Effect Of Light Therapy On Other Non
In addition to depression, sleep disturbance, and excessive daytime sleepiness, our study demonstrates that fatigue and anxiety are also significantly improved by LT in patients with PD. The study by Paus et al showed that LT significantly improved mood in patients with PD . In winter, the spectrum changes, and the blue light component decreases. Blue light has been shown to effectively promote the brains processing of emotions . ipRGCs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the perihabenular nucleus are the 2 retinabrain pathways that regulate lights effects on emotion and cognition .
Peripheral Clock Gene Expression
Hair follicles were collected by gripping and tugging the hair shaft with a pair of tweezers and were quickly soaked in Lysis Solution . Hair follicle cells attached to the hair shafts were stored at 20°C until RNA purification. Approximately 210 scalp hair follicles were required to detect clock gene expression at each sampling timepoint. To minimize skin damage, samples were obtained from different regions of the scalp. The RNAqueous-Micro Kit was used with frozen cytolysis solution to purify total RNA. After checking the quality and concentration using a NanoDrop , total RNA was reverse-transcribed using a SuperScript VILO cDNA Synthesis Kit , and real-time PCR was performed using a TaqMan MGB probe and a 1/20 volume of the reverse transcription product. Data were obtained using a PRISM7300 and corrected by 18S ribosomal RNA , the expression of which is constant regardless of cell type and sampling time. The sequences of the primers and probe for the Per3, Nr1d1 , Nr1d2 and 18S-rRNA transcripts are listed in our previous report.
Mood And Sleep Related
Seasonal affective disorder
The effectiveness of light therapy for treating seasonal affective disorder may be linked to the fact that light therapy makes up for lost sunlight exposure and resets the body’s internal clock. Studies show that light therapy helps reduce the debilitating and depressive behaviors of SAD, such as excessive sleepiness and fatigue, with results lasting for at least 1 month. Light therapy is preferred over antidepressants in the treatment of SAD because it is a relatively safe and easy therapy. Two methods of light therapy, bright light and dawn simulation, have similar success rates in the treatment of SAD.
It is possible that response to light therapy for SAD could be season dependent. Morning therapy has provided the best results because light in the early morning aids in regulating the circadian rhythm. People affected by SAD have low levels of energy and have difficulty concentrating. They usually have a change in appetite and experience trouble sleeping.
A Cochrane review conducted in 2019 states the evidence that light therapy’s effectiveness as a treatment for the prevention of seasonal affective disorder is limited, although the risk of adverse effects are minimal. Therefore, the decision to use light therapy should be based on a person’s preference of treatment.
Chronic circadian rhythm sleep disorders
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders and jet lag
Sleep disorder in Parkinson’s disease
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Explant Cultures And Bioluminescence Measurement
Coronal brain slices including the SCN were prepared from adult Per2Luc mice using a vibratome,. Paired SCNs were excised from coronal brain slices and placed on a culture membrane in a covered and sealed culture dish filled with medium containing 100M luciferin. Bioluminescence was measured in realtime with a photomultiplier tube . The data sets were detrended by subtracting the 24h running average from the raw data. To perform single neuron imaging, a luminescence microscope optimized for live cell imaging was used.
Australian Company Achieves Promising Results With Laser Therapy
Australian medical technology company SYMBYX has completed its first human trial of the use of laser light therapy to reduce the symptoms of Parkinsons by targeting the gut-brain axis.
The proof-of-concept trial showed that measures of mobility, cognition, dynamic balance, sleep, motivation, and fine motor skills of participants were all significantly improved.
Since then, these results have been confirmed in a follow-up trial in Sydney soon to be published in the Journal of Photomodulation, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery.
Combined, these results reinforced that larger, randomized placebo-controlled trials are warranted to further consolidate the data. Two such trials using SYMBYX lasers are about to commence in Sydney and Canada, with results expected in April 2022.
