What To Do When Someone Asks You A Question About Alzheimers
Reassure the person with a calm voice and gentle touch. Dont argue or try to use logic Alzheimers affects memory, and the person may not remember he/she asked the question already. Provide an answer. Give the person the answer that he or she is looking for, even if you have to repeat it several times.
Key Points About Absence Seizures
Absence seizures are seizures that generally last just a few seconds, and are characterized by a blank or absent stare.
Absence seizures usually occur in children between ages 4 to 14, but its possible to have an absence seizure at any age.
Absence seizures are easy to miss, but tests and an evaluation of symptoms can diagnose them.
Healthcare providers can usually help find the right mix of medications and lifestyle changes to manage absence seizures.
Without treatment, school performance, work, and relationships can suffer.
When To Seek Hospice Care
When you or your loved one have a life expectancy of six months or less, you become eligible for hospice care a type of comfort care provided at the end of life for someone living with end-stage Parkinsons disease. Hospice provides extra support so your loved one can live as comfortably as possible.
If you have experienced a significant decline in your ability to move, speak, or participate in activities of daily living without caregiver assistance, its time to speak with a hospice professional.
Some of the things that determine whether your loved one with end-stage Parkinsons is eligible for hospice include: difficulty breathing, bed bound, unintelligible speech, inability to eat or drink sufficiently, and/or complications including pneumonia or sepsis.
If you live in South Jersey, our nurse care coordinator can answer your questions and decide if your loved one is ready for hospice care. Call us 24/7 at 229-8183.
Dementia With Lewy Bodies And Parkinson Disease Dementia
, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Dementia with Lewy bodiesParkinson disease dementia
Dementia is chronic, global, usually irreversible deterioration of cognition.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is the 3rd most common dementia. Age of onset is typically > 60.
Lewy bodies are spherical, eosinophilic, neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions composed of aggregates of alpha-synuclein, a synaptic protein. They occur in the cortex of some patients who have dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurotransmitter levels and neuronal pathways between the striatum and the neocortex are abnormal.
Lewy bodies also occur in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson disease, and dementia may develop late in the disease. About 40% of patients with Parkinson disease develop Parkinson disease dementia, usually after age 70 and about 10 to 15 years after Parkinson disease has been diagnosed.
Because Lewy bodies occur in dementia with Lewy bodies and in Parkinson disease dementia, some experts think that the two disorders may be part of a more generalized synucleinopathy affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Lewy bodies sometimes occur in patients with Alzheimer disease, and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies may have neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease overlap considerably. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among them.
If You Live In South Jersey And Have Questions About The Final Stages Of Parkinsons Disease Or Hospice Care For Your Loved One Please Call Samaritan At 229
Samaritan is a member of the National Partnership for Healthcare and Hospice Innovation, a network of not-for-profit hospice and palliative providers across the country. If you know someone outside of our service area who is living with advanced illness and can benefit from hospice or palliative care, please call 1 -GET-NPHI for a referral to a not-for-profit provider in your area.
Read Also: Stabilizing Spoon For Parkinson’s
Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Initial cognitive deterioration in dementia with Lewy bodies resembles that in other dementias. However, dementia with Lewy bodies often manifests with early and prominent deficits in attention, executive function, and visuoperceptual ability prominent or persistent memory impairment tends to occur as the dementia progresses.
Extrapyramidal symptoms occur. However, in dementia with Lewy bodies , cognitive and extrapyramidal symptoms usually begin within 1 year of each other. Also, the extrapyramidal symptoms differ from those of Parkinson disease in dementia with Lewy bodies, tremor does not occur early, rigidity of axial muscles with gait instability occurs early, and deficits tend to be symmetric. Repeated falls are common.
Fluctuating cognitive function is a relatively specific feature of dementia with Lewy bodies. Periods of being alert, coherent, and oriented may alternate with periods of being confused and unresponsive to questions, usually over a period of days to weeks but sometimes during the same interview.
Memory is impaired, but the impairment appears to result more from deficits in alertness and attention than in memory acquisition thus, short-term recall is affected less than digit span memory .
Patients may stare into space for long periods. Excessive daytime drowsiness is common.
Visuospatial and visuoconstructional abilities are affected more than other cognitive deficits.
How Is Parkinson’s Managed
There is currently no cure for Parkinsons but there are medications and therapies that can help to manage Parkinsons symptoms.
Medicines that increase the level of dopamine in the brain are the main treatment used to manage the symptoms of Parkinson’s. Medicines are tailored to each individuals needs.
Symptoms will get worse when someones Parkinsons medicines are wearing off and improve again after Parkinsons medicines are taken. If people with Parkinsons dont get their medication at the right time, it leads to their motor symptoms becoming uncontrolled. It can take some time to get their symptoms under control again. If you work in a hospital or care home, it is important to be aware that medicine timings will vary from person to person and may be different to ward medicine rounds.
As well as medicines, surgical options are available for some people with Parkinson’s, depending on their symptoms.
Treatments can help to manage the symptoms, but may become less effective in the later stages of the condition.
