Parkinson Disease Incidence In Urban Counties With Metal
The annual age-, race-, and sex-standardized Parkinson disease incidence in urban counties with high reported copper, manganese, or lead release was greater than in urban counties with no or low reported release of all 3 study metals . The risk of Parkinson disease was elevated in counties with high reported manganese release = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.07). Counties with high reported copper or lead release did not show an elevation in Parkinson disease risk. Hierarchical regression analysis produced odds ratios that were in the same general direction of the primary analysis but with wide confidence intervals that spanned unity.
Age-, Race-, and Sex-standardized Annual Incidence of Nonmobile Parkinson Disease Cases Living in Urban Counties With No Versus High Reported Copper, Manganese, and Lead Metal Release, US Medicare Beneficiaries, 2003
Other Research Has Found Parkinsons Associated With Heavy Metals
Other research has found this association between iron and copper and Parkinsons disease. A 2010 study from Slovakia tested the relationship between iron and copper and Parkinsons and found that when iron and copper become oxidized they form Fenton reaction hydroxyl radicals, and this not only increases lipid peroxidation but also oxidizes DNA within the brain. They also produce advanced glycation end products, carbonyls, and malondiaildehyde .
These also increase tyrosine derivative levels including dityrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine among brain cells. Increased levels of dityrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine have been found among many Parkinsons cases. These are associated with increased lewy bodies and alpha-synuclein proteins.
At the foundation of these processes is oxidative stress. This is when toxins such as heavy metals become radicalized. In this state they can damage blood vessels and cells they come into contact with.
Researchers at Rutgers University also found this oxidative stress association related to increased copper:
alpha-synuclein is an amyloidogenic intrinsically disordered protein implicated in Parkinsons disease, for which copper-mediated pathways of neurodegeneration have been suggested.
Their study, using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, went on to confirm that copper creates an interactivity with the damage of alpha-synuclein proteins which are abundant within brain cells and nerve cells.
Relationship Between Blood Levels Of Heavy Metals And Parkinsons Disease In China
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The Function Of The Metals In Regulating Epigenetics During Parkinsons Disease
- 1Department of Biological Sciences, Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China
- 2Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
- 3Department of Biological Sciences, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, China
Parkinsons means Parkinsons disease, a chronic degenerative disease of central nervous system. The main area which is affected by this disease is motor system. Since it firstly founded by James Parkinson in his 1817 publication, nowadays, people still have lots of questions about this disease. This review mainly summarizes the epigenetics of Parkinsons. DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms of Parkinsons. During the development of disease, global hypomethylation, and hypermethylation happen in different areas of patients. Another epigenetic mechanism is histone modification. People believe that some metals can induce Parkinsons disease by modulating epigenetic mechanisms. This review summarizes the relationships between different metals and Parkinsons disease. However, the specific roles of most metals in epigenetics are still unknown, which need further research.
What Is Heavy Metal Poisoning
Heavy metals are are elements that are naturally found in the earth. Theyre used in many modern-day applications, such as agriculture, medicine, and industry.
Your body even naturally contains some. Zinc, iron, and copper, for example, are necessary for regular body function, as long as they arent present in toxic amounts.
Heavy metal poisoning occurs when your bodys soft tissues absorb too much of a particular metal.
The most common metals that the human body can absorb in toxic amounts are:
You might be exposed to high concentrations of these metals from food, air or water pollution, as well as medicine, food containers with improper coating, industrial exposure, or lead-based paint.
In the United States, heavy metal poisoning is very rare. It only occurs when youve been exposed to a significant amount of heavy metal, usually over a long period of time. But the popularity of over-the-counter products that claim to detoxify your body of heavy metals can make it seem more common than it is.
Read on to learn more heavy metal poisoning and whether those OTC detox kits offer any benefits.
The symptoms of heavy metal poisoning vary, depending on the type of metal involved.
