Monday, September 26, 2022

What Is The Difference Between Lewy Body Dementia And Parkinson’s

What Type Of Dementia Causes Paranoia

The differentiation between Lewy body and Parkinson’s disease dementia

Paranoia is frequently associated with memory loss in people with Alzheimers disease. Memory loss can become more severe as the days pass. People who forget where they put things, for example, are more likely to become paranoid.

Delusions and paranoia are common symptoms of dementia. There are several types of delusionals, but paranoid scenarios are the most common. In dementia, paranoia can be a way for people to project fear by focusing on suspicions. Delusions are a common form of dementia that affects approximately 40% of people living with it. It is not acceptable to argue or to try to convince someone with dementia that they are incorrect. They will be less likely to suspect that an item was stolen if you can help them find it. Dont get too worked up about being accused of not visiting them or being unfaithful.

The elderly are more likely to develop delusions as they age. Delusions are strong, fixed beliefs that people hold despite the fact that there is no evidence to support them. People may experience paranoia, which makes them feel threatened, even if they are not experiencing any actual harm. Dementia can make people suspicious of the people around them, which can be dangerous. If you are concerned about a loved one suffering from dementia, you should seek the assistance of a professional. Family and friends can help care for a loved one with dementia by using a variety of resources.

Movement Problems And Lewy Body Dementia

Some people with LBD may not experience significant movement problems for several years. Others may have them early on. At first, movement symptoms, such as a change in handwriting, may be very mild and easily overlooked. Movement problems may include:

  • Muscle rigidity or stiffness

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Comparison Of Motor Symptoms

On the Hoehn and Yahr scale as well as on UPDRS III and IV , the PDD group had significantly higher scores than the DLB group, but there was no significant difference in predominant motor subtype between both groups. The tremor severity was higher in the PDD group, but only regarding the tremor at rest, which was marginally significant . Compared to DLB patients, PDD patients also demonstrated a significantly higher score on hand and feet bradykinesia as well as a tendency towards increased rigidity.

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Deficits In Constructive Abilities

We also found that even patients with mild DLB are unable to cope with tasks which involve constructive abilities compared to patients with mild PDD. Cormack et al. found a strong correlation between total MMSE and Cambridge Cognition Examination scores and pentagon copying in PDD patients, but not in patients with DLB. The authors suggested that in PDD, constructional disability appears to develop proportionately to a global cognitive impairment, whereas in DLB there is a selective impairment of constructional ability, above and beyond the global impairment. Several other authors also notice that the level of visuospatial impairment found in patients with DLB is disproportionately severe relative to the deficits that they exhibit in other cognitive domains . A recent neuroimaging study showed that DLB patients exhibit more severe atrophy in parietal and occipital areas relative to those with PDD . These data could explain the poorer visuospatial performance of DLB patients compared to PDD patients.

Demographic And Clinical Characteristics

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The demographic and clinical characteristics of both groups are presented in table 1. There were no significant intergroup differences regarding age, education, MMSE and MMP scores, and gender, as expected due to the matching procedure, but PDD patients showed a significantly longer disease duration than DLB patients.

Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of the DLB and PDD groups

Of the PDD patients, 6 had hallucinations at the time of testing , compared to 10 of the DLB patients .

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What Is The Link Between Parkinsons And Lewy Body Dementia

Being Patient: Are Parkinsons disease and Lewy body dementia related?

Dag Aarsland: Yes, theyre related in terms of symptoms and the brain changes. Many scientists consider Parkinsons and Lewy body dementia as a continuum of disease rather than two separate diseases. But there are very active and lively discussions about that. There are arguments for separating and combining them, but there are many similarities.

Being Patient: Do you group Lewy body dementia with Parkinsons disease in your research?

Dag Aarsland: From a research point-of-view, we try to separate them. We identify the specifics and categorize patients in different groups and study them carefully in order to see how they relate. In clinical practice, its different. I also see patients with Parkinsons and unfortunately, many of them develop dementia and hallucinations or memory problems. In clinical practice, its very much the same challenges for patients, carers and the doctor in terms of findings and the right therapy.

What Are The Most Common Types Of Dementia

Roughly 9% of Americans over 65 have some form of dementia, and the vast majority have Alzheimers. The other more common forms include vascular, Lewy Body dementia, frontotemporal, and something known as mixed dementia, which may be more common than experts once thought, especially in people over 90. Mixed dementia is usually a combination of Alzheimers and vascular dementia. Lets take a look at each one:

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How Can We Support The Sleep/wake Cycle Of Dlb

For people with DLB who are confused about the day-night cycle, some daily strategies can be helpful. At night, starting a lights out routine that happens at the same hour every day, where all curtains are closed and lights are turned off, can help the person understand that it is sleep time. During the day, opening the curtains, allowing patients to spend as much time in the daylight as possible, avoiding naps, and organizing stimulating activities, can be helpful. Having lots of calendars and clocks in every room might also help a person with DLB be less confused about the time of day.

