As An Inhibiter Of Oxidative Stress
The present authors conducted a study to clarify the effects of Mg administration in a rat PD model involving culture of ventral mesencephalic- striatal cells with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , based on recent evidence for significant loss of dopaminergic neurons exclusively in the substantia nigra of 1-year-old rats after exposure to low Mg intake over generations . The results indicated that Mg might protect dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra from degeneration. The concentration of Mg in the culture medium varied from 0.8 mM, corresponding to the control condition, to 4.0 mM. Effects were estimated by counting the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase and measuring the length of dopaminergic neurites. An increase in the concentration of Mg to 1.2 mM significantly inhibited the toxicity of MPP+, and a concentration of 4.0 mM completely prevented any decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons. The length of dopam- inergic neurites was significantly preserved in the presence of Mg at 1.2 and 4.0 mM. An increase in the concentration of Mg to 1.2 and 4.0 mM led to a significant amelioration in the length of dopam- inergic neurites after MPP+ toxicity .
Prevention of MPP+ toxicity by Mg in a Parkinson model . a: normal condition of cultured nigral dopaminergic neurons. b: severe loss of dopaminergic neurons and the neuritis after MPP+ administration. c: An increase in the concentration
Zinc Excess And Parkinsons Disease
There is an overwhelming body of evidence implicating an excess of ionic Zn2+ in dopaminergic neurodegeneration associated with PD. Zinc exposure has been identified as an environmental risk factor for PD and post-mortem studies revealed excessive zinc depositions in the substantia nigra and the striatum of patients with idiopathic PD . In line with these observations, in vitro and in vivo experiments with animal models of PD showed that cytosolic accumulation labile zinc is a hallmark of degenerating dopaminergic neurons . Importantly, treatments with intracellular zinc chelators prevent neurodegeneration caused by many neurotoxins confirming that cytosolic Zn2+ accumulation contributes to dopaminergic neuronal loss . The mechanisms responsible for Zn2+ accumulation in the SN of PD patients are poorly understood. One possible cause could be a failure of the intracellular mechanisms that maintain Zn2+ homeostasis. In this respect, the human PARK9 , a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase associated with autosomal recessive early-onset PD, has been shown to act as a transporter for lysosomal sequestration of cytoplasmic zinc . In vitro, loss of PARK9 function causes an imbalance of zinc intracellular homeostasis that in turn leads to lysosomal impairment, accumulation of -syn, and mitochondrial dysfunction .
Atp13a2/ Hons Cells Have Impaired Mitochondrial Function
We and others have reported impaired mitochondrial function in fibroblasts from KRS patients and ATP13A2-silenced cell models . We therefore assessed mitochondrial function in our hONs cells. The cellular ATP production rate was significantly lower in the ATP13A2/ cells when compared with controls . Upon exposure to ZnCl2, ATP13A2/ cells showed a significant reduction in ATP production rate , which was completely blocked by V5ATP13A2 overexpression , while the same treatments did not change ATP production rate in the control cells. ATP13A2/ cells showed an average of 37% reduction in tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester perchlorate labelling compared with the control under vehicle treatment , indicative of a lower mitochondrial membrane potential . Notably, there was no difference in total mitochondrial mass between the cell lines when measured using the mitochondria-specific dye, MitoTracker Green . When cells were treated with carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone , a m uncoupling agent, TMRM retention was reduced to a similar degree in both the cell lines .
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How About The Motor Symptoms
Its not yet clear whether its consumption can also treat the typical motor symptoms of Parkinsons. So far only one study has reported that it may help improve balance in patients who are younger. In this study, a high dose of vitamin D supplement for 16 weeks was found to cause a significant improvement in the balance of those patients who were 66 or younger, compared with the placebo group or those patients who were 67 and older.