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Researcher Uses Funding To Study Heavy Metal Tolerance
Why is it that some people develop cancer, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease after chronic exposure to high amounts of heavy metals, but other people tolerate exposure without developing these diseases?
Using the worm model system C. elegans and a grant of almost $750,000 from the National Science Foundation funded by the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act , Olena Vatamaniuk, assistant professor in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, hopes to answer that question.
“We are trying to understand how heavy metals and byproducts of heavy metal toxicity are detoxified,” said Vatamaniuk. Almost all species, including humans and C. elegans, have several genes that allow for the detoxification of heavy metals. Vatamaniuk focuses on one gene in particular, HMT-1 . Worms that lack HMT-1 cannot survive when exposed to cadmium, but worms that have the gene do survive.
“The question is how this protein detoxifies during heavy metal exposure,” she said.
Heavy metals themselves are not directly toxic, but they can damage DNA, proteins and other cellular molecules. Vatamaniuk’s previous work has shown that HMT-1 functions by pumping some unknown molecules into cellular compartments where they are sequestered. The new funding will help her elucidate more specifically how HMT-1 prevents damage from heavy metals by identifying which substances are targeted for sequestration.
To date, Cornell has received 109 ARRA awards totaling $93 million.
Exposure To Chromium And Nickel Induced Neuronal Death In Ipsc
Since both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases,, a highly relevant model for testing the neurotoxic effects of heavy metals is the use of iPSC-differentiated neurons carrying PSP-associated mutations. Therefore, we used an iPSC line generated from an individual carrying a heterozygous mutation in the MAPT gene , which has been implicated in PSP and other tauopathies,,. Since one of the limitations of using of patient-derived iPSCs is the lack of genetically paired controls, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology, to generate an isogenic control iPSC line . We validated the successful genetic correction of the mutation by Sanger sequencing , and confirmed the pluripotency status of both R406W tau mutant and isogenic control iPSC lines by qPCR measuring the expression LIN28A, NANOG, PODXL, POU5F1, SOX2 genes . Furthermore, using G-band karyotyping we confirmed that no chromosomal aberrations were introduced during the iPSC generation and the gene editing process .
Together, these results demonstrate that Cr and Ni exposure induces intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptosis and that the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells affects the neurotoxicity induced by Cr and Ni.
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Metal Exposure And Parkinson’s Symptoms: Link Explored
- Iowa State University
- A new study describes the biological process that causes Parkinson’s-like symptoms to develop following exposure to the metal manganese. The new research could lead to earlier detection of Parkinson’s disease and better outcomes for patients.
A new study from Iowa State University biomedical researchers illuminates the biological processes by which exposure to some metals can contribute to the onset of Parkinson’s-like symptoms.
The study, published today in the peer-reviewed journal Science Signaling, focuses on the metal manganese, which has a range of industrial uses as an alloy. Anumantha Kanthasamy, a Clarence Hartley Covault Distinguished Professor in veterinary medicine and the Eugene and Linda Lloyd Endowed Chair of Neurotoxicology, said the research details how manganese exposure can lead to misfolded proteins in the brain, which cause a neurological disease. Kanthasamy said the findings could lead to earlier detection of the disease and better outcomes for patients.
Kanthasamy said small amounts of manganese are necessary for the proper functioning of the human body, but too much exposure has been linked with neurological symptoms much like those experienced by patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Links between manganese and neurological disorders have been noted since the 1950s, Kanthasamy said, because of the tendency of manganese to accumulate in brain tissues.
Neuronal Regulation Of Feeding
Satiety and hunger play important roles and together constitute the cornerstone for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Behavior reminiscent of satiety and hunger has also been identified in C. elegans. Under certain conditions, the nematode stops feeding and moving, a behavior termed quiescence. Because quiescence is dependent on food quality, nutritional signals from the intestine, and prior feeding history, quiescence is thought to indicate a state of satiety regulated by cyclic guanosine monophosphate and transforming growth factor , pathways whose functions in appetite control and metabolism have not yet been elucidated in mammals. However, TGF- has also been shown to be elevated in the obese mouse models, ob/ob and db/db, which display increased feeding and obese phenotypes , thus suggesting a similar role for TGF- in the appetite regulation of mammals.