Lewy Body Dementia Posture

What is lewy body dementia?

There are many different types of dementia, and lewy body dementia is one of them. Lewy body dementia is a type of progressive dementia that causes problems with thinking, movement, and behavior. People with lewy body dementia may have difficulty walking, talking, and completing simple tasks. They may also experience hallucinations and delusions. The cause of lewy body dementia is not yet known, but it is believed to be related to changes in the brain that occur as people age. There is no cure for lewy body dementia, but treatments are available to help manage symptoms.

The onset of brain decline can be distinguished by posture changes. A common cause of Lewy body dementia is abnormal microscopic deposits that cause brain cells to die over time. Slow and stiff movement, a blank expression on the face, and difficulty with balance and movement are all symptoms of this condition. If you suspect you have Lewy Body Dementia, you should consult a doctor, according to Alzheimers Research UK. Other factors, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, increase the risk of dementia, as well as other dementias. It is not a guarantee that you will develop the disease if you have one of these risk genes.

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Number Of People Affected

Parkinsons disease is thought to affect about 2 percent of Americans over 65. Of those, about 50 to 80 percent will go on to develop Parkinsons-related dementia.1 The Parkinsons Foundation estimates that nearly 1 million Americans will be living with Parkinsons by 2020. The disease affects 1.5 times more men than women.7

Approximately 5.8 million Americans are currently living with Alzheimers disease. That number is expected to increase to 14 million by 2050.8 There is little difference between numbers of men and women who develop Alzheimers, but there are more women with the disease, because women tend to live longer than men.3

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What Are The Symptoms Of Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy body dementia symptoms may resemble those of other neurological disorders, like Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Symptoms fluctuate over time and vary from person to person.

There are several possible symptoms of LBD, which can be grouped into the following categories:

  • Movement issues.
  • Smaller handwriting than whats normal for the person.

Cognitive symptoms of Lewy body dementia

Fluctuating cognitive function is a relatively specific feature of Lewy body dementia. A person with LBD may experience periods of being alert and coherent in between periods of being confused and unresponsive to questions. This can change from day to day or within the same day.

Other cognitive symptoms include a decline in:

  • Planning abilities.
  • Problem-solving skills.
  • Ability to focus.
  • Understanding information in visual form.

Visual hallucinations, or seeing things that arent there occur in up to 80% of people with LBD and often early on in the condition. Other types of hallucinations, such as hearing or smelling things that arent there, are less common than visual ones but may also occur.

Visuospatial difficulties, including decreased depth perception, trouble recognizing familiar objects and impaired hand-eye coordination, are also common in people with LBD.

Sleeping problems in Lewy body dementia

Other sleep issues associated with LBD include:

  • Excessive daytime drowsiness.

Dysautonomia in Lewy body dementia

  • Changes in body temperature.

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What Is The Prognosis Of Lewy Body Dementia

The prognosis of LBD is generally fair to poor because it gets worse over time.

People with LBD can die from several different complications, such as:

  • Swallowing issues.
  • Depression leading to suicide
  • Reactions to first-generation antipsychotic medications used to treat and manage symptoms of many psychiatric disorders, such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with LBD, its important to learn about the condition and all the medications and therapies that can help you be as comfortable and safe as possible.

Deficits In Attention/executive Functions

Alzheimer

In the domain of attention/executive functions, DLB patients performed significantly worse on digit span backward and MCST than PDD patients. In 2014, Yoon et al. also found that the attention/executive domain is more affected in DLB compared to PD even in the mild cognitive impairment stage. A recent neuroimaging study showed that numbers of categories achieved and perseverative errors in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test should be differentially estimated, because they reflect the function of different brain regions in patients with early dementia , i.e. categories achieved mainly reflect the function of the precentral segments, whereas perseverative error scores correlate with metabolic activity in the right thalamus.

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Major Findings Of Present Work

In this study, we compared cognitive and motor symptoms of patients with mild DLB and PDD. The main finding was that DLB patients showed more attention/executive and visuoconstructive deficits as compared to PDD patients. The logistic regression analysis was able to correctly classify 88.2% of the patients with DLB or PDD, based on the cognitive profile. The strongest predictor of diagnostic category was the variable pentagon drawing. Additionally, PDD patients demonstrated more significant motor deterioration based mostly on dopaminergic symptoms compared to DLB patients.

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What Causes Lewy Body Dementia

The causes of LBD are not yet well understood, but research is ongoing in this area. There are probably multiple factors involved, including genetic and environmental risk factors that combine with natural aging processes to make someone susceptible to LBD.

For more information, visit www.lbda.org.

Modified with permission from the Lewy Body Dementia Association

To learn more about motor symptoms related to Parkinsons, visit here.

To learn more about non-motor symptoms related to Parkinsons, visit here.

