Tuesday, October 4, 2022

What Does Parkinson’s Disease Affect

What Is The Likely Cause Of The Dysphagia

What is Parkinson’s Disease?

Dysphagia is usually caused by another health condition, such as: a condition that affects the nervous system, such as a stroke, head injury, multiple sclerosis or dementia. cancer such as mouth cancer or oesophageal cancer. gastro-oesophageal reflux disease where stomach acid leaks back up into the.

What Does Parkinson’s Do To The Brain

Deep down in your brain, there’s an area called the substantia nigra, which is in the basal ganglia. Some of its cells make dopamine, a chemical that carries messages around your brain. When you need to scratch an itch or kick a ball, dopamine quickly carries a message to the nerve cell that controls that movement.

When that system is working well, your body moves smoothly and evenly. But when you have Parkinson’s, the cells of your substantia nigra start to die. There’s no replacing them, so your dopamine levels drop and you can’t fire off as many messages to control smooth body movements.

Early on, you won’t notice anything different. But as more and more cells die, you reach a tipping point where you start to have symptoms.

That may not be until 80% of the cells are gone, which is why you can have Parkinson’s for quite a while before you realize it.

What Causes Essential Tremor And Is There Anything That Triggers It

Experts dont know exactly why essential tremor happens or if there are triggers that cause them to happen. However, theres evidence that it happens because of the changes in certain parts of your brain.

And while experts dont know exactly why essential tremor happens, they do know that this condition can run in families. About half of all essential tremor cases are inherited. This condition appears to be an autosomal dominant inherited condition. That means if one parent passes a mutated gene that causes essential tremor to you, theres about a 50% chance that youll inherit the condition.

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Living With Parkinson’s Disease

Coming to terms with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s and living with the disease is challenging and will take a lot of adjustment. There are still things you can do that can help you to feel more in control of your situation and to stay positive. Some things that might help could include:

  • choosing to lead a healthy lifestyle
  • making informed decisions related to your treatment
  • keeping a diary of your symptoms in preparation for meetings with health and social care professionals
  • attending a self-management course

Tips For Coping In Hot Weather

Parkinson
  • look out for those who may struggle to keep themselves cool and hydrated older people, those with underlying health conditions and those who live alone are particularly at risk
  • stay cool indoors many of us will need to stay safe at home this summer so know how to keep your home cool
  • close curtains on rooms that face the sun to keep indoor spaces cooler and remember it may be cooler outdoors than indoors
  • if going outdoors, use cool spaces considerately, keep your distance in line with social distancing guidelines
  • follow coronavirus social distancing guidance and wash your hands regularly
  • drink plenty of fluids and avoid excess alcohol
  • never leave anyone in a closed, parked vehicle, especially infants, young children or animals
  • try to keep out of the sun between 11am to 3pm
  • walk in the shade, apply sunscreen regularly and wear a wide brimmed hat, if you have to go out in the heat
  • avoid exercising in the hottest parts of the day
  • make sure you take water with you, if you are travelling
  • if you are going into open water to cool down, take care and follow local safety advice
  • Remember that while coronavirus restrictions are in place, you will need to follow government guidance to use public spaces safely

For more information visit GOV.UK: Heatwave Plan for England.

If you have concerns about an uncomfortably hot house thats affecting your health or someone elses, get medical advice.

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From Cancer Associations To Altered Immunity In The Pathogenesis Of Parkinsons Disease

Study Rationale: Parkinsons disease is characterized by premature death of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain cancer is characterized by overgrowth of dividing cells. Despite being very different, Parkinsons disease and cancer both have immune dysfunctions. Cancer occurs when the immune system fails to safeguard, and immune therapy holds new hope for cancer treatment. Parkinsons disease has also been related to immune dysregulation. Moreover, Parkinsons disease and cancer can in fact be caused by the same gene alterations. Two genes, LRRK2 and Parkin, are among such genes.

