Morphological Characterization And Size Distribution
Determination of the zeta potential of DA-nanoparticles is extremely valuable as it provides an idea about the prepared suspension stability. It was observed that the prepared DA- nanoparticles remained stable for more than several weeks, with no signs of aggregation or precipitation. In our case, the values of zeta potential for the prepared nanoparticles with respect to time are specified in .1). In different times, the zeta potential ranged from 10.4 to 12.0 nm which is adequate for crossing the blood brain barrier. The prepared DA-nanoparticles preserved their characteristics when stored at room temperature. When the temperature was increased from 4 to 50 °C over a period of 90 days, the hydrodynamic size of the nanoparticles remained stable. However, when the temperature was raised after 90 days, the nanoparticles agglomerated indicating the possibility of storing this formula at room temperature .
New Hope For Parkinsons Patient
According to Andreas Hartmann, it is important to remain cautious: Weve got a cocktail that seems to have satisfying effects, but there is a risk of potentially lethal allergic reactions. In France, more than a dozen people die each year from bee stings. So, should we intensively study apamin, the active substance in the venom, in order to synthetize it later as a medicine? Or should we analyze the bee venom as a whole and suppress the allergenic substances? Its not an easy answer, confesses Andreas Hartmann. Its possible that the allergenic elements contribute to the protection of dopaminergic neurons.
This discovery is a glimmer of hope in the search for treatments against Parkinsons disease. Even if many experiments still need to be carried out, the scientists are rather optimistic. Behind this unexpected case involving bees, there is real potential taking shape. And it doesnt stop with Parkinsons. Some data suggest that apitherapy, bee venom therapy, could have a positive impact on multiple sclerosis. If you thought that killing bees could lead to the end of the world, you might also say that saving them could mean treating, and, thus, saving, humans.
The Degeneration Of Dopaminergic Neurons
In the 80s, young heroin addicts contracted Parkinsons disease for no apparent reason, explains Andreas Hartmann, a neurologist at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris. This disorder particularly affects dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum, a nervous structure responsible for motor function. That is why the recurrent symptom is akinesia, that is, rigidity and tremors while at rest. In the end, it was shown that a molecule contaminating the heroin, MPTP, was causing the disease. Today scientists use this molecule to induce the neurodegenerative disorder in laboratory animals.
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Attenuation Of Neuroinflammation And Microglial Activation
Abnormal microglial activation is a pathological hallmark in neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and AD . Experimental activation of BV2 microglial cells , using bacterial lipopolysaccharide , increases the expression of tumor necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase , promoting neuroinflammation and nitric oxide -mediated neuronal death . Moreover, activated microglia can generate superoxide free radicals
Generation Of Dcs And Macrophages From Proliferating Bone Marrow Progenitors
The DCs were generated in vitro from the C57BL/6J bone marrow according to the method described by Lutz et al. with some modifications. Briefly, the bone marrow cells from tibiae and femurs were resuspended and cultured. On day 7, the floating cells were collected and purified with magnetic separation beads to obtain a high-purity population of immature DCs. The percentage of CD11c+ cells measured using FACS analysis was > 92%. On the same day, the adherent cells were collected as well and analyzed by FACS. More than 95% of these cells were F4/80+CD11b+ macrophages.
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How Is It Used
Apitherapy is an alternative medicine practice that uses bee products including their venom to treat and prevent illnesses, pain, and more .
Although bee venom has recently experienced a surge in popularity, bee-venom therapy has been used in traditional medicine practices for thousands of years .
The venom is used in a number of ways and available in many forms. For example, its added to products like extracts, supplements, moisturizers, and serums.
You can purchase bee-venom products, such as moisturizers, lotions, and lozenges, online or in specialty stores.
Meanwhile, bee-venom injections can be administered by healthcare professionals.
Lastly, bee venom is used in live bee acupuncture or bee-sting therapy a treatment method in which live bees are placed on your skin and a sting is induced .
Some substances in bee venom, including melittin and apamin, may have medicinal properties. Bee-venom therapy has been used for thousands of years as a natural treatment for a variety of conditions.
While not all of the purported benefits of bee venom are backed by science, research has shown that it has several powerful medicinal properties.
Special Precautions And Warnings
When given as a shotLIKELY SAFEtrouble breathingheart palpitationslow blood pressureanaphylaxisPOSSIBLY SAFEWhen applied to the skinPregnancy and breast-feedingPOSSIBLY SAFEhealthcarePOSSIBLY UNSAFEmiscarriage“Auto-immune diseases” such as multiple sclerosis , lupus , rheumatoid arthritis , or other conditionsimmune system
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May Benefit Skin Health
Multiple skincare companies have started adding bee venom to products like serums and moisturizers. This ingredient may promote skin health in several ways, including by reducing inflammation, providing antibacterial effects, and reducing wrinkles.
A 12-week study in 22 women demonstrated that applying a facial serum containing bee venom twice daily significantly reduced wrinkle depth and total wrinkle count, compared with the placebo .