SYMBYX uses proprietary, super-pulsing laser technology that delivers optimal doses of light therapy without generating heat. The lasers are non-invasive, painless to use and portable. They are medical grade lasers, containing diodes manufactured in Sweden under exclusive license to SYMBYX, and are CE marked and ARTG listed.
Photobiomodulation therapy can energise cell mitochondria and help with the loss of cellular energy that is common in Parkinsons, said SYMBYX CEO Dr. Wayne Markman.
Most people dont realise that their colon has the capacity to produce both dopamine and serotonin, the critical neurotransmitters required for healthy brain function.
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An Overview Of Red Light Therapy
Red light therapy is often used as an umbrella term that encompasses both red light and near-infrared light. Other terms that are commonly used for this treatment method are photobiomodulation and low-level light therapy .
The major difference between red light and NIR light is the depth to which they can penetrate tissue and bone. Red light can absorb into the bodys tissues up to about 1-2cm . NIR light wavelengths absorb about 4cm .
Red light therapy has been shown in hundreds of clinical studies to have a wide variety of therapeutic effects on the human body. The treatment is administered to bare skin and t forehead via powerful light-emitting diode bulbs.
Light photons are absorbed into the skin and underlying tissue where they interact with mitochondria, the energy factories inside most cells. Mitochondria, in turn, are stimulated to produce adenosine triphosphate , which is the primary fuel for cells. This process is much like photosynthesis, whereby plants absorb energy from the sun to make glucose for their food.
Because of the difference in wavelengths, red light and NIR light are suitable for different types of therapies. Red light soaks into the skin where it stimulates collagen and elastin production, along with forming capillaries and reducing inflammation. Its shorter wavelengths can’t absorb deeper into the body, so its the ideal therapy for chronic skin conditions, hair loss, and for reversing the signs of aging.
Blue Light Filter Myths
Here are a few myths about blue light filters:
1. All blue light is bad for you
Blue light associated with digital devices has a bad reputation for causing eye damage.
However, some types of blue light are positive and healthy for our bodies.
Many people suffer from seasonal affective disorder . This is a type of seasonal depression.
In people with SAD, their condition improved when exposed to large doses of blue light during the daytime.
2. Digital eye strain is unpreventable
It is possible to prevent digital eye strain even when staring at screens for long periods.
Be sure to practice the 20-20-20 rule regularly. This rule suggests that every 20 minutes, you should stare about 20 feet ahead of you for 20 seconds.
Blue light filter glasses may also help with preventing digital eye strain.
3. Blue light is not natural
People learned more about blue light with the introduction of digital devices like laptops and smartphones.
However, blue light exists in nature, too. Natural blue light comes from the sun.
Typically, the body is supposed to absorb a set number of daylight hours. However, when we use electronic devices at night, we affect our circadian rhythms.
In this article
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An Overview Of Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is an incurable nervous system disorder. It is characterized by movement problems including uncontrolled tremors, impaired balance, muscle stiffness, and Bradykinesia that usually begins on one side of the body, eventually affects both sides of the body, and worsens over time.
It is often accompanied by depression, emotional changes, loss of facial expression, speech changes, muscle cramps, pain, fatigue, urinary/excretory problems, sleep problems, dementia and other cognitive declines, sexual dysfunction, difficulty chewing and swallowing, and orthostatic hypotension .
PD is caused by the abnormal death of brain cells , especially in the substantia nigra, which is the base of the brain which controls dopamine production. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that helps control motor functions such as walking. MS patients also have extremely low production of norepinephrine, which is responsible for the autonomous nervous system functioning including blood pressure.
Although the cause of neuronal death is not fully known, it could be due to environmental toxins such as pesticides, hereditary factors, and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondria are the energy-producing centers of cells in the human body and it is believed that mitochondrial dysfunction may be the culprit in several neurodegenerative disorders, including PD.
Nitric Oxide Linked To Alzheimers Parkinsons And Dementia
One of the dominant factors responsible for the curbing of energy production with age is nitric oxide.
