Wednesday, November 30, 2022

Stage 1 Parkinson’s Treatment

Stratification For Therapeutic Outcomes

Early Stage Parkinson’s

Based on the increasingly recognized heterogeneity of PDnot only in terms of underlying genetic and/or environmental causes, but also in terms of clinical presentationsthere is an emerging need for better definitions of subtypes of PD that allow to assign treatments and shape therapeutic approaches according to the best response. As there is still no established neuroprotective treatment option that is able to intervene with the chronic neurodegenerative process, most benefit for the patients in terms of quality of life can be currently achieved by providing access to best symptomatic treatment. This is also reflected by the fact that clinical trials focus on more meaningful parameters in terms of primary and secondary outcomes . Complications of symptomatic pharmacological treatment of PD like dyskinesia remain a significant problem and several recent trials failed to efficiently target dyskinesia at phase III level . Therefore, the translation of novel drugs into successful trials requires the definition of clinically important change that goes beyond the application of clinical rating scales and aligns with the patients observation, e.g., of remission and perception of dyskinesia.

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The Plus Side Of An Early Diagnosis

The news is not nearly all bad for those with young-onset Parkinsons. For one thing, patients with YOPD are better candidates for surgical procedures and medical innovations being used or developed to treat Parkinsons disease. For another, younger patients are less likely to be coping with other health problems at the same time.

Targeting Parkinsons-Linked Protein Could Neutralize 2 of the Diseases Causes

Researchers report they have discovered how two problem proteins known to cause Parkinsons disease are chemically linked, suggesting that someday, both could be neutralized by a single drug designed to target the link.

What Is Parkinsonism Is It Different From Parkinsons

Parkinsons disease is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a category of neurological diseases that cause slowed movement.

No quick or easy diagnostic tests exist for Parkinsons disease, so a patient may receive an initial diagnosis of parkinsonism without a more specific condition being confirmed.

Classic Parkinsons disease referred to as idiopathic because it has no known cause is the most common and most treatable parkinsonism.

About 15 percent of people with parkinsonism have atypical variants, which are also known as Parkinsons-plus syndromes.

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The Five Stages Of Parkinsons

The stages of Parkinsons are based on the Hoehn and Yahr scale introduced in 1967. The Hoehn and Yahr staging system focuses on disability caused by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia , tremor, and loss of balance. Some neurologists also use a newer scale called the Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale . The UPDRS scale takes into account changes in mood, cognitive function such as thinking and remembering, and social behavior.

Is Parkinsons Disease Inherited

Understanding Parkinsons Disease

Scientists have discovered gene mutations that are associated with Parkinsons disease.

There is some belief that some cases of early-onset Parkinsons disease disease starting before age 50 may be inherited. Scientists identified a gene mutation in people with Parkinsons disease whose brains contain Lewy bodies, which are clumps of the protein alpha-synuclein. Scientists are trying to understand the function of this protein and its relationship to genetic mutations that are sometimes seen in Parkinsons disease and in people with a type of dementia called Lewy body dementia.

Several other gene mutations have been found to play a role in Parkinsons disease. Mutations in these genes cause abnormal cell functioning, which affects the nerve cells ability to release dopamine and causes nerve cell death. Researchers are still trying to discover what causes these genes to mutate in order to understand how gene mutations influence the development of Parkinsons disease.

Scientists think that about 10% to 15% of persons with Parkinsons disease may have a genetic mutation that predisposes them to development of the disease. There are also environmental factors involved that are not fully understood.

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Stages In Parkinsons Disease

Staging is Not Important in Evaluating Parkinsons Disease

Patients often ask what stage of PD that they are in. I then explain the following as to why that is not an important issue.

Staging in most diseases is important in predicting how long people will live or how well they can function. This is particularly important in cancer and heart disease. Different cancers have different systems for staging as experience has accumulated to distinguish how ominous it is to have cancer spread to local lymph nodes, or distant nodes, above the diaphragm, or below the diaphragm, in the bone marrow or not, etc. So stage 2b in one disease may have a very different prognosis than stage 2b in another form of cancer, but each will be associated with a certain chance of survival for a specified period.

