Tuesday, June 25, 2024

Similarities And Differences Between Parkinson’s And Essential Tremors

When Does The Shaking Occur

Differences Between Essential Tremor and Parkinson’s Disease

The most significant difference between essential tremor and Parkinsons disease has to do with when a persons tremorous movements occur. In someone with essential tremor, their shaking occurs when part of their body is active. In someone with Parkinsons disease, their tremor occurs in parts of their body when those parts were otherwise at rest.

Imagine watching someone with a tremor while they are relaxing on the porch. In a person diagnosed with essential tremor, you may not know they have a tremor until they try to move the affected body part. For example, when they reach for their glass on the table, their hand may shake.

In a person with a tremor from Parkinsons disease, you will see the tremor while they are at rest. Their hand may shake while it is on their lap or resting on the arm of their chair. When they reach for their glass, though, the tremor will stop until their hand is at rest again.

Treatments For Parkinsons Disease

While currently available Parkinsons treatments cannot slow or halt the disease, they can help manage symptoms. According to the American Parkinson Disease Association, here are some of the most common treatment options:

  • Oral Medications: As far as medications for Parkinsons disease are concerned, Carbidopa/Levodopa are considered to be the most effective. However, it can also be used in combination with other medications as recommended by your doctor.
  • Surgery: Similarly to essential tremor, deep brain stimulation is also a surgical treatment option for patients with Parkinsons.
  • Physical and Speech Therapy: In addition to medications, physical and speech therapy can help those with Parkinsons maintain better control over their movements, voice level, and ability to speak clearly.
  • There are also lifestyle changes that you can make to help with your Parkinsons symptoms, including:

    • Practicing strength training to help with movement
    • Stretching to help with rigidity
    • Getting massages to relieve muscle stiffness and stress
    • Eating a healthier diet to help with lethargy

    While these are the most commonly recommended treatment options for Parkinsons disease right now, there is a lot of effort and financial support toward finding new solutions, including clinical trials of medications.

    Symptoms Of Essential Tremor

    The primary symptom of essential tremor is involuntary, rhythmic shaking. This tremor can affect any part of the body, though the disorder typically occurs most often in the hands and arms. These symptoms can potentially progress to the voice and head, though for many people the symptoms are relegated to mild tremors in the hands and arms. When it does spread to the head, a head tremor may manifest as no-no or yes-yes nodding.

    Essential tremor begins slowly and usually affects one side of the body. The tremor also gets worse when you move. Tremors can also get aggravated by caffeine, fatigue, extreme temperatures, or emotional distress.

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    Parkinsons Tremors Vs Essential Tremors

    Because they can be similar to Parkinsons tremors, essential tremors are often confused as symptoms of the disease. Just as with Parkinsons, essential tremor can cause uncontrollable rhythmic shaking in different parts of the body.

    Up to 10 million people are affected by this common nervous system disorder. While genetics and environment likely play a role in essential tremor, the cause is unknown, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

    Essential tremors in the hands or arms can be distinct from Parkinsons because they typically happen when the hands are in use.

    The essential tremor can get really bad when youre using your limb when drinking or eating soup, for example, says Gilbert. The Parkinsons tremor is usually not as disabling whereas the essential tremor can be life-altering.

    The shaking from an essential tremor typically improves when using both hands to bring a cup to the mouth but the same action can amplify the tremor in Parkinsons, according to Gilbert.

    Dr. Beck points out that an essential tremor may be faster than a Parkinsons tremor, which tends to be milder. A difference can often be seen in a persons handwriting. Those with essential tremor tend to have more unsteady and wavy writing, whereas Parkinsons patients are more apt to display micrographia, or abnormally small handwriting.

    They have low amplitude movement so their writing gets smaller and smaller to a point where it can be barely legible, he says.

    What Is A Parkinsons Tremor

    50+ Essential Tremor Vs Parkinsons

    Other health issues can also cause tremors, like multiple sclerosis or essential tremor. But Parkinsonâs tremors are different because theyâre usually:

    • Resting. Parkinsonâs tremors happen when your muscles are still. They go away when you move. They also lessen while you sleep. For example, if youâre sitting in a chair with your arm relaxed, you may notice that your fingers twitch. But if youâre using your hand, like when you shake someone elseâs hand, the tremor eases or stops.
    • Rhythmic. Parkinsonâs tremors are slow and continuous. They arenât random tics, jerks, or spasms.
    • Asymmetric. They tend to start on one side of your body. But they can spread to both sides of the body.

