Thursday, February 29, 2024

Glutathione Injections For Parkinson’s

How Effective And Safe Is Glutathione As A Skin Lightener

Elaine Fuchs (Rockefeller, HHMI) 1: Skin Stem Cells: Biology and Promise for Regenerative Medicine

As described in an article published August 28, 2017, in the The New York Times, injectable glutathione is attracting growing interest, both in countries around the world and increasingly in the United States, among people who wish to lighten their skin tone or fade dark spots.

Some do it to conform to cultural pressures that favor lighter complexions over darker ones, especially in women. Its true that naturally occurring glutathione can convert melanin to a lighter color and deactivate the enzyme tyrosinase, which helps produce the pigment. Still, the FDA warns, intravenous treatments are potentially unsafe and ineffective, and might contain unknown harmful ingredients or contaminants. The FDA has not approved any injectable drugs for skin whitening or lightening.

The risk of contaminants or infection from injections is a serious concern, says Oma N. Agbai, MD, a dermatologist at UC Davis Health in Sacramento, California, who specializes in multicultural dermatology. Its so unregulated that when someone goes to a med spa or some kind of clinic to get this kind of treatment, you dont really know what youre injecting. If staff are poorly trained in injection techniques, There is a risk for infection, such as fatal , she adds.

The Role Of Gene Deletions And Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

There are some common single nucleotide polymorphisms that impact glutathione and associated processes and may subsequently influence disease risk. These code for the enzyme glutathione S-transferase , which conjugate the reduced glutathione to substrates during the detoxification process . GSTP1 and GSTM1 do have multiple SNPs , however, the null alleles described and focused on in this review result from gene deletion between the H3 and H5 regions flanking the gene . During times of oxidative stress, GST genes are upregulated. One of the most common polymorphisms, affecting 20% to 50% of certain populations, is an absence of the GSTM1 gene , which decreases detoxification ability among other possible outcomes . GSTT1 and GSTP1 are additional polymorphisms related to a reduction in GST activity . Having one or more of these polymorphisms is associated with an increased risk of certain diseases , especially when impacted by environmental triggers such as pollution, smoking, heavy metals, and other toxins.

Tissue Preparation And Histology

Most tissue preparation and immunostainings were performed as described previously For DAB stainings in this study, the following primary antibodies were used: mouse anti-tyrosine hydroxylase , rabbit anti-vesicular monoamine transporter 2 , mouse anti-human WT -syn , and chicken anti-GFP . The SNpc sections were given an initial antigen-retrieval incubation in Tris/EDTA at 80°C for 45 min when stained for TH.

Double immunofluorescence stainings were performed as described previously . The primary antibodies used were rabbit anti-GSTA4 , mouse anti-Gfap , chicken anti-IBA1 , and mouse anti-NeuN and were incubated together at 4°C. To compare immunofluorescent stainings of midbrain and striatum for Gsta4 and Gfap at 3 and 8 weeks, stainings were performed in parallel and images were taken with the same settings. All images were captured at high-resolution with the confocal Leica SP8 microscope .

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How Glutathione Can Save Your Life

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Lyme Disease Natural Wellness

What if I told you that Ponce de Leon was off base looking for the Fountain of Youth in Florida, because that fountain is in your own healthy liver? That may be a bit of a stretch, but your cells, especially in your liver, make a master antioxidant and detox accelerator that controls critical aspects of aging and preventing disease. That compound is called glutathione. Virtually every person with disease-related frailty is depleted in glutathione.

High glutathione levels are associated with longevity in fact, healthy people over 100 years of age have significantly higher levels of glutathione than the general population. There are over 90,000 studies published on different aspects of glutathione, on everything from Parkinsons disease, to cardiovascular damage, to cancer treatment and prevention, to autoimmune diseases, to even autism and related disorders. I could write the rest of this page on diseases for which glutathione is crucial.

Fighting Free Radicals and Oxidative Stress

Removing Dangerous Toxins from the Body

Immune System Power

Also, higher levels of glutathione are known to preserve telomeres, which are the tail ends of genes that dictate how many times the cell can regenerate. This process is intimately connected to longevity.

