Sunday, August 7, 2022

Probiotics For Parkinson’s Disease

Probiotics Also Help Brain Function

January 31, 2020 Parkinsons , probiotics and worms.

The link between the gut and the brain is no longer that big of a reach. For years, scientists have been investigating the gut-brain axis connection. Many mood-related and neurological conditions have now been linked with gut bacteria.

Other research has found that probiotic bacteria can increase levels of important neurotansmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. More specifically, a reduction of dopamine and its related norepinephrine is one of the hallmark symptoms of Parkinsons disease. When there isnt enough dopamine to provide smooth nerve impulses between the parts of the brain that control motor movement, coordination and motor control begin to deteriorate.

One of the greatest suppliers of dopamine within the brain is the substantia nigra. During the progression of Parkinsons, neurons in this part of the brain are damaged, which decreases the availability of dopamine. This damage is often related to the existence of Lewy bodies within these areas so it is assumed Lewy bodies are involved in the progression of Parkinsons.

I might add that University of Nebraska researchers also linked increased levels of Lewy bodies with increased pathogenic bacteria in the gut.

Will I Be Able To Take Part In This Study

The researchers are no longer looking for participants.

Should the study be a success, it will hopefully lead to further research and larger scale clinical trials of the benefits of improving the gut microbiotia in Parkinsons.

If you are interested in searching for other research opportunities happening near you please go to our Take Part Hub.

Probiotics Benefit Parkinson’s Disease In New Study

In a laboratory study using roundworms, researchers think they may have found a way of using probiotics to treat Parkinson’s disease. The researchers suggest that administering a specific strand of probiotic bacteria could prevent the accumulation of the alpha-synuclein in the gut. The way that these probiotics benefit Parkinson’s may lead to a more effective treatment of the disease if these findings are confirmed.

The study, which was conducted at the University of Edinburgh, involved genetically engineering a worm to develop with the human equivalent of the alpha-synuclein protein. Once they reached adulthood, the worms were fed a supplement that contained Bacillus subtilis PXN21, which is a strand of probiotic bacteria.

Upon examining the results, the researchers didn’t find a difference in the levels of the alpha-synuclein protein itself, but they did observe that it didn’t react with the gut in the same manner. Aggregates of the protein were cleared from the guts of the worms as the probiotic was introduced into their bodies. When compared to normal worms on a traditional diet, the genetically altered worms exhibited far lower levels of the aggregated protein while on the probiotic diet. The low level of protein aggregates remained consistent throughout the lives of the test worms.

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Data Retrieval And Zotu Picking

Raw reads were downloaded from SRA or the European Nucleotide Archive . Adapters were removed using the bbtools suit. Data were analyzed using Lotus and the UNOISE3 algorithm for zOTUs calculation, bundled in a new Lotus version , currently under development. Due to the technical variability among datasets the filtering parameters used by the sdm program called by Lotus, were adjusted for each dataset independently and are reported in the supplementary materials . For the datasets of Petrov et al. and Weis et al., we had to decrease the accepted minimum error due to the low quality of the sequencing data . 16S-based functional predictions were obtained using the default settings in picrust2 and the Metacyc database. In this analysis, the dataset of Qian et al. was not included, as with the default cutoffs the sequences aligned poorly with the reference database used. Count tables for species, genera, families, and functional predictions were then analyzed using R v3.6.2 and processed using the phyloseq R package. We then retained all samples with > 4500 reads, as well as taxa with > 5 counts and predicted functionalities with > 20 counts in at least 2.5% of the samples. These filtration steps left a total of 1211 and 1121 samples for the taxonomic and predicted-function data, respectively. Enterotypes were predicted using rarefied relative abundances of genera via the web-platform.

Probiotics Benefit Parkinsons Disease In New Study

Could âAdvanced Probioticsâ? Soon Treat Parkinsonâs Disease ...