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    Recommended Reading: What To Do For Parkinson Tremors

    Preliminary Estimates Of The Effects Of Deep Brain Stimulation On Gait Kinematics In Parkinson Disease And Essential Tremor

    P. Testini, G. Skelton, D. Bernhard, S. Miocinovic, P. Aia, C. Buetefisch, L. Higginbotham, L. Scorr, S. Triche, J. Mckay, C. Esper

    Category:Surgical Therapy: Other Movement Disorders

    Objective: To determine the change in gait parameters following deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease and essential tremor .

    Background: DBS is an established treatment for akinesia, rigidity, and tremor in PD as well as for medication-refractory ET. However, its effects on gait are less understood .

    Method: Database review from our kinematics laboratory between 2019 to 2022 identified 10 patients that had pre- and post-operative DBS quantitative gait kinematics measured via a 3D commercial motion analysis system. Pre- and post-operative assessments were performed in the medication off state for PD patients. Post-operative assessments were performed in the stimulation on state for all patients. Changes in gait outcomes from pre- to post- were expressed as effect sizes and categorized as small, medium, or large using established cutoff values. Due to sample size limitations and the preliminary nature of the study, no null hypothesis testing was performed.

    To cite this abstract in AMA style:

    Mov Disord.

    Also Check: Parkinsons Disease Mortality Rate

    How Are Essential Tremor And Parkinsons Disease Connected

    For years, essential tremor and Parkinsons disease were considered two entirely different conditions. However, more recent studies have suggested that having essential tremor raises a persons risk level of developing Parkinsons disease later on.

    This connection is thought to be based on a number of factors. Abnormal proteins known as Lewy bodies have historically been associated with Parkinsons disease. Lewy bodies have been found in the brains of 15 to 24 percent of people diagnosed with essential tremor. In addition, Parkinsons disease seems to have a higher prevalence in people who have had essential tremor for a long time. Essential tremor also seems more likely to develop in people who have Parkinsons disease in their family.

    The exact relationship between the two conditions is unknown. Many people are diagnosed with essential tremor and never develop Parkinsons, while others are diagnosed with Parkinsons without ever experiencing essential tremor. Its also possible to have them at the same time. More research is needed to understand how and why these two conditions are connected.

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    Resting Tremor Vs Action Tremor

    Tremor is categorized into two main classifications: resting tremor and action tremor.

    Resting tremor refers to shaking that occurs when a persons muscles are relaxed or at rest. For example, a person may experience a resting tremor in their hands when the persons hands are resting in their lap. Resting tremor only affects a persons hands or fingers .

    Action tremor includes tremor that accompanies a persons voluntary movement, such as walking or moving the arms. Most tremors are considered to be action tremors and fall under various subcategories:

    • Postural tremor: occurs when a person attempts to maintain a position against the force of gravity, such as holding their arms outstretched.
    • Kinetic tremor: accompanies voluntary movement like blinking or moving hands.
    • Intention tremor: occurs when moving toward a target and worsens as a person nears their target, like touching the face with a hand or reaching for an object.
    • Task-specific tremor: manifests itself when an individual tries to perform a task involving skill or precision, such as handwriting or speaking.
    • Isometric tremor: accompanies voluntary muscle contractions that are not associated with movement, as when holding a dumbbell or other heavy object.

    Box 1 Clinical Criteria For Essential Tremor2

    Tremor Disorder or Parkinson’s?

    Definite essential tremor

    • Postural tremor of moderate amplitude is present in at least one arm

    • Tremor of moderate amplitude is present in at least one arm during at least four tasks, such as pouring water, using a spoon to drink water drinking water, finger-to-nose manoeuvre, and drawing a spiral.

    • Tremor must interfere with at least one activity of daily living.

    • Medications, hypothyroidism, alcohol, and other neurological conditions are not the cause of tremor.

    Probable essential tremor

    • Tremor of moderate amplitude is present in at least one arm during at least four tasks, or head tremor is present.

    • Medications, hyperthyroidism, alcohol, and other neurological conditions are not the cause of tremor.

    • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    ET is believed to be of a central nervous system origin, but a reproducible neuropathology has not been described. A central aetiology was partly supported by the beneficial effect of thalamotomy, thalamic deep brain stimulation , and drugs that act centrally. Numerous experimental physiological and functional imaging studies have also implicated dysfunction in brain stem structures, including the inferior olive, locus coeruleus, red nucleus, thalamus, but cerebellum seems to be a prime candidate for the site of dysfunction in ET. It is probable that ET occur as a result of an abnormal oscillator of a CNS pacemaker in a currently unknown exact location that can be increased or suppressed by reflex pathways.

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    Treatments For Essential Tremor

    According to Harvard.edu, there are several actions that can be taken to help manage your essential tremor and minimize how they impact your daily life. First, lets cover treatment options:

  • Oral Medications: Propranolol and primidone are considered to be the most effective treatments for essential tremor, reducing tremors as much as 50%. Propranolol is a beta-blocker and primidone is an anti-seizure medication.
  • Surgical Treatment: In cases where essential tremor does not respond to medication, surgery may be recommended. There are invasive techniques, such as deep brain stimulation, that can be used to help reduce tremors. However, brain surgery is not without its serious risks.
  • Non-Invasive Therapy with Cala Trio: Cala Trio is a wrist-worn non-invasive therapy device that is calibrated to relieve hand tremors. It works by delivering surface stimulation at your wrist, which is believed to disrupt the central tremor network in your brain. In one clinical study, 64% of patients reported tremor relief and the average reported time was 94 minutes. Available only by prescription, the Cala Trio wrist-worn device provides on-demand tremor relief.
  • As each patient is different, you and your doctor will need to decide what the best course of action is for you. You must weigh the pros and cons of each treatment option based on your lifestyle and how you think theyll impact your quality of life.

    Next Steps: Getting Care For Parkinsons And Essential Tremor

    If you believe you have Parkinsons disease or essential tremor, dont hesitate to seek professional care. Your doctor can help you diagnose your condition, find the right treatment plan for you, and manage your symptoms so you can enjoy the best quality of life possible. While suffering from a condition like essential tremor or Parkinsons can be frightening, you dont have to face it on your own.

    MKG-1123 Rev A Feb 2021

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    Alternative Treatments In Parkinsons & Essential Tremor

    At Hoag, we believe in empowering health with a personal touch, and we believe that knowledge is power. In the Salsbury Family Movement Disorders Program, we offer the most advanced treatments to manage Parkinsons disease and essential tremor, including Deep Brain Stimulation surgery considered in many cases the most superior treatment. We are committed to helping you understand your treatment options.

    Deep Brain Stimulation surgery is used for Parkinsons tremor, slowness, stiffness and dystonia. It is also used to treat essential tremor and dystonia.

    Advantages are:

    • Electrodes can be placed on both sides of the brain
    • Symptoms can be treated on both sides of the body
    • Slowness, stiffness and dystonia can also be treated
    • The electrical impulses can be adjusted to ensure long-lasting symptom control as symptoms progress
    • Patients can adjust their own settings as needed
    • The surgery does not require the patients head to be shaved, and the incision is small
    • With advancements in technology, current DBS device batteries can last up to 20 years

    Disadvantages include:

    • It is surgery and requires an overnight stay for monitoring
    • Anesthesia is required
    • Not all patients are candidates for DBS

    Gamma Knife Surgery is available at Hoag and uses focused gamma radiation beams to ablate a small area of the brain in a procedure called a thalamotomy or pallidotomy.

    Advantages are:

    Treatment Of Seizures And Tremors

    Pin on General

    The treatment for seizures and tremors will depend on the type and cause. Seizures can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery. Tremors can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, occupational therapy, or surgery. In some cases, botox injections may be used to reduce tremors.

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    Are There Surgical Options For Essential Tremor

    Deep brain stimulation is a therapeutic option for those with severe disabling ET not already managed by medications. DBS is often described as a pacemaker for the brain. It works much like a pacemaker, sending electrical signals to the brain instead of the heart. It is primarily utilized for patients who have Parkinsons disease, dystonia, or essential tremor, who cant adequately control their disease with medication.