Hypothesis: We bring together a team of experts in the fields of Parkinsons disease and cancer to borrow sophisticated approaches from cancer research to collaboratively test a hypothesis that immune dysregulation is the reason why alterations in LRRK2 and Parkin can cause both Parkinsons disease and cancer, with a focus on Parkinsons disease in this proposed work.

Study Design: We will use dopamine-producing neurons derived from Parkinsons disease patient stem cells, mouse models with genetically modified LRRK2 and Parkin to modulate and characterize their immune signatures in both the periphery and the brain. In addition, we will perform immune profiling in samples from patients with Parkinsons disease or cancer.

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Medications For People With Parkinsons Disease

Symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and other organs such as the gut, which produce a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This causes a deficiency in the availability of dopamine, which is necessary for smooth and controlled movements. Medication therapy focuses on maximising the availability of dopamine in the brain. Medication regimes are individually tailored to your specific need. Parkinsons medications fit into one of the following broad categories:

  • levodopa dopamine replacement therapy
  • dopamine agonists mimic the action of dopamine
  • COMT inhibitors used along with levodopa. This medication blocks an enzyme known as COMT to prevent levodopa breaking down in the intestine, allowing more of it to reach the brain
  • anticholinergics block the effect of another brain chemical to rebalance its levels with dopamine
  • amantadine has anticholinergic properties and improves dopamine transmission
  • MAO type B inhibitors prevent the metabolism of dopamine within the brain.

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Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons has four main symptoms:

  • Tremor in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head
  • Muscle stiffness, where muscle remains contracted for a long time
  • Slowness of movement
  • Impaired balance and coordination, sometimes leading to falls

Other symptoms may include:

The symptoms of Parkinsons and the rate of progression differ among individuals. Early symptoms of this disease are subtle and occur gradually. For example, people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a chair. They may notice that they speak too softly, or that their handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. Friends or family members may be the first to notice changes in someone with early Parkinsons. They may see that the persons face lacks expression and animation, or that the person does not move an arm or leg normally.

People with Parkinson’s disease often develop a parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward take small, quick steps and reduce swinging their arms. They also may have trouble initiating or continuing movement.

Symptoms often begin on one side of the body or even in one limb on one side of the body. As the disease progresses, it eventually affects both sides. However, the symptoms may still be more severe on one side than on the other.

What Are The Primary Motor Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

Understanding Parkinson’s disease

There are four primary motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability . Observing two or more of these symptoms is the main way that physicians diagnose Parkinsons.

It is important to know that not all of these symptoms must be present for a diagnosis of Parkinsons disease to be considered. In fact, younger people may only notice one or two of these motor symptoms, especially in the early stages of the disease. Not everyone with Parkinsons disease has a tremor, nor is a tremor proof of Parkinsons. If you suspect Parkinsons, see a neurologist or movement disorders specialist.

Tremors

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Early Signs Of Parkinsons

Most people who are diagnosed with Parkinsons are 60 years of age or older, but early onset Parkinsons is possible, too.

In the first and second stages, the signs of Parkinsons are usually mild. Although 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells in your brain are gone, you will still be able to go about your usual day-to-day activities.

Some of the most common symptoms during these stages include:

  • tremors in the hands, arms, feet, or other body parts when resting
  • stiffness and rigidity in muscles
  • Bradykinesia , which can also cause a mask-like appearance of the face due to a lack of facial expressions.

Locating The Basal Ganglia

The basal ganglia are collections of nerve cells located deep within the brain. They include the following:

  • Caudate nucleus

  • Putamen

  • Globus pallidus

  • Subthalamic nucleus

  • Substantia nigra

The basal ganglia help initiate and smooth out muscle movements, suppress involuntary movements, and coordinate changes in posture.

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What Is Heat Exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a milder form of heat-related illness that can develop after several days of exposure to high temperatures and inadequate or unbalanced replacement of fluids. Those most prone to heat exhaustion are elderly people, those with high blood pressure, and those working or exercising in a hot environment.