Doctors and nurses are taught in medical training that nitric oxide is a miracle molecule of anti-aging, brain health, athletic performance and overall health. But this theory is being increasingly disproven by evidence mounting in recent decades.
Nitric oxide is not a miracle molecule its a toxic free radical found in air pollution, and its causative role in dementia-related disorders like Alzheimers disease is becoming increasingly clear. For example, NO was found to accumulate around the plaques inside the brain of Alzheimers patients, and its been hypothesized that NO could be responsible for brain cell death found in Alzheimers and other forms of dementia. The deleterious effects of NO suggest that nitric oxide inhibitors, like methylene blue, could be remarkably effective for treating dementia.
One fascinating and useful attribute of methylene blue for treating brain disorders is that it accumulates in the brain, making it of particular interest for dementia and all kinds of brain-related disorders.
According to Dr. Raymond Peat, nitric oxide poisons the ability to oxidize glucose into carbon dioxide, increases lactic acid, and the cell has less energy and is more excited by the acetylcholine, so basically it becomes susceptible to dying in proportion to the overstimulation of acetylcholine.
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Recommendations For Administration Of Blt
In this section, recommendations for administration of BLT as well as information on contraindications and adverse effects are provided. Due to a lack of research on BLT in PD patients, the majority of these recommendations are based on research in patients without PD, so we must stress that effects in PD patients might be different. More research on the effects of BLT in PD patients needs to be done before BLT can be used for PD patients in daily clinical practice.
There are many types of light boxes available. Clinically tested models yield a maximum illuminance of 10.000Lux at a comfortable sitting distance of about 30cm . At this intensity, a duration of 30 minutes per session is usually sufficient, while lower intensities require longer sessions . It is advisable to use a light box with a complete ultraviolet filter, since cumulative UV radiation can be harmful to eyes and skin .
Unlocking Life’s Full Potential
Parkinsons symptoms vary from individual to individual as it is an extremely heterogeneous disease affecting everyone differently.By implementing SYMBYXs treatment protocols, our flexible PDCare hand-held device is used to treat the gut, wide-ranging positive changes are being recorded by patients. Such changes include motor improvements, better sleep, lightened mood, reduced muscle pain and even returned sense of smell.
How is this even possible!?
The PDCare Laser therapy increases gut fermentation of dietary fibre, which in turn facilitates the production of helpful gut metabolites .SCFAs are important for manufacturing the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin that are in short supply in a Parkinsons patient . In essence, the gut takes on an even greater load and compensates for the reduction of dopamine production in the brain.
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Light Therapy And Parkinson’s
NIr therapy works by using infrared illumination to treat brain tissue affected by a lack of oxygen, toxic environments, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria help to produce energy in cells and play a role in regulating cell function when working properly. NIr attempts to reduce cell damage and death by protecting the dopamine-producing neurons.2 NIr has been shown to reduce tissue inflammation and improve mitochondrial function.
It is not a targeted therapy because it works on the neural symptoms of many conditions by reducing the neurodegenerative process. Light therapy targets the brain and therefore it is likely to impact multiple facets of neural functioning. Studies have yielded results that show improvement in cognitive, emotional, and executive function.
Photobiomodulation is the ability of light to modulate biological processes at a cellular level.4 The use of controlled exposure of red to infrared wavelengths of light have successfully improved healing, reduced inflammation and pain. It has done this by improving mitochondrial function and stimulating antioxidant pathways in the brain. Photobiomodualtion has been therapeutically effective to improve the recovery rate for other medical conditions, and has shown promise in the lab for people and animals with PD.
Strategic use of specific light applied at a targeted time of day for a specific length of time should be able to “attack” melatonin, and reduce it, thus restoring dopamine balance.5
What Is Blue Light Therapy
Blue light therapy is a form of phototherapy that harnesses natural violet or blue light to treat conditions on or just underneath the skin. This type of light therapy can even become photodynamic when blue light is used to activate a light-sensitive drug used to address a specific condition or problem.
