What Is Aggressive Parkinsons Disease
As written above, Parkinsons dementia aggression is that form of Parkinsons which makes the patient exhibit aggressive behavior. They vent out their aggression either verbally or physically, in the various forms that have been written above. Besides verbal and physical outbursts, PD Dementia patients are also prone to hallucinating caused by the medication administered. Hallucinations in PD Dementia patients primarily occur because of the effects of dopaminergic agents for motor symptoms.
Loss of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area is one of the likeliest of all neuropathological causes as changes in serotonin and norepinephrine systems are not. For the uninitiated, the ventral tegmental area is the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic projection. Plenty of studies have gone into analyzing the cause behind the aggression in PD Dementia patients. Depression in PD Dementia patients has been identified due to changes in the medial frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate. Akinetic-rigid variants have been found in patients showing signs of major depression.
Living With Parkinson Disease
These measures can help you live well with Parkinson disease:
- An exercise routine can help keep muscles flexible and mobile. Exercise also releases natural brain chemicals that can improve emotional well-being.
- High protein meals can benefit your brain chemistry
- Physical, occupational, and speech therapy can help your ability to care for yourself and communicate with others
- If you or your family has questions about Parkinson disease, want information about treatment, or need to find support, you can contact the American Parkinson Disease Association.
How Not To Be Afraid Of Parkinsons Disease
If you have Parkinson’s disease, you’re bound to be afraid at times, particularly as your symptoms progress. However, the secret to living well with Parkinson’s disease is not letting the fear override your determination to live a fulfilling life. As with many negative emotions, the best antidote to fear is connection so don’t try to go through this alone.
Parkinson’s disease signs and symptoms can be incredibly isolating, so making connections is vital if you want to live a good life with the condition. Reach out to your friends and family, and don’t be afraid to ask for help. Join online services such as Parkinsons Social Network or find a Parkinsons disease support group in your local area. If you’re struggling with the emotional impact of Parkinson’s disease, it would be wise to speak to a therapist who specializes in long-term illness. Alternatively, you can talk to a nurse or therapist at the National Parkinsons Foundation Helpline by calling 1-800-4PD-INFO .
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Is The Dementia Caused By Parkinsons Or Something Else
Indications that dementia may be caused by something other than Parkinsons disease include agitation, delusions , and language difficulties. If the onset of cognitive symptoms is sudden, theyre more likely due to something other than Parkinsons diseaseeven reversible causes such as infection, a vitamin B12 deficiency, or an underactive thyroid gland.
Depression can mimic dementia by causing similar symptoms such as apathy, memory problems, and concentration difficulties. Since depression is very common in Parkinsons patients, its important to recognize the signs and symptoms of depression in older adults.
Parkinsons disease dementia vs. other dementias
Other types of dementia that can be commonly mistaken for Parkinsons disease dementia include:
Lewy Body Dementia is characterized by fluctuations in alertness and attention, recurrent visual hallucinations, and Parkinsonian motor symptoms like rigidity and the loss of spontaneous movement. In this disorder, cognitive problems such as hallucinations tend to occur much earlier in the course of the disease and often precede difficulties with walking and motor control.
Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease are both common in the elderly, especially in those over 85. Patients with Parkinsons who develop dementia may even develop Alzheimers dementia as well. Therefore, its important to be aware of the signs of Alzheimers Disease and how its treated.
What’s The Difference Between Memory Loss And Parkinson’s Dementia
Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s disease can both affect a person’s memory, but not in the same way.
Generally speaking, Parkinson’s dementia is not associated with the sort of memory loss that comes with Alzheimer’s, the most common form of dementia. Put differently: It doesn’t typically impact a person’s ability to absorb and store new memories or information the way Alzheimer’s does.
“You can learn , but it’s difficult to retrieve the information that you have in your brain,”Irene Litvan, MD, director of the Movement Disorder Center at the University of California, San Diego, tells Health. “You may not know where the cassette is, but if somebody asks you, ‘Where were you when you lost it?’ You can say, ‘Oh, I was there.'”
