Thursday, September 21, 2023

Parkinson’s Disease Statistics 2021

Treating Parkinsons With Complementary Medicine

Joe Dispenza 2021 : Healing Parkinson’s Disease With The Placebo Effect

Complementary medicine incorporates many different practices that can be used alongside conventional medicine to try to ease PD symptoms. There is typically not as much rigorous data to support the use of complementary medicine techniques, as compared to conventional medicine, but many patients find them helpful. These include yoga and massage.

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Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder

REM sleep behaviour is associated with PD and is a prodromal symptom in many cases. Patients with REM sleep disorder often physically act out vivid dreams during REM sleep, which can affect their quality of life and that of their family and carers. NICE recommends the off-label use of clonazepam or melatonin . Benzodiazepines are cautioned in the elderly population therefore, this patient cohort must be monitored closely by their care team if started on clonazepam.

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There Are Some Subtle Early Warning Signs

Along with the early motor symptoms such as tremors and stiffness, other early warning signs of the disease can include the loss of smell and a soft voice. Small handwriting is also a telltale sign that someone may have Parkinsons, especially if over time it continues to get smaller and more crowded.

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Writing And Talking About Parkinson’s

Based on feedback from the Parkinson’s community, here are the preferred words and terms for talking about Parkinson’s, and the ones to avoid. If you’re unsure about any of this, please get in touch with our Media and PR team:

  • When describing people with, affected by, or living with Parkinson’s, use ‘people living with Parkinson’s’.
  • Avoid saying ‘suffering’, ‘surviving’, ‘battling’. Also avoid ‘victims’ or ‘sufferers’.
  • Use ‘people affected by Parkinson’s’ to refer to people with Parkinson’s and their family, friends and carers.
  • When talking about retirement age adults with Parkinson’s, use ‘older people’.
  • Avoid saying ‘elderly people’ or ‘the elderly’.
  • You can use either ‘working age’, ‘early onset’, ‘young onset’ or ‘younger people’ to be clear that you’re talking about pre-retirement age adults with Parkinson’s.
  • Use ‘disabled people’. Use ‘disabled’ or ‘accessible’, depending on the context.
  • Never use ‘people with disabilities’ or ‘handicapped’.
  • Parkinson’s, symptoms and medication:

    • When talking about Parkinson’s, always refer to it as simply ‘Parkinson’s’ or a/the ‘condition’.
    • Avoid saying ‘Parkinson’s disease’.
  • When talking about symptoms, mention that there are more than 40 symptoms but Parkinson’s affects everyone differently. Not everyone will experience all the symptoms.
  • Use ‘tremor’ when describing this motor symptom.
  • Avoid saying ‘shaking’ or ‘the shakes’.
  • Use ‘Parkinson’s medication’ or ‘Parkinson’s drugs’ when talking about Parkinson’s drugs.
  • Surgery For People With Parkinsons Disease

    Facts About Parkinson

    Deep brain stimulation surgery is an option to treat Parkinsons disease symptoms, but it is not suitable for everyone. There are strict criteria and guidelines on who can be a candidate for surgery, and this is something that only your doctor and you can decide. Surgery may be considered early or late in the progression of Parkinsons. When performing deep-brain stimulation surgery, the surgeon places an electrode in the part of the brain most effected by Parkinsons disease. Electrical impulses are introduced to the brain, which has the effect of normalising the brains electrical activity reducing the symptoms of Parkinsons disease. The electrical impulse is introduced using a pacemaker-like device called a stimulator. Thalamotomy and pallidotomy are operations where the surgeon makes an incision on part of the brain. These surgeries aim to alleviate some forms of tremor or unusual movement, but they are rarely performed now.

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    Estimation Of The 2020 Global Population Of Parkinsons Disease

    N. Maserejian, L. Vinikoor-Imler, A. Dilley


    Objective: To estimate the number of individuals living with PD globally in 2020.

    Background: Although previous studies have estimated PD prevalence in many countries, the number of individuals with PD globally in 2020 has not been estimated.