In a laboratory study using roundworms, researchers think they may have found a way of using probiotics to treat Parkinsons disease. The researchers suggest that administering a specific strand of probiotic bacteria could prevent the accumulation of the alpha-synuclein in the gut. The way that these probiotics benefit Parkinsons may lead to a more effective treatment of the disease if these findings are confirmed.

The study, which was conducted at the University of Edinburgh, involved genetically engineering a worm to develop with the human equivalent of the alpha-synuclein protein. Once they reached adulthood, the worms were fed a supplement that contained Bacillus subtilis PXN21, which is a strand of probiotic bacteria.

Upon examining the results, the researchers didnt find a difference in the levels of the alpha-synuclein protein itself, but they did observe that it didnt react with the gut in the same manner. Aggregates of the protein were cleared from the guts of the worms as the probiotic was introduced into their bodies. When compared to normal worms on a traditional diet, the genetically altered worms exhibited far lower levels of the aggregated protein while on the probiotic diet. The low level of protein aggregates remained consistent throughout the lives of the test worms.

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Variance Stabilizing Transformation And Deseq2 Analyses

Since the DESeq2 approach does not account for zero-inflated data, the correction factors were calculated using the GMPR method that is based on geometric means of pairwise ratios. Euclidean, BC, and JSD distances were used as beta-diversity estimators after normalizing the data via VST through the DESeq2 package. Statistical differences between control and PD groups were tested using the adonis2 function as specified above. DAs were calculated using default DESeq2 parameters that include a negative binomial GLM fitting and a Wald test. Multiple testings were accounted for using BH P value correction.

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What I Learned The Hard Way

Like many of you, I along with my doctor, thought that taking a probiotic to help keep my digestive system in check and help with the symptoms that usually accompany chronic constipation would be a no brainer. With so many products to choose from, she recommended a probiotic for women which she thought would also help decrease my recurrent urinary tract infections. I had already taken a couple of brands OTC but had not seen any real benefit, so I decided to try the brand she recommended. Shortly after, I began having fever and chills every day which lasted only about an hour or two varying throughout day. Aside from fever and chills, I did not feel ill. This went on for a couple of weeks until I realized that symptoms were occurring about an hour after I took the probiotic. Fortunately, I was able to recognize what was happening quickly. However, recent studies have indicated that many who take probiotics can develop a septicemia which can be dangerous if already frail, elderly, or in some way immune compromised.

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Probiotics & Parkinsons Disease

Probiotics refer to foods or nutritional supplements that contain micro-organisms meant to support health. Probiotics therefore make up a very large category of products, including certain yogurts as well as supplements in powder and pill form. You can review the use of probiotics for general health on the NIH website here. Probiotics may work by supporting a healthy balance of micro-organisms in the microbiome, defined as the trillions of microbes that live in the human gut, and possibly by modulating the bodys immune responses.

Recently, there has been concern in medical literature that the explosion of use of probiotics in the general population has outpaced our understanding of the science behind its use. Probiotics have been linked to infection, particularly in people who have compromised immune systems . Despite insufficient scientific data to support its widespread use however, ingestion of probiotics does not typically cause problems in those with normal immune systems.

In two past blogs, I wrote about the complex relationship between the gut and PD and discussed the possibility that the microbiome in patients with PD might be different than those without PD. This has led to a research interest of whether manipulating gut bacteria in PD can be therapeutic.

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Can An Altered Microbiome Contribute To A Diagnosis Of Pd

Dr. Ohhira’s Probiotics, Candida Effects, Appendix & Parkinson ‘s – 12072 Aired 8-30-19

Research studies in animals have shown that an altered microbiome might contribute to PD pathology. For example, one study showed that in a mouse model of PD that overexpressed alpha-synuclein, there was more alpha-synuclein accumulation in the brain of the mice with an intact microbiome as compared to the same mice who were raised in a germ-free environment with no bacteria in their gut. This supports the theory that abnormal alpha-synuclein accumulation in the brain is enhanced by a particular microbiome in the gut.