But that’s not to say Parkinson’s disease dementia doesn’t affect memory at all. On the contrary, some people with Parkinson’s dementia do indeed experience short- and long-term memory loss. They might also forget how to perform simple tasks, like how to run the dishwasher. And since Parkinson’s can affect people in different ways, there’s no way to tell whether someone with the disease will experience memory loss related to dementia.
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Coping With Dietary Problems
Many people with Parkinsons experience various eating and dietary problems, such as constipation, chewing and swallowing difficulties, and upset stomach. The following tips can help you minimize the symptoms.
If you suffer from constipation Drink lots of water and eat fiber-rich foods, including beans, brown rice, whole grains, and fruit.
If you have trouble chewing or swallowing food Cut foods into smaller portions to avoid choking and to encourage digestion, and remain upright for 30 minutes after eating.
If youre struggling with fatigueLimit the amount of sugar youre eating. Also avoid alcohol and caffeine, especially before bed, as they can reduce the quality of your sleep.
If you take levodopa Dont eat meat or other protein-rich foods for at least 30-60 minutes after taking levodopa, as protein blocks your bodys ability to absorb the medication.
If your medication gives you an upset stomach Take your medication with a full glass of water and a small non-protein based snack, such as a piece of toast or fruit.
Some Parkinsons disease medications need to be taken promptly at specified times before or after eating, so it can also help to establish a regular routine for meal and medication times.
How To Cope With The Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease
The only predictable thing about this disease is that it is unpredictable. Richard, diagnosed at 36
Tremors are the first sign noted in about half of all people with Parkinsons disease. But maybe, like 15 percent of people with the illness, you have never experienced this symptom. That is because Parkinsons disease affects everyone somewhat differently.
As you will discover, your symptoms will continue to change, often from day to day, and throughout the course of your life. But even though there is no cure for Parkinsons, the sooner you can take steps to manage symptoms when they arise, the better chance you will have at maintaining a good quality of life.That is why the first step in coping with the changes that accompany a Parkinsons diagnosis is to simply increase awareness, to notice new symptoms as well as how your body responds to certain activities, stresses and therapies. A helpful way to do this is by logging your symptom patterns in a daily journal. It is just a matter of jotting down small changes you notice in your physical and emotional health each day. That way you can discuss these issues promptly with your doctor and receive treatment.
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What Is Parkinsons Disease Dementia
Parkinsons disease dementia is a brain disorder that occurs in somebut not allpeople living with Parkinsons disease. The brain cell damage caused by the disease can lead to a loss of memory and other cognitive functions such as problem solving and speed of thinking. These changes in thinking and behavior can impact your daily living, independence, and relationships.
In those who do develop Parkinsons disease dementia, there is at least one yearand usually 10 to 15 yearsbetween the Parkinsons diagnosis and the onset of dementia. According to estimates by the Alzheimers Association, 50% or more of people with Parkinsons disease eventually experience dementia, although there are a number of risk factors that impact the likelihood of developing symptoms:
- Parkinsons patients who experience hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and more severe motor control problems are at higher risk for dementia.
- Dementia is more common in people who are older at onset of Parkinsons.
- Dementia is a bigger risk factor in non-tremor predominant Parkinsons.
- Overwhelming stress, cardiovascular disease, and adverse reactions to the Parkinsons disease drug levodopa can also indicate an increased risk for developing dementia.
- Dementia is relatively rare in people who develop Parkinsons before age 50, no matter how long they have had the disease.