The Protective Power Of Zinc
Before we get into the ins and outs of zinc, a story:
One day, early in the 19th century, the Royal Navy came to the chemist and inventor Sir Humphrey Davy with a big problem. To protect their ships from a kind of mollusk that bored into wood, ship makers had been lining the bottoms of these vessels with copper. Unfortunately, the saltwater quickly corroded the copper, which led to costly and highly inconvenient repairs. Could Davy come up with a solution?
Davy suggested attaching a sacrificial metal to the copper. His element of choice was zinc. The zinc would protect the copper by being degraded by the saltwater, a process termed galvanization that later protected iron, steel, and other industrial metals from corrosion.
The story ends sadly for Davy and the Navy . While the zinc stopped the deterioration of the copper, it also made it far more susceptible to weeds and barnacles by providing them with nutrients that they found appealing. But it highlights the power of zinc, which can protect not only copper and iron but us as well.
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Monitoring Of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
hONs cells were seeded in a black 96-well plate at 1 × 104 cells per well and grown for 24 h. For assessment of m, the cells were incubated with either dimethyl sulfoxide or 25 µm CCCP for 4 h in serum-free media. After washing with HBSS, the cells were stained with 25 nm TMRM for 15 min in a cell culture incubator before measurement of fluorescence using a Victor 3 V1420 multilabel plate counter .
To determine the effect of elevated i on m, hONs cells plated in a 35 mm µ-Dish were incubated with either 0.9 mm H2O2 or 0.9 mm H2O2 with 1 µm TPEN for 5 h in serum-free media. In the last hour, the cells were co-incubated with 500 nm JC-1 . Fluorescence was visualized using a Leica SP5 confocal microscope with constant parameters applied to acquire images from all samples. The area occupied by mitochondria in red fluorescence per cell was calculated in morphologically intact cells using Image J software .
Coffee And Tea Are Good For Your Brain In Different Ways
Caffeine in coffee has a number of positive effects on the brain, including increased alertness. Caffeine keeps your brain alert by blocking adenosine, a chemical messenger that makes you sleepy. Caffeine may also boost some of your feel-good neurotransmitters, such as serotonin.
One study found that when participants drank one large coffee in the morning or smaller amounts throughout the day, they were more effective at tasks that required concentration. Drinking coffee over the long term is also linked to a reduced risk of neurological diseases, such as Parkinsons and Alzheimers. This could be partly due to coffees high concentration of antioxidants. So a shot in the morning is a good thing.
As is the case with coffee, the caffeine in many teas including black, oolong and green tea boosts brain function. Green tea is made from unoxidized leaves so it is one of the less processed types of tea. Green tea in particular has been found to improve alertness, performance, memory and focus. Even if you make a small lifestyle change this will help lower the risk of stroke when added to your diet.
But green tea also has other components that make it a brain-healthy beverage. One of the active compounds is L-theanine, an amino acid that can cross the blood-brain barrier and increase the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA, which helps reduce anxiety and makes you feel more relaxed.
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Lentivirus Production And Establishment Of Cell Lines
V5-tagged wild-type ATP13A2 in pcDNA3-V5ATP13A2 was subcloned into a pER4 lentiviral vector. Lentivirus for the expression of mRFP-LC3 and V5ATP13A2 was produced using the Lenti-X Lentiviral Expression system and Lipofectamine 2000 according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The medium containing lentivirus was collected at 48 and 72 h post-transfection followed by concentration using the Lenti-X concentrator before measurement of viral titre.
hONs cells were transduced with one to two multiplicity of infection lentivirus in the presence of 4 µg/ml polybrene for 24 h and used for subsequent experiments. Expression of target molecules in the cells was confirmed by western blotting according to the previously published protocol or fluorescence microscopy. For generation of stable cell lines expressing mRFP-LC3, the cells were grown in culture media containing 1 µg/ml puromycin for selection.
Aging Dementia And Research
The incidence of diseases that cause dementia, such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and stroke continues to increase as the population ages. Although research has helped us further understand these diseases, there, unfortunately, is still no conclusive or highly effective treatment for dementia.