This is not true for staging in PD. The staging system we use is based on a famous paper written by Margaret Hoehn and Melvin Yahr in 1967. Their paper was the first large study of the effect of LDopa on disease progression. In order to assess how the disease progressed, they had to develop a system to rate the severity. It wouldnt do, for example, to say mild,moderate, or severe, as the readers would want to know what they meant by these terms.

Stage 5 Of Parkinsons Disease

In the final and most severe stage of Parkinsons disease, confusion, delusions and hallucinations may occur. Patients experience advanced stiffness in the legs and may freeze or stumble when attempting to walk. Around-the-clock assistance is needed, and many people require wheelchairs or are confined to a bed. At this stage, dementia also occurs in up to 75% of people with Parkinsons.

It bears repeating that the progression of the disease varies from individual to individual. For example, not everyone with Parkinsons disease will experience the severity of stage 5. While Parkinsons disease itself isnt fatal, the symptoms associated with it can be, such as injuries from falls, problems related to dementia or immobility leading to heart issues.

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What Are The 5 Parkinsons Disease Stages

Parkinsons disease presents differently in everyone. However, Parkinsons is a neurological disorder which tends to follow a pattern of recognizable symptoms. This is known among doctors as the Hoehn and Yahr rating scale, which is broken down into five Parkinsons disease stages. These marked stages will help your doctor evaluate your Parkinsons disease progression.

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Wearing Off More Troublesome Than Dyskinesia

Care of Late Stage Parkinson’s Disease

The treatment of wearing off is based around providing more continuous delivery of dopaminergic medications and the more prolonged stimulation of post-synaptic dopamine receptors . Classical approaches to the treatment of wearing off involve increasing the dose and frequency of L-dopa administration, fractionation of L-dopa doses and multiple administrations, the introduction of sustained release forms of L-dopa, the use of rapid action forms of the drug through liquid suspensions or soluble pro-drug forms . Renewed interest in L-dopa as first line therapy has led to the development of a number of new delivery forms, including gastro-retentive and sustained release formulations, which are currently in clinical development . One recently approved formulation in the USA is IPX-066 which uses microspheres of different sizes to deliver L-dopa at different rates to provide a faster and more prolonged clinical response. In early and late stage patient populations, IPX-066 increases the daily duration of on by approximately 3h compared to immediate release L-dopa and 1.5h compared to Stalevo . In the longer term, replacement of dopamine in the basal ganglia may be possible using gene therapy that inserts the key genes for dopamine production in to the striatum. One viral vector based approach showing signs of success is ProSavin that has completed early stage clinical trial .

Table 2 Existing and novel approaches to the treatment of wearing off

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Another View Of Parkinsons Progression

A newer theory of Parkinsons progression called Braak’s hypothesis suggests that Parkinsons may begin years before motor symptoms develop. According to Braaks hypothesis, loss of smell and digestive symptoms such as constipation are the earliest signs of Parkinsons, showing up many years before motor issues. While these early symptoms do not show up on an official Parkinsons stage yet, many researchers are working on ways to identify and treat Parkinsons earlier, even before stage one.

Condition Guide

Stages Of Parkinsons Disease And How To Treat Them

Parkinsons Disease is a progressive disease, meaning the symptoms develop slowly over the course of several years. Although there are four main motor symptoms that occur with Parkinsons, not every patient will experience symptoms in the same order and in the same way. However, there are patterns of symptom progression that most patients will experience.

The most commonly used scale to assess the stage of Parkinsons disease is the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Named for its authors, Margaret Hoehn and Melvin Yahr, the scale was originally published in 1967 in the journal Neurology and described the progression of Parkinsonism, collection of signs and symptoms found in Parkinsons disease, in five stages. The scale has since been modified to include stage 1.5 and stage 2.5 to account for the intermediate course of Parkinsons.