    Method: We comprehensively reviewed the literature for recent and reliable prevalence estimates of PD globally. The Global Burden of Disease Study was the only source available that provided an overall global estimate, with 2017 the most recent year available from the published manuscript or online tools . We verified the estimates of the PD prevalence of several countries that comprised the GBD summary estimate, by reviewing the individual publications and comparing them to the GBD estimates. GBD estimates tended to be in the lower range but close to estimates from the individual papers. For all but two countries , we applied the GBD prevalence proportions in 2017. For the US and Canada, we applied more recent prevalence proportions by Marras et al. 2018 . We assessed the worldwide PD population in 2020 by multiplying the most reliable prevalence proportions by the corresponding 2020 population, using CDC data for US, Statistics Canada for Canada, Eurostat for European countries and UN population estimates for the rest of the world.

    To cite this abstract in AMA style:

    Mov Disord.

    Exercise And Physical Therapy

    Research has shown that regular exercise benefits people with Parkinsons disease.


    • reduces stiffness
    • improves mobility, posture, balance and gait

    Aerobic exercise increases oxygen delivery and neurotransmitters to keep our heart, lungs, and nervous system healthy. General exercise may also reduce depression. Learning-based memory exercises can also help keep our memory sharp .

    What types of exercise are best for people with Parkinsons disease?

    There is increasing evidence that aerobic and learning-based exercises could be neuroprotective in aging individuals and those with neurodegenerative disease. Facilitating exercise programs that challenge our heart and lungs as well as promote good biomechanics, good posture, trunk rotation and normal rhythmic, symmetric movements are the best. Dancing to music may be particularly good for decreasing stiffness.

    Types of exercisesthat do this:

    • Walking outside or in a mall

    Types of exercises that promote cardiopulmonary fitness:

    • Hiking using walking sticks
    • Swimming with different strokes with the eyes open and closed not only challenge motor learning but also increase heart rate and provide good cardiopulmonary conditioning.
    • New bodyweight-supported treadmills can also be helpful to protect from falling, and to facilitate easier coordinated movements for fast walking with a long stride or jogging.

    Types of exercise that do NOT challenge motor planning:

    Is there any value in strength training?

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    Support For People With Parkinsons Disease

    Early access to a multidisciplinary support team is important. These teams may include doctors, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, social workers and specialist nurses. Members of the team assess the person with Parkinsons disease and identify potential difficulties and possible solutions.There are a limited number of multidisciplinary teams in Victoria that specialise in Parkinsons disease management. But generalist teams are becoming more aware of how to help people with Parkinsons disease.

    Important Points About The New Medications

    Facts About Parkinson’s Disease | Nervous System Disorder | Diseases Decoded | PrepLadder

    With multiple new medications available for the treatment of PD, there is more hope than ever that Parkinsons symptoms can be successfully managed for many years. A few things to consider:

    • For people whose symptoms are difficult to control, these new treatments are welcome additions to what was previously available and many people with PD have been using these new medications with significant benefit.
    • On the other hand, many of the newly-approved medications have the same mechanisms of action as older medications so they are not breaking new ground in treating symptoms.
    • In addition, for some people, the effect on symptoms may be mild or not substantial.

    These caveats may mean that your physician has not suggested a medication change for you. It is also important to note that despite all the new medications, carbidopa/levodopa remains the most potent medication to treat the motor symptoms of PD.

    If your doctor does choose to try one of the new options, there may be multiple paths that your doctor can take when contemplating a medication adjustment. Often trial and error is the only way to determine the best medication regimen for you, so you may need to practice some patience as you work together with your doctor to determine what works or doesnt work.

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    Trends In Ylds Caused By Pd

    In 2019, the number of YLDs caused by PD was 1210.09 × 103 globally, with an increase of 154.73% since 1990. The overall ASR of YLDs reported an increasing trend from 1990 to 2019, with the EAPC of 0.53 . Male patients had a higher burden, and undertook a larger increasing trend than female patients . Among the age groups, the highest YLD number was seen in the age group of over 80 years , and the percentage increased pronouncedly among the patients aged 45 years old .

    Table 2. The changes in YLDs of Parkinson’s disease worldwide, and in sexes, SDI areas, and regions, 19902019.