Other studies showed that transplantation of fecal material from PD mice to normal mice, thereby introducing a PD microbiome into mice without PD pathology their brain, led to impairment of motor function and a decline in brain dopamine. These studies also support the theory that a particular microbiome might be integral in causing PD pathology in the brain.

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The Pros Of Probiotics

One strategy to try and reintroduce good bacteria is to use a treatment called faecal transplantation. This involves collecting bacteria that live in the gut of a healthy donor from a stool sample, and preparing and transplanting them via a tube directly into the gut of the recipient. But while this may work for some conditions where the gut microbiota is abnormal, the process is difficult and still needs regulatory approval and safety checks before it could be made available more widely. So, researchers have been investigating other ways to get good bacteria back into the gut.

A faecal transplant may provide a more direct route for live bacteria to reach the gut but what about oral probiotics? Unfortunately, the bacteria in many commercial probiotics are unlikely to reach the lower gut, where they are needed, as most types of bacteria are wiped out on route by the acidic environment in the stomach. However, with the right combination of good bacteria and delivery mechanism, this may not be inevitable.

What Is The Microbiome

The human gut harbors trillions of micro-organisms referred to collectively as the microbiome. Current understanding is that the microbiome provides a number of benefits to the human including help with digestion of food, help with warding off harmful microorganisms, aid in the absorption of particular nutrients, and creation of needed vitamins. These functions can influence the nervous system of the gut, called the enteric nervous system . In addition, the gut microbiome releases byproducts and metabolites that have effects on nerves. The microbiome varies from person to person and is influenced by many factors including diet, environment, and genetics. Although no two microbiomes are identical, people with certain diseases may share similarities in their microbiomes.

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What Else Can A Probiotic/prebiotic Supplement Do For You

Supplementing with a probiotic formula, or otherwise ensuring that you are getting adequate levels of probiotics in your everyday diet, can do wonders for your overall health. A healthy balance of probiotics in the gut has been linked to everything from stress resilience to liver health. Recent studies have found that in order to receive the full benefit of probiotics, it’s essential to find a high-quality supplement that provides both probiotics and prebiotics.

Link Between Parkinson’s And The Gut Microbiome

IJMS

Studies have shown that people with Parkinson’s disease have an abnormal presence of a protein called alpha-synuclein, which the vagus nerve carries from the brain to the gut. This may explain the higher presence of protein aggregates in the gut microbiomes of people with Parkinson’s disease.

Since researchers know that alpha-synuclein is linked to the disease, a higher presence of the protein in the gut may help diagnose the disease before symptoms manifest. If the research can be confirmed, this may lead to more effective treatments in both preventing the illness and in controlling the symptoms for those who already have the disease.

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Parkinsons Disease: Are Gut Microbes Involved

Parkinsons disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and gastrointestinal deficits. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of PD is not well understood. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the potential role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of PD. We first describe how gut microbiota can be influenced by factors predisposing individuals to PD, such as environmental toxins, aging, and host genetics. We then highlight the effect of gut microbiota on mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of PD, including disrupted microbiota gut brain axis , barrier dysfunction, and immune dysfunction. It is too early to connect the dots between gut microbiota and PD to establish causation, and experiments focused on investigating interrelationship between gut microbiota and associated metabolites on GBA, barrier dysfunction, and immune activation will be crucial to fill in the gaps.

What Does Other Research Show About The Vagus Nerve Connection To Parkinsons

Other research has shown an important relationship between the activity of the peripheral vagus nerve and the function of the dopamine system in the brain in rats. Postmortem studies on humans demonstrated that the brain area known as the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, which is connected to GI symptoms, was affected in the early stages of PD.The alpha-synucleins are also present in a number of other neurological brain pathologies, such as multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy bodies, many cases of Alzheimers, a subtype of essential tremor and others. Perhaps there is a link with the GI tract in these other pathologies.