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Dementia In Parkinson’s Disease

The diagnosis of PDD was made based on the Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria for dementia . The onset of established PD preceded the development of dementia by at least 12 months. In this study, the time of onset of dementia in PDD patients was at least 4 years after the diagnosis of PD. To ensure that any differences in group test profiles could be attributed to differences in the underlying nature of the disorders rather than to differences in age, educational level and/or global level of dementia, we selected 27 patients from a large cohort of 86 PDD patients, who matched a DLB patient with regard to age, education and Mini Mental Parkinson.

Diagnosis: Parkinson’s Dementia Or Dementia With Lewy Bodies

Mayo Clinic Minute: What is Lewy body dementia?

During assessment, a specialist may look at when the dementia symptoms first appeared before reaching a diagnosis of Parkinson’s dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies.

If there have been motor symptoms for at least one year before dementia symptoms occur, specialists will often give a diagnosis of Parkinson’s dementia.

If dementia symptoms occur before or at the same time as motor symptoms, specialists will usually give a diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies.

However, it should be noted that in some cases of dementia with Lewy bodies, no motor symptoms develop at all.

Theres no single test – diagnosis is made through several different assessments, usually starting with an appointment with your GP or Parkinson’s nurse.

Some people find it helps to go to the appointment with someone who knows them well, who can give the GP or Parkinson’s nurse information about changes they’ve noticed.

Your GP can discuss your symptoms with you and carry out a physical examination, including blood and urine tests, to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms .

Your GP may also review your medication, in case your symptoms are side effects.

If your GP thinks you have dementia, they can refer you to a specialist, such as a neurologist, psychiatrist or geriatrician.

You might be referred to a memory clinic or memory service. In some areas of the country, you can refer yourself to these services.

But if you feel you need to see the specialist again, you can ask to be referred back.

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How Does A Person With Lewy Body Dementia Act

A person with lewy body dementia may experience a range of symptoms that can affect their ability to think, reason, and move. They may have impaired judgment and problems with complex activities, such as balancing a checkbook. People with lewy body dementia may also have visual hallucinations and may act out their dreams while sleeping. As the disease progresses, people with lewy body dementia may become increasingly agitated, aggressive, and even violent.

There are several types of Lewy body dementia, and LBD is a brain disorder that causes problems with thinking, movement, behavior, and mood. More than one million Americans are estimated to be living with LBD, which is one of the most common forms of dementia. It is a progressive disease, and symptoms appear slowly and worsens over time. Dementias with Lewy bodies and Parkinsons disease dementias are caused by the same underlying changes in the brain. The timing of the symptoms of both thinking and movement is the difference between the two. When people are aware of what to expect from their LBD, they will be better prepared for changes that may need to be made. Please visit the website to learn more about this disease, its treatments, care, support, and research you can also learn about the disease, care, support, and research by visiting the resources below. Researchers are working to discover how to treat and prevent diseases caused by LBD and other related disorders.

How Does Lewy Body Dementia Affect You Emotionally

Lewy body dementia can be emotionally devastating for both patients and caregivers. The disease can cause changes in mood and behavior, which can be extremely challenging to deal with. Patients may become depressed, anxious, or agitated, and may have difficulty controlling their emotions. Caregivers may also find themselves struggling to cope with the emotional rollercoaster of the disease.

In mid-March, the UCSF Memory and Aging Center hosted a webinar on Lewy Body Dementia . Wed like to share our thoughts on the webinar with you, as we did at Stanford Parkinsons Community Outreach. This webinar can be viewed via YouTube, and it has been recorded. Because of Lewy body disease, the parts of the brain involved in emotion, motivation, and sleep no longer function normally. While it is not the intent of the person to harm others, the effects of brain disease are felt. Dreaming is frequently used as a means of resolving sleep issues, such as REM behavior disorder . When someone is lacking motivation, interest, or initiative, he or she is suffering from apathy.

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Differences Between Pdd And Dlb

So, how are PDD and DLB different from each other? That depends on whom you ask. Some clinicians feel that these two conditions are simply different versions of the same disorder. In fact, some professionals use the terms interchangeably. Yet, according to currently agreed-upon diagnostic guidelines, there are some differences.

Coping With A Diagnosis

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Being diagnosed with dementia can be an overwhelming experience. While there is no cure at present for LBD, or any medications aimed at specifically treating LBD, doctors are able to treat many of its symptoms. There are also a number of self-help strategies that can help improve symptoms.

If youve been diagnosed with LBD, its normal to feel many strong and painful emotions, including anger, fear, and uncertainty about the future.

Take time to adjust. As with any major life change, its important to give yourself time to adjust. Expect ups and downs as you do. You may feel that youve come to terms with your new situation for a while, and then suddenly feel overwhelmed by stress again.

Reach out for support. Living with Lewy body dementia is not easy, but there is help for this journey. The more support you have from family and friends, the better youll be able to cope with symptoms.

Talk to your loved ones about your wishes. Its never easy to talk about how you want your healthcare handled when youre unable to make decisions for yourself. But its important to let your loved one know what is important to you. Thinking about your choices today can improve your quality of life in the future and ease the burden on your family.

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