The Importance of Glutathione Ratios

Parkinsons Disease

Lyme Disease

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Alzheimers Disease

May Reduce The Impact Of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Super Glutathione

Long-term high blood sugar is associated with reduced amounts of glutathione. This can lead to oxidative stress and tissue damage. A study found that dietary supplementation with cysteine and glycine boosted glutathione levels. It also lowered oxidative stress and damage in people with uncontrolled diabetes, despite high sugar levels. Study participants were placed on 0.81 millimoles per kilogram of cysteine and 1.33 mmol/kg glycine daily for two weeks.

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Reduces Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease affects the central nervous system and is defined by symptoms such as tremors. It currently has no cure. One older study documented intravenous glutathiones positive effects on symptoms such as tremors and rigidity. While more research is needed, this case report suggests that glutathione may help reduce symptoms, improving quality of life in people with this disease.

Glutathione: 7 Benefits Of The Mother Of All Antioxidants

We all know that antioxidants are important, and glutathione is one of the most important and potent antioxidants. Produced by the body, glutathione is primarily made up of three amino acids: glutamine, glycine and cysteine and its referred to as the mother of all antioxidants due to its strong ability to combat oxidative stress and provide a number of health benefits for the body.

The fact is the body needs antioxidants to help you live a long and healthy life as their antioxidant value allows it to protect the body against dangerous free radicals, thus protecting it from breakdown and disease. In fact, a glutathione deficiency increases the risk of oxidative stress, which can then increase the risk of many diseases such as cancer, heart disease, Parkinsons, as well as Alzheimers .

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Glutathione Is An Antioxidant That May Help Fight Oxidative Damage

Without a doubt, the biggest health benefits of glutathione are the result of its antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress, which occurs when the balance of free radicals and antioxidants skews in favor of free radicals, can result in cell damage, according to the National Cancer Institute. Research shows this process is linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders, cataracts, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and accelerated aging itself.

The presence of glutathione helps guard against oxidative stress, and depletion of the amino acid compound is also associated with those disorders, per an article published in February 2014 in Integrative Medicine: A Clinicians Journal. Research into the benefits of glutathione supplementation often looks at whether replenishing it in the body will help relieve oxidative stress, and therefore improve health and guard against the effects of aging.

Eight years earlier, results were published in the journal Movement Disorders of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot trial of people with Parkinsons disease who were given glutathione intravenously, which showed the possibility of a mild symptomatic effect.

Optimizing Glutathione Production With Nutrients

Elaine Fuchs (Rockefeller, HHMI) 2: Tapping the Potential of Adult Skin Stem Cells

Whether due to the presence of SNPs, gene deletions or heightened physiological need due to exogenous reasons like toxic load, to some extent, glutathione levels may be supported by dietary and/or supplemental nutrients. This review article will attempt to review the salient human clinical literature to support the use of specific foods and nutrients that may increase or maintain optimal glutathione levels.

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May Reduce Oxidative Damage In Children With Autism

Several Medical Science Monitor , indicate that children with autism have higher levels of oxidative damage and lower levels of glutathione in their brain. This increased susceptibility to neurological damage in children with autism from substances such as mercury.

The eight-week clinical trial on children aged 3 to 13 used oral or transdermal applications of glutathione. Autistic symptom changes were not evaluated as part of the study, but children in both groups showed improvement in cysteine, plasma sulfate, and whole-blood glutathione levels.

Reducing Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

According to some research , there is evidence that maintaining glutathione levels may help with the symptoms of Parkinsonâs disease.

The findings appear to support injected glutathione as a potential therapy, but there is little evidence about oral supplementation. Further research is necessary to support its use.

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How Does Glutathione Positively Affect Your Body And Health

Glutathione plays an important role in a myriad of processes. It is utilized by cells to carry out functions including:

  • Supporting the immune system
  • Regenerating nutrients
  • Maintaining the overall function of certain enzymes

When glutathione levels are too low or too high, these and other vital functions can be impacted. Low levels of glutathione are linked to several conditions and ailments including clinical depression, Alzheimers disease, and Parkinsons disease.