    The upward trend in the ASR of YLDs occurred in all SDI areas from 1990 to 2019, particularly the middle one . In terms of geographic regions, the largest number of YLDs was seen in East Asia , while the lowest one was in Oceania . The percentage of YLDs number increased from 27.97% in Eastern Europe to 256.90% in Central Latin America during 19902019. The ASR of YLDs ranged from 8.01/100,000 in Eastern SubSaharan Africa to 20.84/100,000 in East Asia. Increasing trends in the ASR of YLDs occurred in most regions, particularly East Asia . However, a minor decreasing trend was found in Oceania . The ASRs of YLDs were positively associated with SDI among the regions in 2019 .

    Who Does It Affect

    The risk of developing Parkinsons disease naturally increases with age, and the average age at which it starts is 60 years old. Its slightly more common in men or people designated male at birth than in women or people designated female at birth .

    While Parkinsons disease is usually age-related, it can happen in adults as young as 20 .

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    Can Parkinsons Disease Be Cured

    No, Parkinsons disease is not curable. However, it is treatable, and many treatments are highly effective. It might also be possible to delay the progress and more severe symptoms of the disease.

    A note from Cleveland Clinic

    Parkinsons disease is a very common condition, and it is more likely to happen to people as they get older. While Parkinsons isnt curable, there are many different ways to treat this condition. They include several different classes of medications, surgery to implant brain-stimulation devices and more. Thanks to advances in treatment and care, many can live for years or even decades with this condition and can adapt to or receive treatment for the effects and symptoms.

    How Do I Take Care Of Myself

    Number Of Parkinson

    If you have Parkinsons disease, the best thing you can do is follow the guidance of your healthcare provider on how to take care of yourself.

    • Take your medication as prescribed. Taking your medications can make a huge difference in the symptoms of Parkinsons disease. You should take your medications as prescribed and talk to your provider if you notice side effects or start to feel like your medications arent as effective.
    • See your provider as recommended. Your healthcare provider will set up a schedule for you to see them. These visits are especially important to help with managing your conditions and finding the right medications and dosages.
    • Dont ignore or avoid symptoms. Parkinsons disease can cause a wide range of symptoms, many of which are treatable by treating the condition or the symptoms themselves. Treatment can make a major difference in keeping symptoms from having worse effects.

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    What Are The Best Balance Exercises For Parkinsons Disease Patients

    Maintaining proper balance can be a considerable challenge, especially for people who have Parkinsons disease. But that does not imply that you should relax and be inactive. Remaining active is one of the essential things you can do to maintain your mental and physical health.

    That said, there is no single prescription exercise for people with Parkinsons disease. For sedentary patients, moving and getting up could be crucial. Several activities can help Parkinsons patients to attain balance, including:

    Changes In Cognition And Parkinsons Disease

    Some people with Parkinsons may experience changes in their cognitive function, including problems with memory, attention, and the ability to plan and accomplish tasks. Stress, depression, and some medications may also contribute to these changes in cognition.

    Over time, as the disease progresses, some people may develop dementia and be diagnosed with Parkinsons dementia, a type of Lewy body dementia. People with Parkinsons dementia may have severe memory and thinking problems that affect daily living.

    Talk with your doctor if you or a loved one is diagnosed with Parkinsons disease and is experiencing problems with thinking or memory.

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    Medications For People With Parkinsons Disease

    Symptoms of Parkinsons disease result from the progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the brain and other organs such as the gut, which produce a neurotransmitter called dopamine. This causes a deficiency in the availability of dopamine, which is necessary for smooth and controlled movements. Medication therapy focuses on maximising the availability of dopamine in the brain. Medication regimes are individually tailored to your specific need. Parkinsons medications fit into one of the following broad categories:

    • levodopa dopamine replacement therapy
    • dopamine agonists mimic the action of dopamine
    • COMT inhibitors used along with levodopa. This medication blocks an enzyme known as COMT to prevent levodopa breaking down in the intestine, allowing more of it to reach the brain
    • anticholinergics block the effect of another brain chemical to rebalance its levels with dopamine
    • amantadine has anticholinergic properties and improves dopamine transmission
    • MAO type B inhibitors prevent the metabolism of dopamine within the brain.

