How Is Pseudoparkinsonism Treated
Since pseudoparkinsonism is a drug reaction, the first step in treatment is to identify the medication causing the reaction and stop taking it.
A doctor can help you slowly and safely discontinue the medication. Youll be given a schedule to follow to help your body adjust to no longer taking the medication.
Its important to go slowly and to tell your doctor if any new symptoms develop. Pseudoparkinsonism symptoms typically go away once the medication is out of your system.
Sometimes, the medication causing pseudoparkinsonism is necessary for your overall health and cant be stopped. And pseudoparkinsonism symptoms can linger even after you stop the medication. In either of these situations, you might need additional treatment the doctor can help you develop a treatment plan that works best for you.
A Tremor Doesnt Always Mean Its Parkinsons
Many people think of Parkinsons disease as the tremor disease, so much so, that when a tremor is noticed, the first diagnosis people typically think of is PD. Although about 25% of people with PD do not have tremor, 75% of them do, so tremor is certainly a very visible and characteristic symptom of PD.
However, there are many other medical conditions that can cause a tremor. Today, we will discuss the features of various tremors, other medical conditions that can manifest with tremor, and the clues that distinguish a PD tremor from other types of tremor.
What Is Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is a nervous system disorder where a part of the brain degenerates over time. Tremors, slow speech and movement, and an altered or festinating gate are common symptoms.
I have worked with many patients who had resting tremors and also patients who truly had Parkinsons disease. Resting tremors are when your hands shake without doing anything.
Some people who have resting tremors will be told that they might have Parkinsons disease. Of course, many of them do but some of them dont.
I have seen a strong correlation with over activation of the Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System and tremors.
The Parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous System is the Rest and Digest side of the nervous system. It is what keeps us calm. When you eat a large meal, it is what gets activated and causes you to want to rest.
When the two sides of the Autonomic Nervous System are out of balance, it can create health problems.
The best way that I can explain it is when you have a car accident, a physical altercation or a really bad argument, what tends to happen? Your blood pressure will rise and for about 10-20 minutes or so, your hands shake.
Some people can get stuck in a chronic Sympathetic state where the Sympathetic nervous system overpowers the Parasympathetic.
For some people, this can cause them to have resting tremors or the shakes while others will experience anxiety, depression, night sweats, excessive sweating during the day, poor digestion, hot flashes, etc
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Is The Dementia Caused By Parkinsons Or Something Else
Indications that dementia may be caused by something other than Parkinsons disease include agitation, delusions , and language difficulties. If the onset of cognitive symptoms is sudden, theyre more likely due to something other than Parkinsons diseaseeven reversible causes such as infection, a vitamin B12 deficiency, or an underactive thyroid gland.
Depression can mimic dementia by causing similar symptoms such as apathy, memory problems, and concentration difficulties. Since depression is very common in Parkinsons patients, its important to recognize the signs and symptoms of depression in older adults.
Parkinsons disease dementia vs. other dementias
Other types of dementia that can be commonly mistaken for Parkinsons disease dementia include:
Lewy Body Dementia is characterized by fluctuations in alertness and attention, recurrent visual hallucinations, and Parkinsonian motor symptoms like rigidity and the loss of spontaneous movement. In this disorder, cognitive problems such as hallucinations tend to occur much earlier in the course of the disease and often precede difficulties with walking and motor control.
Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease are both common in the elderly, especially in those over 85. Patients with Parkinsons who develop dementia may even develop Alzheimers dementia as well. Therefore, its important to be aware of the signs of Alzheimers Disease and how its treated.
High Heart Rate And Palpitations
Changing levels of thyroid hormone can also change the way the nervous system works, subsequently affecting the heart. People with hyperthyroidism can experience a rapid heart rate and palpitations. It is not uncommon for the heart rate to rise above 90 beats per minute, even at rest. Medications can slow heart rate in affected individuals.
