, which should help soothe your irritated skin. Your doctor may also be able to prescribe a short-term steroid-based cream or ointment to help treat your skin inflammation and may recommend medicated ear drops in the event that the condition has affected your ear canal.
Speak with your doctor today if you suspect seborrheic dermatitis. With their help, you may find relief of your symptoms as well as crucial insights into its underlying causeswhether it’s Parkinson’s disease or something else.
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In Babies: Cradle Cap
Cradle cap is seborrheic dermatitis that commonly develops in babies between 2 weeks and 12 months. You might notice red or dark, scaly or crusty yellow patches on their scalp. Or it could start in the face or diaper area and spread elsewhere. Itâs usually not serious and often goes away on its own in a few weeks. Talk to your doctor if symptoms worsen or lead to other problems like infection.
Determination Of Sd Severity
A clinical assessment of SD was carried out and scored. The overall SD score was calculated by scoring the severity of SD and the facial skin area affected . The severity of SD was evaluated according to the presence of: erythema, scale, infiltration and pustule. A four-point score was used for each parameter . The second scale was based on the percentage of the affected skin area: less than 10% , 10-30% , 30-50% , 50-70% and over 70% . The result was obtained by multiplying the scores of both scales giving an overall score: mild SD moderate SD and severe SD . Severity of SD has been described as: mild moderate and severe .
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Diagnosis Of Scalp Eczema
When you feel itchiness in the scalp, it is important to visit the doctor and receive the right diagnosis. Seborrheic dermatitis is often mistaken for dandruff and they both require different treatments. Additionally, the dandruff is also a symptom of scalp eczema. Your doctor can diagnose eczema just by looking at your scalp and can even scrape off some skin to rule out other potential health problems with similar symptoms such as:
Adverse Health Effects Of Methamphetamines
In addition to dopamine cell death, abuse of methamphetamine, a nervous system stimulant, can also lead to memory loss and cardiovascular damage, as well as psychotic behaviors, social isolation, aggravation or aggression, and mood disorders including anxiety, depression, and paranoia.
Someone who is abusing methamphetamine is also likely to experience an increase in both respiration and heart rate, irregular heartbeats, a significant reduction in appetite, and severe insomnia. Methamphetamine abuse can also lead to a feeling skin crawling, in which someone feels compelled to scratch or pick at their skin. Hair loss and tooth decay are also common with long-term use of methamphetamine, as is malnutrition from changes in diet.
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The Role Of Cannabinoid Use In The Treatment Of Sd
Considering Malassezias implication in the pathogenesis of SD, mitigating fungal proliferation and localized inflammation is essential to treatment. Hence, topical antifungals are often used to reduce the proliferation of Malassezia while topical corticosteroids are used to minimize skin inflammation. Additional level A recommended treatments include lithium , which works by reducing the release of fatty acids in the skin, and tacrolimus . For severe recalcitrant SD, as seen in neurological disorders such as PD, only systemic antifungal therapies have been shown to have some efficacy . They are also known, however, to be hepatotoxic, and alternative therapies could be of benefit. Currently, both in vitro and in vivo reports support the potential use of cannabinoids in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders although studies are few .
Lipid production by sebaceous glands is important in understanding the pathogenesis of SD. It has been shown that patients had more extensive skin desquamation than healthy individuals. Oleic acid has irritant and desquamative effects and is a byproduct of host lipid consumption by Malassezia . Sebum dysregulation appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of SD. Studying the effects of cannabinoids on sebum production may aid in understanding the potential benefits of oral cannabinoids in SD treatment.
What Are The Symptoms Of Seborrheic Dermatitis
- Itchy white flakes of skin on your scalp . When scratched, the flakes come loose, mix in with your hair, or fall onto your neck and shoulders.
- Red scales on your skin.
- Crusty yellow scales on infants heads . Cradle cap shouldnt itch, but scratching may cause additional inflammation in the area and break the skin, leading to bleeding or mild infections.
- Blepharitis .
- Pinkish plaques of scales on both sides of your face.
- Flaky patches on your chest and at your hairline that are shaped like a flower petal or a ring.
- Redness in the folds and creases of your genitals, armpits and beneath your breasts.
- Inflamed hair follicles on your cheeks and the upper half of your trunk.
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Best Way To Treat Dandruff
- When washing your hair, look for products that contain zinc, pyrithione, salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, ketoconazole, or coal tar.
- Stress can aggravate dandruff, so take time to relax. Get more sleep, exercise, talk about your feelings, and try calming techniques like meditation.
- Too much hair product can pile up on the head and scalp, making it oilier.