Another 6-week study found that 77% of participants with mild to moderate acne who used a serum containing purified bee venom twice daily experienced an improvement in acne, compared with the placebo .
Whats more, test-tube studies have shown that the venom has powerful antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects against the acne-causing bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (
Although these potential benefits are promising, more research is needed to confirm them.
Bee venom has powerful anti-inflammatory properties and may benefit the health of your skin and immune system. It may also improve certain medical conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain.
Surface Plasmon Resonance Assay
To analyze the PLA2 binding to CD206, we conducted surface plasmon resonance using a Biacore 2000 instrument . In brief, HBS-EP buffer was used for the sample dilution and analysis. The CM5 dextran sensor chip was activated with equal amounts of 0.2 M N-ethyl-N–carbodiimide and 0.05 M N-hydroxysuccinimide. Recombinant human CD206 was immobilized in 10 mM sodium acetate buffer and then 1 M ethanolamine-hydrochloride to deactivate any excess N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. This coupling resulted in 8000 response units of the immobilized proteins per flow cell. To evaluate the binding, each PLA2 was diluted in HBS-EP buffer, analyzed at various concentrations, and passed over the sensor chip at a flow rate of 20 l/min. An activatedand-blocked flow cell without immobilized ligand was used to evaluate nonspecific binding. The immobilized surface was regenerated for subsequent measurements using 10 l 10 mM NaOH. The regeneration solution was passed over the immobilized surface until the surface plasmon resonance signal reached the initial background value before protein injection. For all of the samples, response curves were also recorded on control surfaces. The results were calculated after subtraction of the control values using the BIAevaluation 3.0 software .
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Medications That Decrease The Immune System Interacts With Bee Venom
Bee venom might increase the immune system. By increasing the immune system, bee venom might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine , basiliximab , cyclosporine , daclizumab , muromonab-CD3 , mycophenolate , tacrolimus , sirolimus , prednisone , corticosteroids , and others.
Facts On Bee & Its Venom
- Bee venom is also used for a variety of cases, including face creams and therapeutics.
- The estimated price of bee venom has been reported to range from $30 per gram on the low-end to as high as $300 per gram, as per the Bee Venom Lab.
- As these insects play a significant role as major pollinators, a recent decline in their figures has emerged as a global health concern.
- This is noticeably due to blended vulnerability to increased contamination from pesticides and poor nutrition.
- Sugar is used as fuel flights by the bees to work inside the nest.
- However, pesticides decrease their hemolymph sugar levels and therefore cut their energy stores.
- The synergistic effect of limited food supplies deprives the bees further of their energy to function, thereby causing a downward curve in their causing survival rates.
- Bee venom has also been used in healing other conditions, like arthritis eczema, and some types of cancer.
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Precautions And Potential Downsides
While bee venom has been shown to offer several potential benefits, its important to note that studies supporting these benefits are limited. In fact, most available research has been conducted on animals or in test tubes.
Thus, its unclear how effective bee-venom therapy is as an alternative medicine treatment, as well as whether its any more effective than traditional treatments for conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, chronic pain, or autoimmune diseases.
Certain methods of bee-venom therapy, including acupuncture, can lead to side effects, such as pain, swelling, and redness.
Additionally, bee-venom therapy can cause serious side effects or even death in highly allergic individuals by causing anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can make it hard to breathe .
Other serious adverse effects related to this therapy have also been documented, including hyperventilation, fatigue, appetite loss, extreme pain, increased bleeding risk, and vomiting .
Of particular note, a review of 145 studies on the side effects of bee-venom therapy found that an average of 29% of people experienced adverse effects ranging from mild to severe after treatment .
In addition, the review found that compared with a saline injection, bee-venom acupuncture increased the occurrence of adverse side effects by a whopping 261% .
Bee-venom therapy and acupuncture should only be administered by a qualified healthcare professional.
Bee Venom Alleviates Motor Deficits And Modulates The Transfer Of Cortical Information Through The Basal Ganglia In Rat Models Of Parkinson’s Disease
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AbstractSoumis le : vendredi 14 décembre 2018 – 10:11:17Dernière modification le : vendredi 5 août 2022 – 03:56:10 Archivage à long terme le : : vendredi 15 mars 2019 – 13:41:24
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Bvpla2 Improves Motor Activity In A Dose
We first examined whether purified standard bvPLA2 protected behavioral deficits in PD mice. As shown in Figure 2A, purified bvPLA2 was given to MPTP-treated mice at a dose of 0.01, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/kg for six consecutive days, beginning 1 day after the last MPTP injection. On day 6 after MPTP treatment, MPTP-challenged mice took much longer than the control mice to turn downward and to descend the pole , indicating basal ganglia-related movement disorders in MPTP-treated mice. Treatment of purified bvPLA2 significantly shortened the time to turn and to down in MPTP-treated mice. However, inactive mutant bvPLA2 treatment induced no significant difference compared with MPTP-treated mice. No significant differences were detected between purified standard bvPLA2 group and commercial standard bvPLA2 group treated with the same dose . As observed, administration of purified standard bvPLA2 improved motor deficits induced by MPTP in a concentration-dependent manner.