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Subgroup Analyses Of Associations Between Graves Disease Treatment Modalities And Incident Parkinsons Disease
Subgroup analyses were performed according to age, sex, comorbidities and treatments for Graves disease. Most subgroups of Graves disease patients had similar risks of developing Parkinsons disease, regardless of demographic characteristics or treatment modality . In particular, Graves disease patients who were 4064 years old had increased risks of developing Parkinsons disease, regardless of whether their treatment had involved ATDs , RAIT or surgery . Moreover, subgroup analyses according to cumulative ATD dose and treatment duration revealed relatively consistent increased risks of developing Parkinsons disease, relative to the controls. The one exception was a non-significant difference in the group with the longest ATD treatment duration .
Subgroup analyses of Parkinsons disease risk amongst patients with Graves disease and controls according to treatment modality
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Tackling Neuropathy Fatigue And Gi Issues In Pd
While its known as a movement disorder, people who live with Parkinsons disease experience many non-movement, or non-motor, symptoms too though not all of them are related to the disease. Peripheral neuropathy, or nervous system damage, fatigue and GI issues are common PD challenges that can also stem from other causes. Working with your doctor to identify the source of your symptoms is key to effective treatment.
This article is based on the Parkinsons Foundation Expert Briefing series Symptom Management: Is it PD, Medication or Aging? Exploring Non-motor Symptoms: Neuropathy, Fatigue, GI Issues presented by Ellen Walter, Nurse Practitioner, Cleveland Clinic, and Steven Swank, Clinical Pharmacist, University of Kansas Medical Center. Both organizations are Parkinsons Foundation Centers of Excellence.
Causes of neuropathy, fatigue and impaired gastrointestinal function during the course of PD can be wide-ranging and include everything from normal aging to medication side effects.
With any health challenge, its recommended to log symptoms. This can help your doctor rule out potential causes. When did symptoms start? Are there any patterns?
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What Doctors Look For When Diagnosing Parkinsons
Certain physical signs and symptoms noticed by the patient or his or her loved ones are usually what prompt a person to see the doctor. These are the symptoms most often noticed by patients or their families:
Shaking or tremor: Called resting tremor, a trembling of a hand or foot that happens when the patient is at rest and typically stops when he or she is active or moving
Bradykinesia: Slowness of movement in the limbs, face, walking or overall body
Rigidity: Stiffness in the arms, legs or trunk
Posture instability: Trouble with balance and possible falls
Once the patient is at the doctors office, the physician:
Takes a medical history and does a physical examination.
Asks about current and past medications. Some medications may cause symptoms that mimic Parkinsons disease.
Performs a neurological examination, testing agility, muscle tone, gait and balance.
Indicators And Modulators Of Da Function
At present, DA can only be measured directly using positron emission tomography , which is rather expensive and invasive as it involves injecting a radioactive substance into the bloodstream . Noninvasive and cheap alternatives to estimate DA function exist, and some can be found in our eyes. The amacrine and interplexiform cells of the retina contain a high concentration of DA , and disorders associated with DA dysfunction have been related to abnormal color discrimination . It has been proposed that deficits in color vision, particularly blue-yellow impairment, indicate a central hypodopaminergic state . This proposition is consistent with the recent finding that color discrimination predicts cognitive control, with better discrimination being associated with more efficient conflict-resolution in an auditory Simon task . Given the relation between color vision and DA level, we argue that color vision can predict the effect of TYR supplementation. Particularly individuals with impaired color vision could benefit from TYR, as they are likely to have less DA than non-impaired peers.
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Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments And Support
Endless energy, unexplained weight lossthe initial symptoms of an overactive thyroid are often seen as good symptoms. Thats why hyperthyroidism is one of the most underdiagnosed endocrine conditions. But if left unchecked, it can lead to serious complications. Were here to empower you with clear answers to all your hyperthyroid questions.
Debbie Chen MD, Brenessa Lindeman MD, and Caroline T. Nguyen MD
What is hyperthyroidism?