    Thalamotomy, involving the destruction of tremor producing cells in the brain region called the thalamus, is another surgical option. Using a small temperature-controlled electrode, a permanent lesion is created in the thalamus that helps to stop tremor without disrupting sensory or motor control.

    Talk to your doctor about surgical and non-surgical options that are right for you.

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    What Is Parkinsons Disease

    Parkinsons disease is a progressive condition that causes trouble with movement. Its caused by the death of cells in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This part of your brain produces the neurotransmitter dopamine.

    In some cases, specific genetic mutations are linked to the development of Parkinsons. But more often, it seems to appear randomly. Its thought that environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides, herbicides, or air pollution may contribute, but more evidence is needed to understand the potential link.

    According to the , Parkinsons most commonly develops in people over the age of 60 and affects men about 50 percent more often than women.

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    How Do Treatments Differ

    MS treatments can ease your symptoms during an attack or slow down the diseaseâs effects on your body.

    Steroids like prednisone calm the inflammation that damages your nerves.

    Plasma exchange is another therapy if steroids donât work. Your doctor will use a machine to remove the plasma portion of your blood. The plasma gets mixed with a protein solution and put back into your body.

    Some people with both diseases who take anti-inflammatory medicines like steroids see their Parkinsonâs symptoms get better.

    Disease-modifying treatments slow down MS nerve damage and disability. They include:

    National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke: âTremor Fact Sheet.â

    Neurology: âParkinsonâs Disease in Multiple Sclerosis A Population-Based, Nationwide Study in Denmark .â

    Mayo Clinic: âMultiple Sclerosis: Overview,â âMultiple Sclerosis: Symptoms and Causes,â âMultiple Sclerosis: Treatment,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Causes,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Definition,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Risk Factors,â âParkinsonâs Disease: Symptoms.â

    Christopher Reeve Foundation: âHow the spinal cord works.â

    National Association for Continence: âParkinsonâs Disease.â

    National Multiple Sclerosis Society: âMS Symptoms,â âWho Gets MS? .â

    National Parkinson Foundation: âNon-Motor Symptoms.â

    Multiple Sclerosis Trust: âLhermitteâs sign.â

    Johns Hopkins Medicine: âPlasmapheresis.â

    Diagnosing Essential Tremor Vs Parkinsons

    Tremor – Shaking hands (hand tremors) Causes and treatment. Parkinson or Physiological Tremor?

    Diagnosing either of these conditions can be tricky. There is no simple test that can be done that will show if you have essential tremor or Parkinsons. Your doctor will use a combination of techniques to diagnose your condition:6

    • Medical history Your doctor will go over your full medical history including that of family members to identify any warning signs.
    • Physical exam During your physical exam, your doctor may test your motor symptoms and motor skills. This may be able to help them distinguish between essential tremor and Parkinsons.
    • Handwriting exam Since Parkinsons can make your handwriting look small and cramped, this can be an indicator as to which condition you have.
    • DaTScan A dopamine transported scan can identify any changes in your dopamine levels. This wont give any definite diagnosis, but taken with other factors it can help distinguish between essential tremor and Parkinsons.
    • Imaging tests or MRI These may be used to rule out other possibilities.
    • Ultrasound Some promise has been shown for the idea that a transcranial sonography ultrasound can help differentiate between essential tremor and Parkinsons, but this is still in the early stages of testing.

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    Diagnostic Criteria For Et & Pd

    Two sets of criteria are commonly used for the diagnosis of ET. For definite ET, the diagnostic criteria proposed by the Movement Disorder Society require the presence of persistent, bilateral postural tremor of the forearms . Kinetic tremor may be present, but is not necessary for the diagnosis . No other abnormal neurological signs may be present, except for Froments sign, which is a cogwheel phenomenon without rigidity . For definite ET, the criteria proposed by the Washington Heights-Inwood Genetic Study of Essential Tremor require the presence of moderate amplitude postural tremor as well as kinetic tremor, with the latter resulting in impairment of activities of daily living .

    The UK Parkinsons Disease Society Brain Bank criteria require postmortem confirmation for the diagnosis of definite PD . The diagnosis of probable PD requires bradykinesia and one of the following additional features: rigidity, 46-Hz rest tremor or postural instability . In addition, three supportive features are required . The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for PD only include clinical criteria for possible PD, which require three out of four of the following features: rest tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity or asymmetric onset .

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