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Reviewing Studies On Light Therapy
The latest light therapy research and its clinical application were reviewed by researchers from China, whose findings were comprehensively summarized in a recent article published in the Chinese Medical Journal.
While light therapy has been investigated in mental and sleep disorders, comprehensive knowledge on its use in lacking. We therefore sought to shed light on the potential therapeutic methods and implications of light therapy.
Dr. Chun-Feng Liu, lead author
The authors of the review acknowledge the advancements in reducing symptoms of these diseases. At the same time, they say the current treatments can only slow down the progression of the disease but not provide a cure.
Since sleep issues often affect people with NDs, the researchers looked into different studies on light therapy and its effects in patients with an ND. They were curious whether light therapy, which typically improves the quality of sleep, would reduce symptoms.
Sleep disturbance is associated with increased expression of biomarkers of , the authors write. Additionally, sleep problems are reported with Parkinsons.
Some issues that disrupted sleep can cause include increased irritability, daytime drowsiness, problems with memory, and hyperactivity.
Light Therapy To Treat Nds
The studies the authors reviewed were generally favorable toward light therapy helping alleviate some symptoms of Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, such as sleep disorders, cognitive dysfunction, and depression.
However, some studies reported limited or no effects. In one study mentioned by the authors, researchers divided 70 people with Alzheimers disease into two groups.
The control group received their typical indoor light of 150200 lux, where lux indicates the intensity of light. The experimental group, which received light therapy, was exposed to light at 2,500 lux Monday through Friday for 10 weeks.
The authors state that experiments showed the circadian rhythm and cognitive function improved remarkably in the questionable and mildly demented patients group.
However, the study in question did not show much improvement in patients with moderate or severe dementia.
The authors suggest this could be because the patients were already undergoing other treatments, and their sensitivity to light could have been impacted by the severity of the progression of their disease.
The authors believe that more research and clinical trials are needed to determine whether light therapy should become a standard treatment.
Further research is also necessary to establish what intensity of light therapy is helpful for these diseases.
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Clinical Significance Of Light Therapy
LT as a noninvasive and convenient treatment have been proved to be effective not only in PD but also for other conditions . Motor symptoms and non-motor symptoms including depression, sleep, sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and anxiety can affect quality of life of patients. It will be of clinical significance to use LT to treat PD patients to improve motor and non-motor symptoms and improve their quality of life. However, the overall change in UPDRS III score was about 4 to 5, while the quality-of-life score did not change. We speculate that the possible reason for this result was that the quality-of-life score may reflect the quality of life of the previous month, which cannot reflect the effect of LT in time. Longer follow-up is needed to determine the impact of LT on quality of life. Further research may help to verify this hypothesis.
Desynchronization Of The Circadian Rhythm In Parkinson’s Disease
PD patients are prone to desynchronization of their biological clock due to various factors that will be discussed in this section. The neurodegenerative process in PD leading to dopamine depletion is one of the underlying causes, since recent research links dopamine directly to the circadian rhythm . Striatal dopamine metabolism seems to be regulated by clock proteins such as PER2 . Reciprocally, stimulation of dopamine receptors affects the rhythm of expression of clock genes such as PER1 and PER2 in the striatum . Dopamine also regulates the rhythmic expression of melanopsin in retinal ganglion cells, thereby influencing the entrainment of the circadian rhythm by light .
In many patients with PD, factors hampering the SCN input contribute to desynchronization of the circadian rhythm. Firstly, exposure and sensitivity to zeitgebers decrease. Retinal illumination decreases in the elderly due to pupillary miosis and reduced crystalline lens light transmission, especially of short wavelengths . This leads to partial light deprivation of the SCN and pineal gland. Additionally, PD patients, just like many elderly patients, may be more inclined to stay indoors due to motor problems or a decreased postural balance and expose themselves less to environmental light and physical activities . Entrainment of the circadian rhythm is thwarted by a decreased exposure to zeitgebers.
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