The Hoehn and Yahr scale originally classified the five stages in the following manner:

  • Stage I. Unilateral involvement only, usually with minimal or no functional impairment.
  • Stage II. Bilateral or midline involvement, without impairment of balance.
  • Stage III. Mild to moderate bilateral impairment with some postural instability.
  • Stage IV. Fully developed, severely disabling disease the patient is still able to walk and stand unassisted but is markedly incapacitated.
  • Stage V. Confinement to bed or wheelchair unless aided.

Stages I.5 and 2.5 were later added and described as:

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What Is The Prognosis And Life Expectancy For Parkinsons Disease

The severity of Parkinsons disease symptoms and signs vary greatly from person to peson, and it is not possible to predict how quickly the disease will progress. Parkinsons disease itself is not a fatal disease, and the average life expectancy is similar to that of people without the disease. Secondary complications, such as pneumonia, falling-related injuries, and choking can lead to death. Many treatment options can reduce some of the symptoms and prolong the quality of life.

Unified Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale

Understanding Parkinsons Disease

The UPDRS contains four parts. The first part assesses intellectual function, mood, and behavior. The second one assesses activities of daily living. The third part assesses one motor function, and the fourth assesses motor complications.

Each part includes scores that altogether rate the severity of the disease. The maximum score is 199, reflecting total disability, whereas a score of zero means no disability.

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Medication For Parkinsons Disease

Once the doctor diagnoses Parkinsons disease, the next decision is whether a patient should receive medication, which depends on the following:

  • The degree of functional impairment

  • The degree of cognitive impairment

  • Ability to tolerate antiparkinsonian medication

  • The advice of the attending doctor

No two patients react the same way to a given drug, therefore, it takes time and patience to find an appropriate medication and dosage to alleviate symptoms.

Symptoms And Signs Of Parkinsons Disease

Its difficult to directly diagnose Parkinsons disease. There is no specific test doctors can perform to confirm a diagnosis, which is why its important for research to continue to identify the ever-evolving definition of Parkinsons. In addition to pinpointing many of these symptoms, doctors will also delve through family history and perform an overall examination of the brain to officially diagnose someone.

The rate at which these symptoms onset varies per person, and theres no specific amount of time youre guaranteed to lived once diagnosed. It can develop quickly or you can live 30 years before the worst of the disease starts to show. While Parkinson himself identified six main qualities of the disease when he first detailed it, the symptoms of Parkinsons have developed over time. They include, but arent completely limited to, the following:

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Stage Four Of Parkinsons Disease

In stage four, PD has progressed to a severely disabling disease. Patients with stage four PD may be able to walk and stand unassisted, but they are noticeably incapacitated. Many use a walker to help them.

At this stage, the patient is unable to live an independent life and needs assistance with some activities of daily living. The necessity for help with daily living defines this stage. If the patient is still able to live alone, it is still defined as stage three.

Stage 1 Of Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsonâs Minute 001 – Setting the âStageâ? Regarding Parkinsonâs Disease

This beginning stage of Parkinsons disease has minimal symptoms, if any at all. If symptoms are present, they may include tremors and affect one side of the body. For example, one side of the face may be affected, or one hand or leg may feel slower than the other. Your family and friends may notice changes in your posture or facial expressions. Any symptoms that are present arent severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Diagnosis is difficult at this stage, and the affected person may not even seek medical attention at this point.

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Stage Five Of Parkinsons Disease

Stage five is the most advanced and is characterized by an inability to rise from a chair or get out of bed without help, they may have a tendency to fall when standing or turning, and they may freeze or stumble when walking.

Around-the-clock assistance is required at this stage to reduce the risk of falling and help the patient with all daily activities. At stage five, the patient may also experience hallucinations or delusions.