Hyperthyroidism is the abnormal function of your thyroid gland, an organ located in the front of your neck that releases hormones to regulate your bodys use of energy. In other words, if you have high thyroid levels, it means that your thyroid gland is overactive and makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs, which causes hyperthyroidism.
The hormones produced by your thyroid gland are thyroxine and triiodothyronine , and they play an important role in the way your entire body functions. For this reason, when there is an imbalance, such as high T4, it can have far-reaching effects on almost every aspect of your health.
Infographic by Lauren Hunter
- body temperature
Hypothyroidism Diagnosis And Treatment
Doctors often diagnose hypothyroidism with blood tests and imaging tests.
A doctor will perform blood tests to measure your TSH and thyroid hormone levels. A high TSH level and low thyroxine level could mean that your thyroid is underactive. These levels could also indicate that your pituitary gland is releasing more TSH to try to stimulate your thyroid gland to make its hormone.
Imaging tests can include ultrasounds or scans using radioactive iodine to test your thyroid function.
The main treatment for hypothyroidism is to take thyroid hormone pills. Its important to get the dosage right because taking too much thyroid hormone can cause symptoms of hyperthyroidism.
People with hypothyroidism who are pregnant may need higher or more frequent doses during pregnancy.
- enlarged thyroid, or goiter
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What Is The Difference Between Hdl And Ldl Cholesterol
LDL cholesterol is short for Low Density Lipoprotein. Most people are aware that HDL cholesterol is considered the good cholesterol and that LDL is the bad cholesterol.
Consider this: LDL cholesterol is considered bad because it has a higher content of fat than HDL cholesterol. Both, HDL and LDL cholesterol are antioxidants though. They help heal and protect tissues.
Even the bad LDL cholesterol helps repair damaged tissues. The problem with LDL cholesterol is that it repairs the damaged tissues with cholesterol that has more fat in it than what is considered healthy.
However, it is still repairing tissue. This is another example of the body healing itself. Ideally, LDL cholesterol levels will be low and HDL cholesterol levels will be high so that if a part of your body gets inflamed, it will repair with the good HDL cholesterol.
This is especially important for someone with high levels of homocysteine like Janice. Homocysteine damages the inner lining of the arteries . When this damage occurs, LDL will create foam cells or fibrous plaques in the arteries.
This creation of plaques is what can lead to arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis and that is exactly how high levels of homocysteine is considered a significant risk factor for a stroke or heart attack.
Im especially proud of Janice. I call her my rock star. She took ownership of her health and through my guidance, got herself healthy and has stayed that way.
Health is Happiness,
Dr. Keith Currie
Results Of Large Fiber Neuropathy Assessment
NCS/EMG was performed in 39 patients . 12 out of the 26 PD and 4 out of the 13 from the parkinsonism group had abnormal NCS/EMG results. As expected, patients with abnormalities suggestive of peripheral neuropathy on the screening neurological exam were more likely to have abnormal EMG . Neuropathy prevalence was similar in the groups with PD and parkinsonism , whether PN was assessed by SWT, NCS/EMG or clinically .
Part a shows mean peroneal compound motor action potential amplitudes and mean sural sensory nerve action potential amplitudes in patients with Parkinsons disease . PD all patients refers to mean values from the whole group , PD no PN refers to mean values from PD patients without large fiber neuropathy, PD SFN refers to patients with PD and small fiber neuropathy and PD Neuropathy to mean values in patients with PD and large-fiber neuropathy. Part b shows mean values of peroneal motor and sural sensory conduction velocities in the same groups
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Identification Of New Parkinsons Disease Cases
The NHIS includes a registration programme for rare intractable diseases , which include Parkinsons disease. This programme was launched in 2006 and offers a copayment rate reduction of up to 10% . The patient is eligible for this RID programme after their physician submits a diagnosis certification. For cases of Parkinsons disease, the certification is generally written by neurologists or primary care physicians who have examined the patient. New Parkinsons disease onset was defined as a claim with the ICD-10 code for Parkinsons disease and with a special RID registration code that indicates Parkinsons disease . This definition has been used in previous Korean epidemiological studies of Parkinsons disease.