This Is A Sign Someone May Have Dementia
So if you’re just forgetful, you may forget you have an appointment. With someone who may have dementia, “they do not only forget that they have an appointmentI mean that they don’t know when the appointment is, but they forget they even have an appointment and they cannot recall anything: You tell them that, ‘Uh, mom, you left her key in the car’ and she forgot that you even told her that she left her key. The other thing also about dementia is that you don’t know that you have memory loss, you keep on denying it. ‘I don’t have memory loss. I’m okay.’ So those are the things that maybe a key or a that’s a clue that you’re dealing with someone who’s demented, rather than someone who’s just forgetful.” Read on for the full list of signs you or someone you know if getting dementia. “I would be concerned, or I would be concerned about a family member, who keeps on” doing the following, says Dr. Constantino:
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Behaviour And Personality Changes
Many people with frontotemporal dementia develop a number of unusual behaviours they’re not aware of.
These can include:
- losing interest in people and things
- losing drive and motivation
- inability to empathise with others, seeming cold and selfish
- repetitive behaviours, such as humming, hand-rubbing and foot-tapping, or routines such as walking exactly the same route repetitively
- a change in food preferences, such as suddenly liking sweet foods, and poor table manners
- compulsive eating, alcohol drinking and/or smoking
- neglecting personal hygiene
As the condition progresses, people with frontotemporal dementia may become socially isolated and withdrawn.
Attention Difficulties In Parkinsons
Attention involves filtering information, and people with PD who experience attention difficulties have trouble maintaining focus, especially as the complexity of a situation increases. Attention difficulties can affect both intellectual pursuits and everyday activities, such as walking and holding a conversation at the same time.1,3
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Surgery And Deep Brain Stimulation
Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for Parkinsonâs disease that uses an implantable pacemaker-like device to deliver electrical pulses to parts of the brain involved in movement. The DBS system consists of leads precisely inserted into a specific brain target, the neurostimulator implanted in the chest, and extension wires that connect the leads to the neurostimulator. Though implantation of the system requires a neurosurgical procedure, the treatment itself consists of long-term electrical stimulation. Advantages of DBS include its ability to reduce the high doses of medications , its adjustability , and its reversibility DBS was approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for PD in 2002 and according to Medtronic , more than 80,000 patients have undergone DBS surgery worldwide.
Typical candidates are those who have motor fluctuations or periods of âoffâ time with troublesome symptoms alternating with periods of âonâ time with good symptom control, and also with possible periods of excessive movement .
Not all patients with Parkinsonâs disease are good candidates for treatment with DBS. Approximately 10â20% of patients considered for possible treatment with DBS include those:
Enjoy A Healthy Sex Life:
We have no particular reason to say that sexual ability goes down with Parkinsons disease, says Rosenthal. There are certainly challenges, but rest assured that a satisfying sex life is not something you have to put behind you after a diagnosis. Treatments for erectile dysfunction can work for Parkinsons patients, just as they do for non-Parkinsons patients. Problems that crop up run the gamut: Men may experience sexual problems, like erectile dysfunction, and men and women may have problems with decreased libido. Physical symptoms of the disease, such as stiffness and tremor, may make moving around in bed more challenging. But you can help some of these problems enormously through good self-care. For example, getting enough sleep and exercise can boost sex drive.
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Mild Memory And Thinking Problems
Mild memory and thinking problems can be a normal part of getting older. But sometimes, these symptoms are caused by Parkinsons.
This is when you have symptoms such as forgetfulness, problems concentrating and difficulty making decisions, but you can still manage your day-to-day life.
Mild memory and thinking problems are common in Parkinsons and can happen at any stage of the condition, but not everyone with Parkinson’s has these symptoms.
If you do experience these symptoms, your doctor may describe it as mild cognitive impairment .
Its normal to worry if youre experiencing memory and thinking problems, but it doesnt necessarily mean you have dementia, or that you will develop it in the future.
Dementia in Parkinsons is diagnosed when thinking and memory problems are steadily getting worse over time and affect everyday life and daily tasks such as cooking, cleaning and dressing.
How Are Cognitive Problems Treated
Much remains to be learned about the basic biology that underlies cognitive changes in PD. Researchers work towards the development of diagnostic tests to identify people who seem to be at greatest risk for cognitive changes and to differentiate cognitive problems in people with PD from those that occur in another disorder related but different known as dementia with Lewy bodies.