Parkinsons UK has more information on how Parkinsons affects people and how it can be managed.
Recommended Reading: How Do You Treat Parkinson’s Disease Naturally
How To Help Someone Manage Lewy Body Dementia
When it comes to helping someone manage the symptoms of LBD, small things can often make a big difference.
Create a routine. It can help someone with LBD to have predictable routines, especially around meal times and sleep times.
Establish a nighttime ritual. Try to establish bedtime rituals that are calming and away from the noise of television, meal cleanup, and active family members. Limiting caffeine consumption and daytime napping, and encouraging exercise can help curb restlessness at night.
Modify tasks. Break tasks into easier steps and focus on success, not failure.
Walk together. Taking a walk with the patient with LBD is a win-win activity. Being outdoors and exercising is vital for the health and state of mind for both the patient and you.
Strengthen senses. Have a doctor evaluate each the patients five senses in order to identify and treat any abnormalities. Then ask about exercises to improve them.
Make lifestyle changes. To help minimize the risk of fall-related injuries, you can help stabilize blood pressure. Help your loved one stay well hydrated, exercise, take in adequate sodium , avoid prolonged bed rest, and stand up slowly.
Tips for managing behavioral changes
One of the major challenges of caring for a loved one with dementia can be coping with the troubling behavioral changes that often occur. As a caregiver, you cant change the person with dementia, but you can employ strategies to modify or better accommodate any problem behaviors.
Diagnosis: Parkinson’s Dementia Or Dementia With Lewy Bodies
During assessment, a specialist may look at when the dementia symptoms first appeared before reaching a diagnosis of Parkinson’s dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies.
If there have been motor symptoms for at least one year before dementia symptoms occur, specialists will often give a diagnosis of Parkinson’s dementia.
If dementia symptoms occur before or at the same time as motor symptoms, specialists will usually give a diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies.
However, it should be noted that in some cases of dementia with Lewy bodies, no motor symptoms develop at all.
Theres no single test – diagnosis is made through several different assessments, usually starting with an appointment with your GP or Parkinson’s nurse.
Some people find it helps to go to the appointment with someone who knows them well, who can give the GP or Parkinson’s nurse information about changes they’ve noticed.
Your GP can discuss your symptoms with you and carry out a physical examination, including blood and urine tests, to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms .
Your GP may also review your medication, in case your symptoms are side effects.
If your GP thinks you have dementia, they can refer you to a specialist, such as a neurologist, psychiatrist or geriatrician.
You might be referred to a memory clinic or memory service. In some areas of the country, you can refer yourself to these services.
But if you feel you need to see the specialist again, you can ask to be referred back.
You May Like: Is Drooling A Sign Of Parkinson’s Disease
Review Of Seven Patients With Hypothermia
Most cases of hypothermia occurred in the winter . The duration of PD ranged from 1 to 13 years, and the HoehnYahr stage varied from 2 to 4. As clinical symptoms preceding the onset of hypothermia, deterioration of bradykinesia was evident in six patients, limb coldness occurred in two patients and one patient sometimes had a low body temperature. Most cases of hypothermia were accompanied by impaired consciousness and deterioration of parkinsonian features. Electrocardiography showed Osborn waves in four patients. In one patient, subsequent cardiopulmonary arrest occurred transiently. After warming the body, the hypothermia improved in a period ranging from 12 h to several days.
Quality Assistance For People Injured By Paraquat Exposure
The team of professionals at Atraxia Law has been evaluating personal injury and product liability claims for over 35 years and will provide you with quality services if you were exposed to paraquat in occupational settings and subsequently developed Parkinson’s disease.
We will thoroughly assess your situation to determine whether you are eligible for filing a claim to recover the financial compensation you deserve from the liable paraquat manufacturers. Although the process is quite complex, it will require minimal involvement on your part and a family member can help you with it.
Eventually, you will know with certainty if you meet the eligibility criteria for filing a claim with one or multiple paraquat manufacturers. For additional information, please feel free to contact us and we will gladly answer all your questions.
You May Like: Ultrasound Treatment For Parkinson’s Disease
About Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Dementia with Lewy bodies is a common form of dementia estimated to affect more than 100,000 people in the UK.
The term “dementia” describes a loss of mental ability associated with gradual death of brain cells. It’s rare in anyone younger than 65.
Symptoms usually develop gradually and become more severe over the course of several years.
How Can Hospice Help Your Loved One In The Final Stages Of Parkinsons Disease
Hospice care is an extra layer of support to help you care for your loved one with end-stage Parkinsons disease. It is a special kind of care that provides comfort, support, and dignity at the end of life.
The comprehensive program focuses on physical, emotional, and spiritual quality of life through the help of a team of experts. The team includes a board-certified physician, nurse, social worker, certified home health aide , spiritual support counselor, and volunteer.
The nurse will explain the prognosis and what to expect in the upcoming days or weeks. They will also monitor pain and other symptoms. The CHHA helps with personal care needs like bathing and changing bed linens. The social worker helps address social, emotional and practical challenges including complex and inter-related needs. The spiritual support counselor helps explore spiritual concerns.