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Gut Microbiota And Its Metabolites Are Altered In Pd Patients

Several studies have examined alteration in gut microbiota composition in PD patients, but as observed in other disease states, the results are heterogenous in terms of differences in specific taxa . There are several factors that contribute to such variability, including lack of standardization in sample collection and sequencing techniques , differences in study design, sample size, geographical diversity of patient population, and heterogeneous nature of PD .

Table 1. Gut microbiota alterations in Parkinsons disease

Study Number
Bacteroidetes , Prevotellaceae , Lactobacillaceae , Enterococcaceae, Species: Faecalibacterium prausnitziiConstipation

PD, Parkinsons disease qPCR, quantitative PCR.

In an attempt to identify potential link between gut microbiota and PD, we will next examine factors that contribute to alterations in gut microbiota, and then discuss how gut microbiota changes could contribute to PD.

What Causes The Tremors Of Parkinsons Disease

Could a common probiotic bacteria prevent Parkinson’s disease?

The cause of PD is still a mystery, but it is possible that there is a gut-brain connection in PD via at least 2 mechanisms: transmission of prion-like particles up the vagus nerve, and lipopolysaccharide production in the gut.

Related to the first mechanism involving the vagus nerve, many of the effects of the microbiota and/or probiotics on brain function have been shown to be dependent on the activation of the vagus nerve, the long nerve connecting the gastrointestinal tract to the brain. Although not proven conclusively, some scientists believe that in some cases, a problem in the gut travels through the vagus nerve to the brain, leading to PD.

Here is why: Most people have heard about the loss of dopamine neurons in PD cases. However, the hallmark of Parkinsons disease is the presence of clumps of alpha-synuclein, a protein in the brain. Scientists have found alpha-synuclein clumps in other parts of the body, including nerve cells in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies in animal models of PD have shown that clumps of alpha-synuclein in the stomach can travel through the vagus nerve, like proteinaceous infectious particles , to reach the brain. People with severed vagus nerves have a less likely chance of developing Parkinsons disease.

Another common non-motor symptom of PD is depression, which can also have roots in the gut.

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Potential Roles And Mechanistic Effects Of Probiotics

Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits to the host. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of probiotic administration are thought to be mediated through a wide assortment of mechanisms, which have been well described elsewhere,, , and are briefly summarized here.

The host gut microbiota can be impacted by probiotic supplementation through competition , antagonism, and crossfeeding., The formation of biofilms by probiotic bacteria promotes colonization and longer permanence in the mucosa of the host and avoids the attachment of pathogenic bacteria. Many probiotic strains are antagonistic toward other microorganisms due to the production of organic acids , which lower luminal pH, and also bacteriocins, which inhibit pathogens in the human gut and urinary tract. Interestingly, supplementation with Lactobacillus probiotics during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy has been found to improve eradication efficacy, presumably due to their antagonistic activity against H. pylori. Crossfeeding between probiotic bacteria and host microbiota can promote the production of SCFAs such as butyrate in the gut, with benefits as described above.

Gi Dysfunction Is Prevalent In Pd Patients

GI dysfunctions including abnormal salivation, nausea, dysphagia, altered gastric emptying, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction, are ubiquitous in PD patients . These GI abnormalities are a common nonmotor symptom of PD and may precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years, adding significantly to the healthcare burden and disrupted quality of life in PD patients . The high prevalence and early onset of these GI dysfunctions in PD certainly raises a question regarding the role of GI tract in the pathogenesis of PD. In a large population-based study of more than 6,000 patients without PD that enrolled in the Honolulu Heart Program, Abott et al. found that patients who suffered from constipation had fourfold greater risk of developing PD in the future. Subsequent autopsy on 245 of these constipated subjects, with no clinical signs of parkinsonism and dementia showed higher incidental Lewy body formation in the substantia nigra, suggesting a possible link between delayed GI transit and PD .

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