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Can Parkinsons Dementia Be Reversed
No specific cure has been identified for Parkinsons Disease Dementia. Rather, treatments have been aimed at reducing the symptoms of dementia and helping the patient maintain a high quality of life. Doctors treating patients of PD Dementia generally prescribe medications such as:
- Cholinesterase inhibitors
- Clonazepam and L-dopa
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are known to reduce depression symptoms. The ones widely prescribed by doctors include:
- Zoloft and
Cholinesterase inhibitors help reduce the effects of cognitive decline in people with dementia whereas Clonazepam helps enhance sleep quality. L-dopa helps reduce movement issues caused by PD but runs the risk of making confusion and dementia symptoms worse.
Doctors treating PD Dementia patients may also prescribe antipsychotic drugs but generally do so with caution, the reason being these reduce psychotic episodes but increase Parkinsons symptoms. The use of these drugs may also cause increased confusion and change in consciousness. For the record, Pimavanserin and Nuplazid have been identified as effective antipsychotic drugs.
How Can Parkinsons Affect My Driving
Driving is a complex task. It requires physical strength, mobility, good reflexes and reaction time, depth perception, good eyesight and hearing and the ability to multi-task and keep track of many visual and spatial inputs at once.
Some of the symptoms of Parkinsons can make executing all of those tasks a challenge. A few symptoms that are the most troublesome when it comes to driving include:
- Tremor in legs, arms and hands
- Compromised balance
- Freezing that can make it difficult to get moving again once youve been still
- Slower reaction time and diminished reflexes
- Side effects from taking medications such as sleepiness, blurred vision and confusion
- Mild to severe cognitive impairment
Many of the medications you may be taking can dramatically mitigate your symptoms however, its important to remain vigilant when considering how safe youre able to be on the road.
If youre still driving, here are a few actions you can take to optimize your safety and the safety of others:
- Reduce distractions such as talking, eating, listening to the radio or anything else that requires concentration
- Avoid night driving if your vision is worse in the dark
- Avoid driving during off times when your medication isnt as effective
- Use a GPS system and plan ahead of time if youll be driving in unfamiliar areas
- Avoid driving when youre tired
If you get to a point when youre starting to wonder if you should still be driving, there are several things you can do.
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What Do These Symptoms Look Like
You might have problems with activities such as planning, multitasking and moving quickly from one activity to another, or doing tasks in a particular order.
This may mean you feel less efficient or less organised than you used to be, or you may get confused, particularly if youre feeling stressed.
Problems with attention and concentration can also make everyday activities more difficult, such as reading a newspaper article from start to finish.
You might experience slowed thinking, so it could take you longer to make decisions or respond to questions.
If youve had surgery for Parkinsons, such as deep brain stimulation , you may have some specific symptoms, such as problems with talking, concentration and complex thinking. But some people find that the surgery improves their memory.
Researchers are working to understand why mild memory and thinking problems happen in Parkinson’s.
It’s thought that these symptoms are caused by problems in the brain pathways that pass messages from one area of the brain to another.
There may also be other explanations for these symptoms. These include:
Clinical Characteristics Of The Sample
Table Table11 provides demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological data for the entire sample. Twentyfive percent of the sample met criteria for PDMCI. This comprised of four patients who met singledomain criteria and 38 who had impairment in multiple cognitive domains.
As shown in Table Table2,2, there was no difference in age, disease duration, UPDRSIII motor features in the on or off medication state, or level of DASSstress between patients who did and did not meet criteria for PDMCI. However, those with PDMCI were more likely to be men and to have a lower premorbid FSIQ, fewer years of schooling, and marginally higher scores for DASSdepression and DASSanxiety symptoms. Patients with PDMCI scored significantly lower on all tests of neuropsychological functioning.
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