Tuesday, December 6, 2022

Brain Implant For Parkinson’s Disease

Who May Benefit From Deep Brain Stimulation

How a Brain Implant Gave a Parkinson’s Patient Back His Life | WIRED Health 2017 | WIRED Events

A number of criteria can help identify people who are good candidates for deep brain stimulation. This includes people who:

  • Have been living with Parkinsons disease for at least five years, though the procedure was approved for early symptoms in 2016 and is now being evaluated to see if it offers benefits for people earlier in the disease
  • Have symptoms that are not well controlled on medications
  • Are responding to Parkinsons medications : The procedure should only be done for people who are responding to this treatment, but the medication effects fluctuate during the day and the effectiveness of the medication is getting shorter.
  • Find that the uncontrolled symptoms are lowering their quality of life
  • Are doing relatively well cognitively

At the current time, there is no set age limit for DBS, but the effectiveness may be lower in older people.

What Happens During The Dbs Procedure

Most DBS procedures are performed with the patient awake under local anesthesia, with their head immobilized in a rigid frame, so that the surgical team can monitor patient response to the electrode placement as it occurs. A few centers are now offering image-guided placement, in which the surgery is performed under general anesthesia without the frame. The pulse generator is usually implanted during a second surgery, scheduled about a week after the first.

A New Implantable Closed

  • 2Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy
  • 3Narodowy Instytut Onkologii im. Marii Skodowskiej-Curie, Warsaw, Poland
  • 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
  • 5AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza, Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy
  • 6Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy
  • 7Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, Milan, Italy
  • 8Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands
  • 9Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
  • 10Department of Health Sciences, Aldo Ravelli Research Center for Neurotechnology and Experimental Neurotherapeutics, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
  • 11Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy

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How Effective Is It

DBS does not cure or slow the progression of Parkinsons disease. However, many people report that it helps them control the motor symptoms of the condition.

The Parkinsons Foundation says that DBS improves symptoms in many people. However, it is different for everyone.

Some people experience a mild improvement, while others experience a significant improvement. Some people may be able to stop taking their Parkinsons disease medication, while others will not.

DBS is not the right treatment choice for everyone. Doctors tend to only recommend it in advanced Parkinsons disease and when more standard medications are not working as well as they should.

According to the Parkinsons Foundation, people who are best suited to DBS:

  • have had Parkinsons disease symptoms for at least 5 years
  • experience on/off fluctuations in symptoms, even though they are taking medications
  • have dyskinesia

There are three components of the DBS system:

  • The lead: This is also called an electrode. It is a thin, insulated wire.
  • The extension: This is another insulated wire that connects the lead to the neurostimulator.
  • The neurostimulator, or IPG: This is essentially the battery pack.

According to Johns Hopkins, during the procedure, a surgeon will implant the three pieces of the DBS system into the persons body.

What Is The Prognosis

Brain Implants For Parkinson

Although most patients still need to take medication after undergoing DBS, many patients experience considerable reduction of their PD symptoms and are able to greatly reduce their medications. The amount of reduction varies from patient to patient but can be considerably reduced in most patients. The reduction in dose of medication leads to a significant improvement in side effects such as dyskinesias . In some cases, the stimulation itself can suppress dyskinesias without a reduction in medication.

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Placement Of The Neurostimulator

This procedure takes place under general anesthesia so that the person is asleep. The surgical team inserts the neurostimulator under the outer layers of skin, usually just under the collarbone, but sometimes in the chest or abdomen. The extension wire from the lead is attached to the neurostimulator.

Testing Before Deep Brain Stimulation

For patients with Parkinsons disease, the doctor must confirm that the PD is levodopa-responsive and determine which symptoms are most likely to respond to DBS and discuss these with the patient.

To accomplish these two objectives, the movement disorders neurologist will examine the patient in the absence of his or her PD medications, then again after having taken them. Seeing the effect of PD medications on the movement and non-motor symptoms helps the physician and patient identify good target symptoms for DBS.

A cognitive assessment can help determine a persons ability to participate in the procedure, which involves providing feedback to the doctor during surgery and throughout the neurostimulator adjustment process. This assessment also informs the team of the risk of having worsened confusion or cognitive problems following the procedure.

Some hospitals also perform an occupational therapy review or speech, language and swallowing assessment. A psychiatrist may examine the person to determine if a condition such as depression or anxiety requires treatment before the DBS procedure.

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What Are The Risks

No surgery is without risks. General complications of any surgery include bleeding, infection, blood clots, and reactions to anesthesia. Complications related to placement of the DBS lead include seizures, infection, and a 1% chance of bleeding in the brain.

Reasons for which you might need additional surgery include breakage of the extension wire in the neck parts may wear through the skin and removal of the device due to infection or mechanical failure. Additionally, the battery will need to be replaced every 2 to 5 years. Some DBS systems have a rechargeable battery that may last up to 9 years.

DBS may also cause worsening of some symptoms such as speech and balance impairments. In some patients with Parkinson’s, DBS may cause or worsen depression. If you develop any side effects from a stimulation adjustment, you need to return to the office for further programming.