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Treatment For Parkinsons Disease And Sex Issues

PARKINSON

Treatment for erectile dysfunction in men might include medications like Viagra, as well as physical or psychological therapy. In some cases, surgical implants may also be used. Womens sexual health in Parkinsons is slightly more complex due to their hormonal makeup.

Treatment options for women are somewhat restricted, but they include adding lubrication and seeing a therapist. Many women find timing sex during their ON periods to be helpful.

In terms of reproductive health, there is no evidence to suggest that Parkinson’s disease causes problems with pregnancy although there have been no studies into the safety of PD medication during pregnancy.

Parkinsons disease and sex can be challenging, but there are plenty of treatments and solutions that can work for both men and women. Its important to communicate with your partner and talk through any feelings you might be experiencing, especially if youre struggling with body image or confidence issues. Navigating sex during Parkinsons disease can be difficult for partners, too, so remember to keep the dialogue open in your relationship.

APA ReferenceSmith, E. . Parkinsons Disease and Sex Issues: Libido, Sex Drive, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2022, August 24 from https://www.healthyplace.com/parkinsons-disease/effects/parkinsons-disease-and-sex-issues-libido-sex-drive

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The Facts About Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease is a progressive neurogenerative disease that causes nerve cells in the area of the brain that controls movement to weaken and/or die. While healthy neurons produce a chemical called dopamine, which the brain needs a certain amount of in order to regulate movement, weakened neurons produce lower levels of dopamine. What causes these neurons to weaken is currently unknown.

Some patients with Parkinsons disease also suffer from a decline in norepinephrine, a chemical that transmits signals across nerve endings and controls various functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

More than 10 million people worldwide are currently living with Parkinsons disease and nearly one million will be living with the disease in the United States this year, according to the Parkinsons Foundation.

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Alcohol Consumption And Parkinsons Disease Risk: A Review Of Recent Findings

Article type: Review Article

Authors: Bettiol, Silvana S.a* | Rose, Tanith C.b | Hughes, Clarissa J.c | Smith, Lesley A.d

Affiliations: School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia | Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England | School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia | Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, England

Correspondence: Correspondence to: Dr. Silvana Bettiol, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Medical Sciences Precinct, 17 Liverpool St, Hobart, Tasmania, 7000, Australia. Tel.: +61 3 62264826

Keywords: Alcohol, alcoholic beverages, alcohol drinking, Parkinsons disease, review, risk factors, case-control studies, cohort studies, epidemiologic methods, lifestyle

DOI: 10.3233/JPD-150533

Journal: Journal of Parkinsons Disease, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 425-442, 2015

Abstract

Background: The association between Parkinsons disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results.

Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results.

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Next Steps: Getting Care For Parkinsons And Essential Tremor

If you believe you have Parkinsons disease or essential tremor, dont hesitate to seek professional care. Your doctor can help you diagnose your condition, find the right treatment plan for you, and manage your symptoms so you can enjoy the best quality of life possible. While suffering from a condition like essential tremor or Parkinsons can be frightening, you dont have to face it on your own.

MKG-1123 Rev A Feb 2021

Can I Treat Essential Tremor At Home

How does Parkinsons disease affect memory?

Essential tremor impacts every patient differently. You may find that your essential tremor does not impact your life enough to seek treatment. You may also find that lifestyle modifications may provide relief for your tremors.