Most importantly, the hospice team will be there for you during this difficult time, bringing you peace of mind. The team is on call 24 hours a day even at 2:00 am.
Hospice is about making your final months and weeks as good as possible. This means focusing on what really matters to you.
Read Also: Drugs Prescribed For Parkinson’s Disease
Memory Loss & Dementia
Degenerative thinking abilities or severe memory loss marked eventually set in and affect a persons ability to perform their normal daily activities.
Memory loss is a primary Lewy body dementia symptom and its marked by forgetfulness, misidentifying objects, challenges multitasking, reasoning and problem-solving.
Confusion is yet another symptom that accompanies dementia and the person may suddenly have difficulties making sense of time and place.
However, unlike with Alzheimers dementia, the memory problems do not manifest at first but they start becoming apparent as LBD progresses.
Dementia can also alter mood and behavior leading the person to start displaying loss of initiative or poor judgment.
How To Recognize The Signs Of Parkinson’s Disease
This article was medically reviewed by . Dr. Litza is a board certified Family Medicine Physician in Wisconsin. She is a practicing Physician and taught as a Clinical Professor for 13 years, after receiving her MD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health in 1998.There are 17 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 138,910 times.
Experts say that symptoms of Parkinson’s disease usually start slowly with a tremor in one hand, along with stiffness and slowing movement. Over time, you may develop more symptoms on both sides of your body.XTrustworthy SourceMayo ClinicEducational website from one of the world’s leading hospitalsGo to source Parkinson’s disease is a condition where your brain’s nerve cells don’t produce enough dopamine, which effects your motor skills. Research suggests that Parkinson’s disease can be difficult to diagnose because there’s no test for it, so your doctor will likely review your medical records and do a neurological exam.XTrustworthy SourceMedlinePlusCollection of medical information sourced from the US National Library of MedicineGo to source Getting an early diagnosis can help you get the best treatment to help manage your symptoms, so talk to your doctor if you think you might have symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
You May Like: Vascular Parkinsonism And Cognitive Impairment
How Can I Support Someone With Parkinson’s At The Advanced Or Palliative Stage
In the advanced stages of Parkinsons, your patients care needs may be more complex and require careful planning along with the patient, their family and other health and social care professionals involved.
Palliative care should be holistic, considering the whole person to support the personal, social, psychological and spiritual needs of your patient and their family. It should give your patient some control and choice over areas such as treatment options and where they will be cared for, as well as providing advice and support to all the people involved in their care.
Palliative care in Parkinsons may be supported by a number of professionals, including a Parkinsons nurse specialist, local hospice or specialist palliative care team, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, speech and language therapist or dietitian. Many people with Parkinson’s also find complementary therapies beneficial.
It is important that you find out whether the person has a care plan in place regarding their preferences for how the issues surrounding advanced Parkinsons should be managed. This could include legal documentation such as a Lasting Power of Attorney and an advance care plan. Advance care plans include information on what the persons wishes and preferences are for their care in the future. They may include decisions on any treatments the person doesnt want to have in the future this is called an Advance Directive, Advance Decision to Refuse Treatment or Living Will.
Preparing For An Appointment
You’ll probably first discuss your symptoms with your family doctor, who may refer you to a doctor trained in dementia usually a doctor trained in brain and nervous system conditions or mental health conditions .
Ask a friend or family member to the appointment, if possible, to help you remember the information you’re given and give your doctor information about you. Here’s some information to help you get ready for your appointment.
Read Also: How To Test For Early Onset Parkinson’s
Drowsiness Staring And Other Mental Lapses May Signal Alzheimers Disease
The American Academy of Neurology, an association of more than 22,000 neurologists and neuroscienceprofessionals, is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Parkinsons disease, ALS , dementia, West Nile virus, and ataxia.For more information about the American Academy of Neurology, visit http://www.aan.com.
Caring For Someone With Lewy Body Dementia
Caring for someone with LBD, or any form of dementia, is hugely challenging. Just as LBD can impact every aspect of a person, caring for someone with the disease can impact every aspect of your daily life. Youll likely face tests of stamina, problem solving, and resiliency. However, your caregiving journey can also be an intensely rewarding experience as long as you take care of yourself and get the support that you need.
Also Check: Music Therapy For Parkinson’s
Location And Composition Of Lewy Bodies
Postmortem examinations in patients with Parkinson disease and those with DLB have demonstrated LBs in the substantia nigra and possibly in the locus ceruleus, dorsal raphe, substantia innominata, and dorsal motor nucleus of cranial nerve X . LBs are found in the neocortex of many patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease and in all patients with DLB. DLB overlaps parkinsonian dementias.
The primary constituent of LBs is alpha synuclein, a presynaptic protein, the function of which is unknown. Neurofilament proteins and ubiquitin are other important constituents of LBs. Numerous neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine , are diminished in DLB. The decrease in ACh may be more severe than in Alzheimer disease.