What Happens After Surgery

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After surgery, you may take your regular dose of Parkinson’s medication immediately. You are kept overnight for monitoring and observation. Most patients are discharged home the next day.

During the recovery time after implanting the electrodes, you may feel better than normal. Brain swelling around the electrode tip causes a lesion effect that lasts a couple days to weeks. This temporary effect is a good predictor of your outcome once the stimulator is implanted and programmed.

About a week later, you will return to the hospital for outpatient surgery to implant the stimulator in the chest/abdomen. This surgery is performed under general anesthesia and takes about an hour. Patients go home the same day.

Step 7: implant the stimulator You will be taken to the OR and put to sleep with general anesthesia. A portion of the scalp incision is reopened to access the leads. A small incision is made near the collarbone and the neurostimulator is implanted under the skin. The lead is attached to an extension wire that is passed under the skin of the scalp, down the neck, to the stimulator/battery in the chest or abdomen. The device will be visible as a small bulge under the skin, but it is usually not seen under clothes.

You should avoid arm movements over your shoulder and excessive stretching of your neck while the incisions heal. Pain at the incision sites can be managed with medication.

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Who Is A Candidate For Deep Brain Stimulation

DBS is more than just a surgical procedure. It involves a series of evaluations, procedures, and consultations before and after the actual operation, so people interested in being treated with DBS should be prepared to commit time to the process.

For example, those who do not live close to a medical center that offers DBS surgery may need to spend significant time traveling back and forth to appointments.

The procedure, as well as the pre-operative evaluation and post-operative follow-up, can be expensive depending on the persons insurance coverage. DBS surgery is an FDA-approved treatment for Parkinsons disease, and Medicare and most private insurers cover the procedure, but the extent of coverage will depend on each persons individual policy.

Prospective patients should have realistic expectations about DBS results. Although DBS can improve movement symptoms of Parkinsons disease and greatly improve quality of life in properly selected patients, it is not likely to return anyone to perfect health.

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Can I Use Electrical Devices

While you should be able to use most electronic devices, you should be aware that:

  • Some devices, such as theft detectors and screening devices, like those found in airports, department stores, and public libraries, can cause your neurotransmitter to switch on or off. Usually, this only causes an uncomfortable sensation. However, your symptoms could get worse suddenly. Always carry the identification card given to you. With this, you may request assistance to bypass those devices.
  • You will be able to use home appliances, computers, and cell phones. They do not usually interfere with your implanted stimulator.
  • You will be provided with a magnet to activate and deactivate your stimulator. This magnet may damage televisions, credit cards, and computer discs. Always keep it at least 1 foot away from these items.

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What Is Brain Surgery For Parkinsons Disease

Brain surgery for Parkinsons disease is done to balance the activity in certain areas of the brain that control physical movement. The surgery can involve placement of a stimulator device or creation of a surgical lesion in the brain.

The areas of the brain that are affected by Parkinsons disease are very small, and they are located deep within the brain. These procedures are done with precision and often with imaging guidance so your surgeon can see the structure of your brain with real-time pictures during the surgery.

Am I A Good Candidate For Dbs

Brain Implants For Parkinson

Before considering DBS, it is very important to be evaluated by a movement disorder specialist . Often, medication adjustments and other treatment changes can offer significant benefits and may delay the need for surgery.

DBS is not for everyone. It is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for those with PD of at least four years duration. Those with the best outcomes are those whose symptoms respond strongly to levodopa. In addition, the best surgical candidates are those who are younger , without dementia, and have no other major medical conditions.

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Research To Improve Deep Brain Stimulation

Researchers are working to improve upon existing DBS devices and methods to help treat more symptoms and more people. Some researchers are putting electrodes in a different area of the brain the pedunculopontine nucleus to treat walking and balance problems that don’t typically improve with present-day DBS. Others are developing a “smart” DBS device that can record a person’s unique brain signals and deliver electrical stimulation only when needed, such as when symptoms return, rather than continuously, as the current systems do. This could help reduce side effects such as numbness and weakness and lengthen the battery life of the neurostimulator, which would result in a longer time between battery replacement procedures.

Scientists also are planning to test deep brain stimulation in the first years after a Parkinson’s diagnosis to see if the therapy may slow or stop disease progression. Testing in Parkinson’s models showed the therapy may help protect brain cells, and a small human trial showed motor symptoms improved after early-stage DBS.

How You Can Control Parkinsons Disease Symptoms With Deep Brain Stimulation

There is no cure for Parkinsons disease, but neurological specialists can help patients control the tremors and other symptoms that patients experience through a procedure called deep brain stimulation .

Parkinsons disease is a brain disorder that results in shaking and tremors, and difficulty with walking, movement and overall coordination. The disorder is associated with damage to a part of the brain that involves movement.

In many cases of Parkinsons, symptoms can be managed and virtually eliminated through DBS.