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How To Detect Heavy Metals
Detecting increased heavy metal content within the body is sometimes difficult to determine through blood testing. This is because heavy metals can accumulate among cells. Therefore, while increased levels within the blood are a sure sign of excessive exposure, previous exposure accumulated within cells is more readily determined using hair analysis.
Furthermore, a hair analysis should be reviewed by a specialist who understands the test.
Anyone with a neurological disorder might consider having a hair analysis done.
Note that copper and iron are nutrients as long as these minerals are combined with other trace and macro minerals within a healthy diet.
Heavy Metals And Parkinsons
A study from India has linked significantly increased blood levels of heavy metals with Parkinsons disease.
The researchers tested 150 Parkinsons disease cases together with 170 healthy control subjects. The researchers conducted mass spectrometry with inductive coupling of the blood for these test subjects.
The research found that the Parkinsons patients had significantly elevated levels of copper almost 18 nanograms per milliliter of plasma compared to 13 ng/ml in the control patients. They also had elevated levels of iron at 554 ng/ml versus 421 ng/ml in the control subjects.
The researchers also found the elevated iron levels associated with greater lipid peroxidation the oxidation of fatty acids and lipoproteins that can produce artery and cell damage.
The researchers concluded:
Increased plasma iron showed positive correlation with marker of lipid peroxidation, suggesting that increased iron levels induced oxidative stress in Parkinsons disease. These results substantiated the earlier observations about the role of environmental exposure and metal-induced oxidative stress in the etiology of Parkinsons disease.
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Effects Of Heavy Metals On Humans
There are 35 metals that are of concern for us because of residential or occupational exposure, out of which 23 are heavy metals: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, platinum, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, uranium, vanadium, and zinc . These heavy metals are commonly found in the environment and diet. In small amounts they are required for maintaining good health but in larger amounts they can become toxic or dangerous. Heavy metal toxicity can lower energy levels and damage the functioning of the brain, lungs, kidney, liver, blood composition and other important organs. Long-term exposure can lead to gradually progressing physical, muscular, and neurological degenerative processes that imitate diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and muscular dystrophy. Repeated long-term exposure of some metals and their compounds may even cause cancer . The toxicity level of a few heavy metals can be just above the background concentrations that are being present naturally in the environment. Hence thorough knowledge of heavy metals is rather important for allowing to provide proper defensive measures against their excessive contact .
Assessment Of Cell Viability Via Mtt Assay
For the MTT assay, cells were seeded in triplicate in 96 well plates. After heavy metal treatments 10µL of 5mg/mL 3–2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide reactive was added to each well containing 100uL of media and incubated for 4h at 37°C. Active mitochondria of living cells can cleave MTT to produce formazan, a purple crystal whose level is directly proportional to the number of living cells. After incubation, formazan crystals were solubilized in 100uL DMSO and absorbance was measure at 595nm.
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Mercury Is Present In Neurons And Oligodendrocytes In Regions Of The Brain Affected By Parkinsons Disease And Co
Affiliations Sydney Medical School, Brain and Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, Department of Neuropathology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
- David P. Bishop
Roles Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Resources, Visualization, Writing review & editing
Affiliation Elemental Bio-Imaging Facility, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Neurodegeneration And Obesitythe Chicken Or The Egg
Although neurodegeneration can easily be visualized in C. elegans by labeling neurons with fluorescent markers such as FITC , DiI , DiO , and DiD , the direct role of adiposity on neurodegeneration has not been explored to date. Nevertheless, many conserved pathways relevant to obesity as well as neuronal cell death are present in the nematode, such as the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT signaling cascades, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway , and the oxidative stress response , all of which have been found to cause neuronal injuries in the worm . In addition, it has been reported that obese humans and rodents display increased adipocyte apoptosis further, apoptosis has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases including PD . The PD model for obesity in worms exhibits polyQ aggregation, which has been found to be toxic to neurons in worms, an effect similar to that in mammals. Additionally, in worms as in mammals, polyQ aggregation has been shown to be mediated by daf-16 and the insulin-signaling pathway .