Subject Screening And Enrollment

Parkinsons Disease

In all, 31 individuals were screened in order to identify 15 who qualified. Most study referrals came from the Michael J Fox Foundation Trial Finder and Washington State PD Registry , with health-care providers and friends contributing to the remaining referrals . The subject population was highly diverse in terms of age, socioeconomic status, education, and geographic neighborhoods throughout the Pacific Northwest, although all participants were Caucasian. The characteristics of study participants are presented in and the enrollment algorithm is presented in .

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

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Reducing Cell Damage In Liver Disease

Hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and fatty liver disease all damage the cells of the liver.

A concludes that glutathione could help treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease due to its antioxidant properties and potential to detoxify.

The researchers note that larger studies are needed to confirm this effect.

May Help Fight Against Autoimmune Disease

The chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune diseases can increase oxidative stress. These diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, and lupus. According to one , glutathione helps reduce oxidative stress by either stimulating or reducing the bodys immunological response. Autoimmune diseases attack the mitochondria in specific cells. Glutathione works to protect cell mitochondria by eliminating free radicals.

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Join The Parkinsons Forums: An Online Community For People With Parkinsons Disease And Their Caregivers

The same team now explored whether nutritional supplementation with NAC improves dopamine-related brain function and alleviates Parkinsons symptoms in a larger study sample. Dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter, which passes signals between neurons and is essential in sending messages from the brain to direct muscle movement and coordination. Throughout disease progression, dopamine-producing neurons die and the levels of dopamine in the brain gradually decrease.

Forty-two Parkinsons patients were included in this trial . Of those, 28 participants were randomized to receive a combination of daily and intravenous NAC for three months, while the remaining 14 were assigned to the control group.

On the days that subjects did not receive the intravenous NAC, they took 600mg NAC tablets orally 2 times per day, the researchers wrote. NAC injections were given once a week. For the duration of the study, both groups continued to receive their current standard of care treatment for PD , investigators added.

Subjects had their dopamine brain function and disease motor features evaluated before and after NAC treatment.

In comparison to the control group, NAC supplementation significantly increased dopamine transporter binding in the caudate and putamen, key structures that regulate body movement. Dopamine transporter is a protein that works to recycle dopamine after its release in the brain. In Parkinsons, dopamine transporter levels may be reduced to up to 70%.

Gsta4 Is Expressed In Midbrain Astrocytes

We have previously observed Gsta4 expression in astrocytes but not in microglia or neurons at 8 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion . We made the same evaluation with double fluorescence immunostainings on midbrain sections combining Gsta4 with astrocytic , microglial , or neuronal markers at 8 weeks after -syn overexpression . The stainings reveal a similar co-localization pattern of Gsta4 with Gfap and not Iba1 or NeuN within this model, thus confirming astrocytic expression of Gsta4. This pattern remains constant in DA, DA, and DA.VRA1 animals . Once again, the co-localization is more clear in the somas of SNpc astrocytes rather than the projections .

Figure 4. Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 is expressed in midbrain astrocytes 8 weeks after rAAV-GFP/-syn injection. Immunofluorescent staining of Gsta4 combined with cell-specific markers for astrocytes Gfap, microglia Iba1 and neurons NeuN in DA, DA, and DA.VRA1 rats. Gsta4 staining co-localized with Gfap but not Iba1 or NeuN , suggesting astrocytic expression. Pictures taken at 20× scale bar = 20 µm. 60× image showing co-localization, with Gsta4 mainly expressed in the soma scale bar = 100 µm. All markers were combined with the nuclear marker DAPI .

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Glutathione Therapy In Parkinsons Disease

The practical problem in increasing glutathione levels is that taking glutathione itself as a supplement does not boost cellular glutathione levels, since glutathione breaks down in the digestive tract before it reaches the cells.

However, intravenous glutathione therapy and taking glutathione precursors are both effective in boosting intracellular levels of glutathione.

Intravenous Glutathione Therapy:

Intravenous glutathione injections have been shown to have amazing and quick results.

Dr. David Perlmutter, a pioneer in this therapy, has developed a protocol utilized at the Perlmutter Health Center for administering intravenous glutathione to Parkinsons patients.

Following even a single dosage of intravenous glutathione often in as little as 15 minutes the ability to walk, turn around and move their arms is almost completely restored.