While the symptoms worsen over time, it is worth noting that some patients with PD never reach stage five. Also, the length of time to progress through the different stages varies from individual to individual. Not all the symptoms may occur in one individual either. For example, one person may have a tremor but balance remains intact. In addition, there are treatments available that can help at every stage of the disease. However, the earlier the diagnosis, and the earlier the stage at which the disease is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment is at alleviating symptoms.

What Are The Stages Of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinsons disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes difficulty with walking and coordination. It occurs when the brain can no longer produce enough dopamine, one type of chemical in the brain. A progressive disease, Parkinson’s starts gradually and gets worse with time.

The most common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are stiffness in different parts of the body, shaking , difficulty with balance and coordination, difficulty walking and slow movements. As the disease advances, muscle pain and cramps, problems with sleep, memory impairment, depression, and behavioral changes may set in, too.

The Hoehn and Yahr scale is used to stage Parkinsons disease according to the order in which symptoms appear and gradually worsen. There were previously five stages in the Hoehn and Yahr scale, but over time it was modifiedstages 1.5 and 2.5 were added to it.

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Elucidating Substrates Of Neuropsychiatric Dysfunction In Pd

Our group is particularly interested in the role of noradrenergic pathology in cognitive dysfunction in PD . Significant pathology and loss of LC-NE neurons occurs in PD . LC-NE dysfunction occurs early in disease progression , and the known functions of LC-NE correlate well with several early symptoms in PD including sleep disorders , depression and cognitive dysfunction .

Cognitive dysfunction in early PD primarily manifests as a dysexecutive syndrome including impairments in planning, working memory, attentional control and cognitive flexibility . These functions are associated with prefrontal cortex, which is not subject to direct PD pathology in early stages. The prefrontal cortex is regulated by several neuromodulatory systems including DA, serotonin, acetylcholine and NE . NE, serotonin and cholinergic nuclei that project to prefrontal regions are all subject to PD pathology however, DA inputs to prefrontal regions arise primarily from medial ventral tegmental regions and remain relatively preserved even in late PD .

4.1.1Neuropsychiatric dysfunction in late stage PD

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Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms: Life Expectancy

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Even though Parkinson’s disease is a serious, progressive condition, it is not considered a fatal illness. People who have Parkinson’s disease usually have the same average life expectancy as people without the disease.

But when the disease is in its advanced stages, Parkinson’s symptoms can lead to life-threatening complications, including:

  • Falls that lead to fractured bones
  • Pneumonia
  • Choking

Thinking about the progression of Parkinson’s disease can be frightening. But proper treatments can help you live a full, productive life for years to come. And researchers hope to one day find ways to halt the progression of Parkinson’s and restore lost functioning.

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How Is Parkinsons Disease Treated

There is no cure for Parkinsons disease. However, medications and other treatments can help relieve some of your symptoms. Exercise can help your Parkinsons symptoms significantly. In addition, physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language therapy can help with walking and balance problems, eating and swallowing challenges and speech problems. Surgery is an option for some patients.

Sidebar: Morris K Udall Centers Of Excellence For Parkinson’s Disease Research

The Morris K. Udall Parkinsons Disease Research Act of 1997 authorized the NIH to greatly accelerate and expand PD research efforts by launching the NINDS Udall Centers of Excellence, a network of research centers that provide a collaborative, interdisciplinary framework for PD research. Udall Center investigators, along with many other researchers funded by the NIH, have made substantial progress in understanding PD, including identifying disease-associated genes investigating the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to PD, developing and improving PD research models, and discovering and testing potential therapeutic targets for developing novel treatment strategies.

The Udall Centers continue to conduct critical basic, translational, and clinical research on PD including: 1) identifying and characterizing candidate and disease-associated genes, 2) examining neurobiological mechanisms underlying the disease, and 3) developing and testing potential therapies. As part of the program, Udall Center investigators work with local communities of patients and caregivers to identify the challenges of living with PD and to translate scientific discoveries into patient care. The Centers also train the next generation of physicians and scientists who will advance our knowledge of and treatments for PD. See the full list of Udall Centers.

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