Table 1 Partial list of neuronally expressed mutant alleles that exhibit increased fat accumulation.
|Isoform 2 of Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1 protein||Head and tail neurons and mid-body PDE|
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Parkinsons Disease Linked To Exposure To Heavy Metals
by Case Adams, PhD·
Heavy metals are linked to Parkinsons
Could Parkinsons disease be linked to exposure to heavy metals? New research indicates this may be true.
Many regions and specific foods and water supplies are being contaminated with heavy metals. When these build up in the blood and tissues, they can interfere with nerve transmission. Is there any evidence of a link with Parkinsons?
In this article
Should I Do A Heavy Metal Detox
The Internet is full of detox kits and cleansing protocols that claim to eliminate heavy metals from your body.
While these might seem like a safer, less expensive alternative to seeing a doctor, they arent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. And most of them havent been evaluated for safety or effectiveness.
In addition, some of these products can cause a range of other issues, such as:
- allergic reactions
- birth defects
- kidney injuries
Left untreated, heavy metal poisoning can have lasting effects on your health. Its important to work closely with a doctor to ensure that youre following the most effective treatment plan for your needs.
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Data Extraction And Data Synthesis
Heavy metals and DA have both been linked to diet-induced obesity, which has led to the notion that the mechanism of environmentally induced neurodegeneration in PD may also apply to obesity. C. elegans has been instrumental in expanding our mechanism-based knowledge of PD, and this species is emerging as a good model of obesity. With well-established toxicity and neurogenetic assays, it is now feasible to explore the putative link between metal-and chemical-induced neurodegeneration.
Shsy5y Differentiation Into Neuron
SH-SY5Y cells were seeded in the corresponding plates at a density of 10,000 cells/cm2. The next day, 10µM of retinoic acid was added to start the differentiation in EMEN/F12 media supplemented with 10% of FBS and 1% Penicillin-Streptomycin. After 6 days of RA treatment, cells were treated for 4 days with 50ng/mL of BDNF in EMEN/F12 media supplemented only with 1% Penicillin-Streptomycin .
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Quantitative Pcr Analysis Of Mapt/tau Levels
RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were treated with Cr and Ni for 24hours. Then, cells were harvested and mRNA was extracted from cell pellets with the RNeasy kit following the manufacturers protocol. Extracted mRNA was converted to cDNA by PCR using the High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcriptase kit . The expression of MAPT/tau gene was measured by qPCR as previously described. GAPDH were used as housekeeping gene.
Neurodegeneration By Toxic Chemicals
Most animal models for DAergic neurodegeneration are based on exposure to the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and 6-hydroxydopamine , which chemically ablate DAergic neurons . 6-OHDA and the reactive metabolite of MPTP, MPP+ , selectively accumulate in DAergic neurons, causing increased reactive oxygen species generation and/or mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby inducing neuronal damage and cell death .
In addition to chemical exposure, heavy metal exposure can cause neurodegeneration. Using a specific fluorescent marker to label the AFD sensory neuron revealed that Hg, copper , silver, and chromium cause a reduction in the relative intensities of cell bodies in AFD neurons, which regulate feeding via serotonin and tyramine signaling . Metals such as manganese , vanadium , and Cu , as well as pesticides such as paraquat and rotenone and bacterial toxins such as epoxomicin and lactacystin are all able to alter optimal DAergic function in mammals. The mechanism that underlie the neurotoxicity of these toxicants involve mitochondrial dysfunction in DA-producing neurons, associated with energy depletion, increased ROS production, and cell death by apoptotic and/or necrotic pathways . These are the same pathways thought to play a role in the neurodegeneration observed in obesity.
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