    Parkinsons Disease Has Many Stages

    Parkinson’s Disease Medication Update | April 22, 2021

    There are five stages of Parkinsons disease:

    • Stage 1: At this stage, you will have only mild symptoms and can go about your day-to-day life relatively easily.
    • Stage 2: Symptoms such as tremors and stiffness begin to worsen and affect both sides of the body. You may develop poor posture or have trouble walking.
    • Stage 3: In this stage, your movement will begin to slow down and you lose balance. Symptoms can hinder your ability to perform daily tasks such as getting dressed or cooking.
    • Stage 4: Symptoms are severe and cause significant issues with day-to-day living. At this point, you are unable to live alone because you cannot complete daily tasks on your own.
    • Stage 5: Walking or standing could be impossible at this point. Typically, people at this stage are confined to a wheelchair or bed and require a nurse to take care of them at home.

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    What Is Niehs Doing

    NIEHS funds researchers who study how exposures to pesticides, pollution, and other contaminants affect neurodegeneration, either individually or in combination with specific genes.

    NIEHS also provides funding for career development programs to support researchers and cultivate the next generation of leaders in the field.

    Grant recipients study the following diseases:

    Plus Common Misconceptions About What Its Like

    There are many misconceptions about Parkinsons disease, which has led to widespread misunderstanding about what the disease really is and the effects it has on someone who is living with it.

    Many people believe that having Parkinsons means you would look sick, but thats not always the case. Living with Parkinsons disease looks slightly different for everyone. The condition can cause symptoms like tremors or balance issues and mental health struggles such as depression. Learn more about the facts and myths about this disease.

    Verywell / Zoe Hansen

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    Impact On Families And Carers

    Informal carers spendmany hours dailyproviding care for people living with PD.This can be overwhelming. Physical, emotional and financial pressures can cause great stress to families and carers, and support is required from the health, social, financial and legal systems. Useful support resources from other conditions can be drawn upon, such as WHOs iSupport programme for dementia.

    Causes Of Parkinsons Disease


    At present, we do not know the cause of Parkinsons disease. In most people there is no family history of Parkinsons Researchers worldwide are investigating possible causes, including:

    • environmental triggers, pesticides, toxins, chemicals
    • genetic factors
    • combinations of environment and genetic factors

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    Key Programs And Resources

    The Parkinsons Disease Biomarkers Programs , a major NINDS initiative, is aimed at discovering ways to identify individuals at risk for developing PD and Lewy Body Dementia and to track the progression of the disease. It funds research and collects human biological samples and clinical data to identify biomarkers that will speed the development of novel therapeutics for PD. Goals are improving clinical trials and earlier diagnosis and treatment. Projects are actively recruiting volunteers at sites across the U.S. NINDS also collaborates with the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research on BioFIND, a project collecting biological samples and clinical data from healthy volunteers and those with PD. For more information about the PDBP and how you can get involved, please visit the PDBP website.

    The NINDS Morris K. Udall Centers of Excellence for Parkinsons Disease Research program supports research centers across the country that work collaboratively to study PD disease mechanisms, the genetic contributions to PD, and potential therapeutic targets and treatment strategies.

    The NINDS Intramural Research Program conducts clinical studies to better understand PD mechanisms and develop novel and improve treatments.

    The NINDS Biospecimens Repositories store and distribute DNA, cells, blood samples, cerebrospinal fluid, and autopsy tissue to PD researchers around the world.

    Medicines For Parkinsons Disease

    Medicines can help treat the symptoms of Parkinsons by:

    • Increasing the level of dopamine in the brain
    • Having an effect on other brain chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, which transfer information between brain cells
    • Helping control non-movement symptoms

    The main therapy for Parkinsons is levodopa. Nerve cells use levodopa to make dopamine to replenish the brains dwindling supply. Usually, people take levodopa along with another medication called carbidopa. Carbidopa prevents or reduces some of the side effects of levodopa therapy such as nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and restlessness and reduces the amount of levodopa needed to improve symptoms.

    People living with Parkinsons disease should never stop taking levodopa without telling their doctor. Suddenly stopping the drug may have serious side effects, like being unable to move or having difficulty breathing.

    The doctor may prescribe other medicines to treat Parkinsons symptoms, including:

    • Dopamine agonists to stimulate the production of dopamine in the brain
    • Enzyme inhibitors to increase the amount of dopamine by slowing down the enzymes that break down dopamine in the brain
    • Amantadine to help reduce involuntary movements
    • Anticholinergic drugs to reduce tremors and muscle rigidity

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