- Enjoy some time in the sun. UV rays can help dandruff.
- Many people believe dandruff is caused by poor cleanliness, while in reality it is caused by over-washing or not fully rinsing off shampoo.
- Brush your hair from the scalp down to help break down oil buildup. Your scalps natural oils also help strengthen your hair.
Issue #: Shingles Of The Scalp
Viral infections can cause sores or blisters along the aging scalp. Shingles, for example, may be the culprit, in some cases. Appearing as a painful skin rash, shingles develops from the virus that causes chickenpox. Shingles may appear later in life in individuals who contracted chickenpox early on.
A shingles infection most commonly affects adults over the age of 50. When shingles develops on the aging persons scalp, a number of symptoms will appear. Headache and weakness in areas where the infection occurs will manifest. Shingles infections last approximately three to five weeks.
Treatments for shingles on the scalp include antiviral medications prescribed by a physician. Seniors who develop shingles on the scalp may experience sensitivity when brushing hair. Careful brushing is critical to preventing scars, rashes, and the resulting, permanent bald spots.
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How Is Seborrheic Dermatitis Treated
In teenagers and adults, seborrheic dermatitis usually doesnt disappear on its own without treatment. Type of treatment depends on the area of the body that is affected and how severe your condition is.
The goal of treatment is to reduce the visible signs of seborrheic dermatitis and itching and redness. Treatment includes use of over-the-counter products and prescription products. Prescription products include topical antifungals, calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids. Ongoing maintenance treatment is often needed. You may need to use a combination of these treatments:
- Cradle cap usually clears up without treatment when the child is between eight and 12 months old. It may be treated daily with a mild baby shampoo.
- Massage or brush the scalp with a soft brush several times a day and after each shampoo. Be careful not to cause a break in the skin, which can lead to infection.
- If the problem continues, or the baby seems uncomfortable and scratches the scalp, contact your pediatrician or dermatologist. He or she may prescribe a prescription shampoo or lotion.
- Other areas of affected skin may be treated with a gentle steroid lotion.
Adolescents and adults:
For moderate to severe cases, your healthcare provider may prescribe a shampoo containing betamethasone valerate , clobetasol , fluocinolone or fluocinolone solution . Shampoo your hair as directed. Some products are used daily, others are used twice daily for two weeks then two times a week.
How To Manage Oily Skin
Try using a mild soap or a gentle cleanser and water, or an oil-free soap substitute. Avoid cosmetic products that contain alcohol, or that irritate your skin. Speak to your GP or pharmacist for more advice on suitable products.
This is a condition where areas of the skin that have lots of sebaceous glands become red, itchy and sore. The skin also peels and flakes, and may develop thick crusts or scales. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a common problem, although people with Parkinsons are more likely to develop it.
The main areas affected include:
- the scalp in mild cases skin can flake off as dandruff. In more severe cases, people may have a red, scaly scalp, sometimes with a weeping rash
- the face this can look red and sore, and sometimes scaly. Skin around the nose and inner parts of the eyebrows are often affected. Eyelids can also become red and sensitive. This is known as blepharitis
- the ears areas around and in the ears can be affected. If the inner canal becomes inflamed this can cause it to become blocked
- the front of the chest
- the bends and folds of skin such as under the breasts and arms, and in the groin
It is not known what causes seborrheic dermatitis, but its thought that a type of yeast found on the skin may play a part. It is not caused by poor personal hygiene.
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Pd Genetics And Lipids
Malassezia are lipid-dependent fungi which consume host lipids by secreting extracellular lipases . On the skin, they consume extracellular lipids in sebum , though they can also utilize intracellular lipids by invading keratinocytes . The best documented cases of Malassezia inside the body were reported following lipid-rich parenteral nutrition . In these cases, Malassezia were mainly found within the wall of arteries which contained lipid deposits, suggesting high lipid concentrations are required to sustain Malassezia in tissue .
Interestingly, four LRRK2 risk alleles in PD also increase the risk of CD . CD is likely caused by a T cell-mediated immune response against Malassezia in the gut . It is important to note that only LRRK2 PD risk allele Y1699C has been tested for lipid-droplet formation, and that LRRK2 alleles associated with both CD and PD have not been tested for excess lipid-droplet formation. It is also important to note that the most important LRRK2 PD risk allele G2019S did not reach statistical significance in one of the CD studies : The LRRK2 N2081D CD risk allele is located in the same kinase domain as G2019S, a mutation that is the major genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD . Notably, G2019S did not have nominally significant CD association , likely because of subtle stochastic fluctuations in allele frequencies during imputation. However, it amply reached statistical significance in the other CD study .