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Reviewanxiety: An Ignored Aspect Of Parkinsons Disease Lacking Attention
Anxiety is a neuropsychiatric complication of Parkinsons disease .
Anxiety has been given less attention while treating PD.
Management of anxiety is crucial to improve quality of life of the affected patients.
Use of complementary based medicines could be beneficial.
Alternative approaches will lead to novel therapeutic treatment for PD and various complications associated with it.
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What Causes Thyroid Problems
Several different problems can arise when your thyroid produces too much hormone or not enough .
Your thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below the center of your throat. Its part of an intricate network of glands called the endocrine system. Your endocrine system is responsible for coordinating many of your bodys activities. Your thyroid gland manufactures hormones that regulate your bodys metabolism.
When your thyroid is underproducing or overproducing, it can cause bothersome symptoms such as irritability, fatigue, weight loss, weight gain, and more.
Four common issues associated with the thyroid include Hashimotos thyroiditis, Graves disease, goiter , and thyroid nodules. Keep reading to learn about common thyroid disorders and diseases as well as their symptoms and treatment.
In hyperthyroidism, your thyroid gland is overactive. It produces too much thyroid hormone. This can cause many of your bodys functions to speed up.
Hyperthyroidism affects between 1 and 3 percent of people in the United States and is more common in women.
Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, affecting about 70 percent of people with an overactive thyroid. Nodules on your thyroid a condition called toxic nodular goiter or multinodular goiter can also cause the gland to overproduce its hormones.
Hyperthyroidism can also be caused by:
- thyroid gland inflammation
Signs And Symptoms Of Pdd
Common signs and symptoms of Parkinsons disease dementia include:
- Poor memory and concentration
- Visual hallucinations
If youve noticed some of the above signs and symptoms in yourself or a loved one, its important to get them checked out. But dont jump to conclusions. People with Parkinsons often experience cognitive changes such as anxiety, lack of motivation, and slowed thinking. These symptoms do not automatically mean dementia.
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Parkinson’s Misdiagnosis: Depression Or Anxiety
It is shocking how many times Parkinsons is dismissed as nothing more than anxiety or depression. It is true that physical symptoms can sometimes result from mental conditions. However, reducing PD to a mental condition is usually the result of not enough testing or not taking enough time to talk to a patient.
My husband was diagnosed with anxiety.
My husband was diagnosed with anxiety and low testosterone years before his diagnosis.
Yes… they said it was all in my head!
Treatment Of Thyroid Disease
Fortunately, there are effective treatments available for those with thyroid problems, including medication:
- People with hypothyroidism are often prescribed levothyroxine, which contains a synthetic hormone to mimic the natural hormone thyroxine.
- People with hyperthyroidism often take methimazole or propylthiouracil.
These treatments are not curative, and many people take the medication for life.
If you’re prescribed one of these pills, the British Thyroid Foundation says there is good reason to be optimistic: “Fortunately, in the great majority of cases, psychological symptoms improve as the thyroid disorder is brought under control by treatment.”
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Can High Potassium Cause Nerve Problems
Potassium is a very important electrolyte. You dont want too much and you dont want too little. Nerves conduct electrical signals through pumping sodium ions out of the cells and potassium ions into the cells.
We actually have sodium potassium pumps in every cell in our body but nerves can only work through sodium and potassium exchange. That is why it is critically important to have the correct amount of these electrolytes in your blood.
The adrenal glands and kidneys regulate sodium and potassium levels in the blood. When someone is in a chronic state of inflammation, has chronic blood sugar levels that fluctuate, or immune dysregulation, the adrenal glands can become fatigued and unable to help regulate electrolytes in a healthy way.
High levels of potassium can cause muscle cramps, irritability, nerve problems, heart problems, diarrhea, and spasms.