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Dbs Surgery For Parkinsons Disease

Deep brain stimulation is a surgical procedure used to treat a variety of disabling neurological symptomsmost commonly the debilitating symptoms of Parkinsons disease , such as tremor, rigidity, stiffness, slowed movement, and walking problems. The procedure is also used to treat essential tremor, a common neurological movement disorder. At present, the procedure is used only for patients whose symptoms cannot be adequately controlled with medications.

Deep brain stimulation, or DBS, uses tiny electrodes surgically implanted into part of the brain. The electrodes are connected by a wire under the skin to a small electrical device called a pulse generator that is implanted in the chest beneath the collarbone. The pulse generator and electrodes painlessly stimulate the brain in a way that helps to stop many of the symptoms of PD. DBS is stereotactic surgery, meaning it uses a 3D coordinate mapping system to locate tiny areas in our bodies in order to perform surgery accurately.

DBS usually reduces the need for levodopa and related drugs, which in turn decreases dyskinesias. It also helps to relieve on-off fluctuation of symptoms. People who initially responded well to treatment with levodopa tend to respond well to DBS. While the benefits of DBS can be substantial, it usually does not help with speech problems, “freezing,” posture, balance, anxiety, depression, or dementia.

The patient is then taken to the operating room:

There Are A Few Different Types

Deep Brain Stimulation controls tremors from Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinsons disease surgery includes surgical procedures that involve device implantation in the brain or ablation to reduce some effects of the disease. For some people, this type of surgery can help improve symptoms and reduce the dose of medication needed, which may decrease medication side effects.

You would need to prepare for your operation by having preoperative brain imaging and other tests, and you can expect to recover and experience an improvement of your symptoms within a few weeks.

This surgery does not prevent Parkinsons disease from progressing, so you might experience worsening effects of the condition and need higher medication doses down the road. This article will cover the most common types of brain surgery for Parkinson’s disease, what to expect, and recovery.

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What Is Deep Brain Stimulation For Parkinsons Disease

Deep brain stimulation is a surgical procedure used to treat a variety of disabling neurological symptomsmost commonly the debilitating symptoms of Parkinsons disease , such as tremor, rigidity, stiffness, slowed movement, and walking problems. The procedure is also used to treat essential tremor, a common neurological movement disorder. At present, the procedure is used only for patients whose symptoms cannot be adequately controlled with medications.

DBS uses a surgically implanted, battery-operated medical device called a neurostimulatorsimilar to a heart pacemaker and approximately the size of a stopwatchto deliver electrical stimulation to targeted areas in the brain that control movement, blocking the abnormal nerve signals that cause tremor and PD symptoms.Before the procedure, a neurosurgeon uses magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scanning to identify and locate the exact target within the brain where electrical nerve signals generate the PD symptoms.

Some surgeons may use microelectrode recordingwhich involves a small wire that monitors the activity of nerve cells in the target areato more specifically identify the precise brain target that will be stimulated. Generally, these targets are the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus.The DBS system consists of three components: the lead, the extension, and the neurostimulator.

Brain Implant Better Than Meds For Parkinson’s Disease

  • Story Highlights
  • Brain implant gave Parkinson’s patients more tremor-free hours daily than meds
  • Deep brain stimulation delivers electrical impulses to movement control center
  • Surgery is complicated, carries risks including infection, depression
  • Treatment, introduced in 1990s, becoming more widely accepted
  • Next Article in Health »

People with Parkinson’s disease who have a pacemaker-like device implanted in the brain spend an extra four-plus hours a day free of tremors and involuntary movements than they do on medication, according to the largest study of the treatment, which is known as deep brain stimulation.

In deep brain stimulation, electrodes deliver impulses to the substantia nigra, which coordinates movement.

However, deep brain stimulation also has a correspondingly greater risk of problems, such as infection, because of the complicated surgery, according to the study published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

“It definitely is brain surgery and that should give anyone pause,” says David Charles, M.D., of Vanderbilt University, in Nashville, Tennessee, who was not involved in the new study. Nevertheless, he adds, most of the problems seen in the study were related to the surgery itself, and many had resolved themselves within six months.

When Parkinson’s patients start a new drug, Weaver notes, they will see at best an hour or two more of “on” time a day.

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An Important First Step

Also, Dr. Starr explains, Other adaptive deep brain stimulation designs record brain activity from an area adjacent to where the stimulation occurs, in the basal ganglia, which is susceptible to interference from stimulation current.

Instead, he goes on, our device receives feedback from the motor cortex, far from the stimulation source, providing a more reliable signal.

The researchers are excited about the avenues that this feasibility study is opening up in terms of improving Parkinsons therapy, and they are already planning larger trials in order to test the devices long-term effectiveness.

The novel approach taken in this small-scale feasibility study may be an important first step in developing a more refined or personalized way for doctors to reduce the problems patients with Parkinsons disease face every day.

Nick B. Langhals, program director at NINDS

You can watch Dr. Starrs explanation about the innovative brain stimulation devices in the video below.

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