As a means of hoping to offset dementia, your doctor may recommend traditional lifestyle changes for prevention: eating a healthy diet, regular exercise, no smoking, drinking in moderation, and keeping your blood pressure in check. Researchers have also been studying the effects of antioxidants, stimulants like caffeine, and other foods on improving brain function to help prevent dementia, but the results are inconclusive and hard to prove. However, the research continues
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Parkinsons And Nutrition: Food For Thought
Scientific and Medical Senior Director
A healthy lifestyle and balanced nutrition are essential pillars of good health for all people.A balanced diet is even more critical for people with a neurodegenerative condition, such as Parkinsonâs disease .
PD influences many systems in the body, making those living with PD susceptible to malnutrition. Involuntary movements associated with PD result in increased energy expenditure. Constipation caused by slowed gastrointestinal transit, disease symptoms , and medication side effects can all limit food consumption. In addition, one of the most used medications, levodopa, competes with proteins for absorption from the small intestine.Although no single specific diet is recommended for everyone with PD, there has been growing research on the potential health benefits for PD patients of a balanced diet that includes high quality and nutritional food. Nutrition may affect PD patients wellbeing in several ways, from neuroprotection to symptom relief. This article provides a taste of the latest research in the field.
How Foods Affect Pd Medication
Another benefit of dietary changes can be improvement in the effectiveness of PD medications. Taking medications at mealtime can affect how quickly they are absorbed into your body, and the rate at which your body uses, or metabolizes them. If you take carbidopa-levodopa , for PD symptoms, you may find that protein-rich foods such as meat, fish or eggs or high-fat foods, lengthen the time it takes for the medicine to kick in, or make the medication less effective. The latter result can also be triggered by foods that contain vitamin B6 .
The solution? Talk to your doctor about taking levodopa 30 to 60 minutes before meals, to give it a head start. Your doctor or a nutritionist can also give advice on how to distribute the protein you eat, to avoid having it interfere with levodopa.
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Impulsive And Compulsive Behaviours
People who experience impulsive and compulsive behaviours cant resist the temptation to carry out an activity often one that gives immediate reward or pleasure.
Behaviours may involve gambling, becoming a shopaholic, binge eating or focusing on sexual feelings and thoughts. This can have a huge impact on peoples lives including family and friends.
Not everyone who takes Parkinsons medication will experience impulsive and compulsive behaviours, so these side effects should not put you off taking your medication to control your symptoms.
If you have a history of behaving impulsively you should mention this to your GP, specialist or Parkinsons nurse.
Asking your specialist to make changes to your medication regime or adjusting the doses that you take is the easiest way to control impulsive and compulsive behaviours. So, if you or the person you care for is experiencing this side effect, tell your healthcare professional as soon as possible before it creates large problems.
If you are not able to get through to your healthcare professional straight away, you can call our Parkinsons UK helpline on 0808 800 0303.
We have advice that can help you manage impulsive and compulsive behaviours as well as information on what behaviour to look out for.
Modulation Of Receptor Expression
Recently, Oki et al. reported that ZNS could ameliorate LID by modulating the expression of receptors. They designed different models of levodopa-ZNS administration in four groups, namely, intermittent ZNS and levodopa injection, intermittent levodopa injection, continuous levodopa infusion, and no medication. Two weeks after the treatment, they analyzed the mRNA expression of endocannabinoid CB1 receptor, D1 and D2 receptors, and adenosine A2A receptor in the striatum of PD model rats in each group. Their results indicated that intermittent prescription of levodopa induced LID, which was related to the upregulation of dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors. ZNS injection improved LID by downregulation of adenosine A2A and endocannabinoid CB1 receptors.
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Is Walking Good For Parkinsons Disease
4/5walkingParkinsonâs diseaseParkinsonâs disease
Also asked, what is the best exercise for Parkinsonâs disease?
These will challenge a person mentally as well as physically as they require concentration to perform.
- Walking, hiking or jogging.
- Racket sports such as badminton, table tennis, squash.