Whether you are working with your physician, a neurologist, or are treating your essential tremor at home, the following may help improve your symptoms:

  • Adopting relaxation techniques like deep-breathing exercises, yoga, or biofeedback
  • Avoiding stressful situations and/or caffeine
  • Integrating essential tremor treatment exercises and other physical activity like resistance training, balance activities, and stretching activities under the guidance of a healthcare provider
  • Changing or stopping medication only after consulting with your physician
  • Following a set sleep schedule
  • Using products that make everyday tasks easier, like:
  • Clothes with Velcro fasteners
  • Kitchen utensils with larger handles
  • Drinking straws

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How Is A Diagnosis Made

Because other conditions and medications mimic the symptoms of PD, getting an accurate diagnosis from a physician is important. No single test can confirm a diagnosis of PD, because the symptoms vary from person to person. A thorough history and physical exam should be enough for a diagnosis to be made. Other conditions that have Parkinsons-like symptoms include Parkinsons plus, essential tremor, progressive supranuclear palsy, multi-system atrophy, dystonia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus.

Causes Of Parkinson Disease

In Parkinson disease, synuclein forms clumps called Lewy bodies in nerve cells. Lewy bodies consist of misfolded synuclein. Synuclein can accumulate in several regions of the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra and interfere with brain function. Lewy bodies often accumulate in other parts of the brain and nervous system, suggesting that they may be involved in other disorders. In Lewy body dementia Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia Dementia with Lewy bodies is progressive loss of mental function characterized by the development of Lewy bodies in nerve cells. Parkinson disease dementia is loss of mental function characterized… read more , Lewy bodies form throughout the outer layer of the brain . Lewy bodies may also be involved in Alzheimer disease Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a progressive loss of mental function, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells, the accumulation of an abnormal protein called beta-amyloid… read more , possibly explaining why about one third of people with Parkinson disease have symptoms of Alzheimer disease and why some people with Alzheimer disease develop parkinsonian symptoms.

About 10% of people with Parkinson disease have relatives who have or have had the disease. Also, several gene mutations that can cause Parkinson disease have been identified.

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Medicines For Parkinsons Disease

Medicines can help treat the symptoms of Parkinsons by:

  • Increasing the level of dopamine in the brain
  • Having an effect on other brain chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, which transfer information between brain cells
  • Helping control non-movement symptoms

The main therapy for Parkinsons is levodopa. Nerve cells use levodopa to make dopamine to replenish the brains dwindling supply. Usually, people take levodopa along with another medication called carbidopa. Carbidopa prevents or reduces some of the side effects of levodopa therapy such as nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and restlessness and reduces the amount of levodopa needed to improve symptoms.

People living with Parkinsons disease should never stop taking levodopa without telling their doctor. Suddenly stopping the drug may have serious side effects, like being unable to move or having difficulty breathing.

The doctor may prescribe other medicines to treat Parkinsons symptoms, including:

  • Dopamine agonists to stimulate the production of dopamine in the brain
  • Enzyme inhibitors to increase the amount of dopamine by slowing down the enzymes that break down dopamine in the brain
  • Amantadine to help reduce involuntary movements
  • Anticholinergic drugs to reduce tremors and muscle rigidity

Immune Response In Animal Models Of

Study reveals roots of Parkinson

While it is currently debated whether neuroinflammation is an initiator, driver, or consequence of human PD, animal models have shown that inflammation precedes overt neurodegeneration, indicating that it is likely a driver of disease pathogenesis as interventional studies targeting the immune system are generally neuroprotective.

Immune response in the absence of neuronal death in -synuclein transgenic models

Innate and adaptive immunity are activated in the -synuclein viral models

Viral-vector or overexpression models, particularly adeno-associated virus models have long been popular and reliable for long-term, spatially restricted -syn expression in neurons within the CNS. These vectors have been carefully designed to overexpress either human full length or familial mutations of -syn in subsets of neurons in the CNS depending on serotype with low or non-existent transduction of glial support cells . It should be mentioned that, while these models are great for studying local effects of -syn overexpression in spatially restricted populations of neurons, once the neurons are transduced, there is no overt spreading or templating throughout the CNS as observed in human disease, making them poor models of -syn transmission. Additionally, the use of viral vector models require careful validation and controls as the presence of viral entities may have neuroinflammatory effects on neurons and glia within the CNS.

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