Ex Vivo Treg Suppression Assay
Using magnetic bead separation , CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25 T cells were isolated from spleens obtained from the Foxp3EGFP mice that had received PBS or bvPLA2 as previously described . CD4+CD25 T cells from PBS-treated mice were labeled with eFluor 670 fluorescent dye , plated at a density of 2 × 105 cells/well or 1.6 × 105 cells/well in 96-well round-bottom plates and activated with 2 g/ml soluble anti-CD3 and 6 g/ml soluble anti-CD28 Ab. CD4+CD25+ Tregs from PBS- or bvPLA2-treated mice were added at a density of 0.4 × 105 cells/well. The cultures were incubated for 4 d, and the percentage of mean fluorescence intensity of responder cells was measured. Following the acquisition of sample data on the FACSCalibur flow cytometer , the sample results were generated in graphical and tabular formats using FlowJo software .
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Locomotor And Exploratory Activity
In the open-field test, the administration of BV at a dose of 1.2 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in the number of crossings compared to the other treatments. The same result was observed after the administration of haloperidol. This effect was not observed when the treatments were associated . When rearing was examined, both doses of bee venom and treatment with haloperidol resulted in a significant reduction compared to that seen in controls . The reduction remained significant when the lowest dose of BV was preceded by haloperidol, but the effect was reversed in the group receiving 1.2 mg/kg of BV . In addition, there was a significant decrease in grooming behavior after 1.2 mg/kg of BV compared to the saline group .
Acupuncture And Bee Venom For Parkinsons
A small study shows that acupuncture with bee-venom therapy improved symptoms in people with Parkinsons disease. Parkinsons disease destroys the neurotransmitter known as dopamine and damages nerves. When dopamine levels are low and nerve damage present the tremor and muscle control symptoms of Parkinsons are present.
Acupuncture has a long history in Asia for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Some studies are suggesting that acupuncture may play a protective role on the nerve tissue that the disease targets. This could possibly slow the progress of the disease.
Researcher Seong-Uk Park, MD, is with the Stroke and Neurological Disorders Center, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Gangdong, Seoul, Korea. Doctor park says that bee venom acupuncture may help by increasing dopamine levels. Acupuncture may also enhance the effects of the Parkinsons drug L-dopa and lessen the drugs side effects.
The study was presented at the recent 18th International Congress of Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders
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Bee Venom Against Parkinsons Disease
This article is about protection from artificially induced Parkinsonism in mice. There is steady stream of such studies. These do not count as evidence that such a substance will improve actual Parkinson’s in humans.
From 2016: In summary, our study did not evidence any clear symptomatic or disease-modifying effects of monthly bee venom injections over an 11 month period compared to placebo using a standard bee venom allergy desensitization protocol in PD patients. Of note, bee venom administration appeared safe in non-allergic patients. Given the increasingly strong preclinical rationale that SK channel blockade may be beneficial in treating PD short and long term, we believe that a larger study with less stringent exclusion criteria regarding IgE levels and ST is warranted. In particular, we feel that higher administration frequency and possibly higher individual doses of bee venom may reveal its potency in treating PD.
Are There Studies To Support This
In 2008, the study Bee Venom as a Neuroprotective Agent in Parkinsons Disease was published by The Michal J. Fox Parkinson Foundation, which supports clinical research on the use of bee venom against Parkinson at the Pitie-Salpetriere hospital in Paris.In a pre-clinical model of the disease, it was verified whether bee venom and one of its components, apamine, are able to stop or slow the loss of dopaminergic neurons, the neuronal cell type most severely affected in Parkinsons disease. They showed that regular bee venom injections are indeed able to slow the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the PD model used, and that this effect is partially due to apamine. However, the complete list of compounds responsible for this effect and the mechanism of action remain to be characterized.
in 2011, Kim JI et al, conducted the study Bee venom reduces neuroinflammation in the MPTP-Induced Model of Parkinsons Disease in mice, at the Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. The conclusion was: These data suggest that BV injection may have a neuroprotective effect that attenuates the activation of the microglial response, which has implications for the treatment of PD.
There were no serious side effects reported, with the exception of one patient who reported itchiness.
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Animals And Experimental Design
In the current study, we handled the animals consistently in accordance with the ARRIVE guidelines. On October 29, 2019, the institutional Ethics Committee at NODCAR and Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, approved all animal procedures. All experiments were carried out in accordance with the authorized experimental protocols and the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory animals of The National Organization for Drug Control and Research . For all conducted experiments, a total of 30 male rats, three-month-old were used. All rats were housed in standardized cages in groups of 23 per cage, in a room with controlled temperature , humidity and luminosity , with food and tap water provided ad libitum. We randomly divided the experimental rats into five groups with six animals per group as following:
After 24 h of last dosing of different therapies, all animals were deeply anesthetized with 2 mg pentobarbital then transcardially perfused with 200 ml of heparinized saline, followed by 250 ml of 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS. The brain was then surgically removed for further processing.