- Yoga or Tai Chi.
- Swimming in different strokes.
Subsequently, question is, does Parkinson disease affect walking? Walking can be hard for people with Parkinsonâs Disease . This is because the disease causes damage to an area of the brain that controls movements. As the dis- ease worsens all movements will tend to become slower and smaller, including walking.
Beside above, what foods should Parkinsonâs patients avoid?
People taking monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors for PD such as rasagiline, selegiline and safinamide, do not have to adhere to a specific diet, but should avoid foods that are very high in tyramine such as aged cheeses, cured meats and beer on tap.
What helps Parkinsonâs patients walk?
Tricks that can help overcome freezing:
Potential Side Effects Of Zinc Pyrithione
Zinc pyrithione is approved for over-the-counter dandruff shampoo, but it should only be used topically. It may burn or sting if it gets in the eyes, mouth, or nose.
Other side effects may include burning or redness, and in rare cases, blistering. Talk to a doctor if youre pregnant or nursing before using zinc pyrithione. If you swallow zinc pyrithione, consult a doctor right away.
Selenium sulfide is a topical antifungal treatment that slows the growth of yeast on the scalp or body. Its available in both prescription and OTC forms.
Like pyrithione zinc, its also commonly found in anti-dandruff shampoos, and the two ingredients can complement each other. Selenium sulfide is known to be a bit stronger and can be irritating if left on the scalp for too long. Its naturally a light orange color, so shampoos or skin care products containing selenium sulfide are usually a peachy hue.
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Are You At Risk For Zinc Deficiency
The risk for zinc deficiency depends on the individual and involves factors like age, diet pattern, medical conditions, and certain lifestyle habits.
The absorption rate for zinc from foods can range from 16-50%, meaning that the remaining zinc passes through the body unused. But what does that mean for you?
Some research indicates that those who follow a plant-based diet may need to eat as much as 50% more zinc than the recommended amounts to accommodate for the loss of absorption on account of phytates, or take a daily zinc supplement. As a result, plant-based eaters may experience greater rates of subclinical zinc deficiency than omnivores. The good news is that an individuals current zinc status may influence their absorption rate meaning that your body can adapt to a lower zinc status.
How About For Parkinsons
Researchers have been trying to find a connection between Mg intake and the risk of developing Parkinsons disease. The evidence collected so far suggests that there is a possible involvement of Mg in Parkinsons disease.
A study conducted in Japan showed that those who consume less Mg are at high risk of developing Parkinsons. In this study, 249 Parkinsons patients and 368 controls without brain diseases were examined for their consumption of different metals. The study found that those who were consuming high Mg in their diet were less likely to develop Parkinsons compared to those who were consuming less. The study further concluded that a higher intake of Mg may be protective against Parkinsons.
There is also evidence indicating that Mg could play a role in Parkinsons progression. A study involving 91 Parkinsons patients and 18 controls found that Mg concentration in cerebrospinal fluid decreased with the duration and severity of the disease. Its abnormal levels were also observed in otherstudies.
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De Novo/early Stage Pd
A preliminary, open-label trial conducted in Japan suggested that a single administration of ZNS was efficacious in improving motor and sleep dysfunction in treatment-naive patients with early stage PD. Moreover, ZNS was recommended as adjunctive therapy in early stage/stable PD according to 2018 guidelines .
Get Enough Zinc But Not Too Much
Zinc is an essential mineral for immunity. It also has protective effects on your heart, brain, eyes, hormones, and more. Although you can get zinc from food, many people, including plant-based eaters, may want to consider soaking, sprouting, and/or fermenting grains and legumes to reduce phytate content and increase zinc absorption. And some may also want to consider a bit of supplementation to protect against the risk of zinc deficiency.
Tell us in the comments:
- Do you use a zinc supplement?
- What zinc-rich foods do you enjoy? Which can you add to your diet?
- Have you ever used a zinc product to help reduce the duration and severity of the common cold?
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