If your interested in getting started to find out if Glutathione will work for your Parkinson or chronic pain and inflammation. Call our office and ask about 1 month supply of Glutathione suppositories or the nebulization products. Or visit


May Reduce Respiratory Disease Symptoms

N-acetylcysteine is a medication used to treat conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. As an inhalant, it helps to thin mucus and make it less paste-like. It also reduces inflammation. N-acetylcysteine is byproduct of glutathione .

Glutathione is found in some foods, although cooking and pasteurization diminish its levels significantly. Its highest concentrations are in:

  • raw or very rare meat
  • unpasteurized milk and other unpasteurized dairy products
  • freshly-picked fruits and vegetables, such as avocado, and asparagus.

Glutathione contains sulfur molecules, which may be why foods high in sulfur help to boost its natural production in the body. These foods include:

  • cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, and bok choy
  • allium vegetables, such as garlic and onions
  • eggs

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Quantification Of Dopaminergic Fiber Loss In The Striatum

Striatum pictures were acquired as described previously . Dorsal striatal TH+ fiber density was evaluated as optical density by image densitometry at six coronal levels using the ImageJ software . The Rodbard calibration function within the software was used to normalize the range of gray-scale into O.D. values. Each image was transformed into 8-bit . The contralateral and ipsilateral striatum was delineated for each section, and the O.D. values representing the strength of the TH+ staining from each side were obtained. O.D. values from the corpus callosum were used to correct for non-specific background staining. Finally, the dopaminergic fiber loss was expressed as relative to the CL side versus the intact side for each animal. Three DA rats were excluded from the analysis due to complications during surgery or with tissue processing, leaving 7 DA, and 6 DA.VRA1 for quantification. Striatum divisions between D and ventral are shown in Figure 2B.

Which One Is Best Suited For You

Glutathione: The Master Antioxidant

There are three forms of glutathione available in the market. The intravenous injection is quite popular. However, there are questions asked with respect to the safety of these intravenous injections. In fact, the health department of the Philippines has issued a public warning regarding the use of these injections. Questions have been asked about the duration of the treatment, safety profile, as well as the effect on different individuals. It is quite clear that apart from the antioxidant effects of glutathione, there is no strong evidence to support other claims. It is always advised to consult a medical professional before supplementing any form of Glutathione.

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Key Nutrients For Better Brainpower

Yet the belief that glutathione has a beneficial effect on brain functioning motivates a number of clients that Miller sees at Physio Logic to take oral supplements . Probably 50 percent of our clients take it because they feel some sort of improved brain function from it, or improved cognition, she says. Nonetheless, most registered dietitians recommend getting nutrients from whole foods rather than supplements whenever possible.

Glutathione Physiology Production And Recycling

Glutathione is a tripeptide found in surprisingly high levels5 millimolarconcentrations in most cells. As can be seen in , this is the same concentration in cells as glucose, potassium, and cholesterol! Considering the high level of metabolic activity required to produce glutathione, such a high level underlines its importance.

Concentration of Molecules in Cells

Glutathione exists in cells in 2 states: reduced and oxidized . As can be seen in , oxidized glutathione is actually 2 reduced glutathiones bound together at the sulfur atoms.

Balance Between GSH and GSSG

The ratio of GSH to GSSG determines cell redox status of cells. Healthy cells at rest have a GSH/GSSG ratio > 100 while the ratio drops to 1 to 10 in cells exposed to oxidant stress. Glutathione is also recognized as a thiol buffer maintaining sulfhydryl groups of many proteins in their reduced form. Glutathione is produced exclusively in the cytosol and actively pumped into mitochondria. GSH is made available in cells in 3 ways:

  • De novo synthesis via a 2-step process catalyzed by the enzymes glutamate cysteine ligase and glutathione synthetase .

  • Regeneration of oxidized GSSG to reduced GSH by glutathione reductase .

  • Recycling of cysteine from conjugated glutathione via GGTP .

  • Notice that all 3 require energy. The rate of synthesis, regeneration, and recycling is determined primarily by 3 factors:

  • GCL activity is in part regulated by GSH feedback inhibition.

  • Synthesis and Recycling of Glutathione

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