Enhancing Nad+ Salvage Metabolism Is Neuroprotective In A Pink1 Model Of Parkinson’s Disease
The authors declare no competing or financial interests.
Susann Lehmann, Samantha H. Y. Loh, L. Miguel Martins Enhancing NAD+ salvage metabolism is neuroprotective in a PINK1 model of Parkinson’s disease. Biol Open 15 February 2017 6 : 141147. doi:
What Is Nad+ Therapy
NAD+ Therapy involves a high dose intravenous infusion of NAD+ that goes straight into the bloodstream. IV therapy allows NAD+ to bypass the digestive system for better absorption. NAD+ works rapidly to repair cells throughout the body and neurons in the brain.
Every client has an individualized protocol based on the condition, so treatment length can vary from 4 to 12 days. Clients receive a high dose IV therapy under the supervision of Dr. Milgram and qualified nurses. The therapy is administered in a calm, holistic outpatient setting that allows working professionals the flexibility they need and out-of-towners the opportunity to see the beautiful city of Sarasota, Florida.
A Method Of Addressing The Underlying Chemical Changes In The Brain That The Drugs Or Alcohol Have Caused
Abstinence, psychological support and switching to other drugs are generally all that are used in drug treatment, in hopes that the brain will gradually recover on its own from the chemical damage. While some degree of brain healing will usually occur after decreasing or discontinuing drug or alcohol use, very often the natural healing is minimal, and the person suffers with continuing emptiness, anxiety, depression, insomnia, cravings, pain, brain fog and/or fatigue.
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Frequently Asked Questions About Nad
How do I take NAD?
NAD can be ingested a few different ways but the most effective way to get the maximum benefit is to take the NAD intravenously, which bypasses the digestive system. Facilitating the intravenous dispensation of NAD is what Dr. Milgram has done more often then just about anyone else.
The intravenous sessions typically last 2-6 hours at first, because in the initial stage we are giving you the largest dose of the NAD. After the first couple of days, the dispensation sessions get progressively shorter.
What is NAD and Who Discovered It?
NAD is a natural substance that occurs in every living cell. It was originally discovered by scientists in 1906 but it wasnt until many years later that doctors started realizing the many health benefits of supplementing our bodys natural supply of NAD. Read more on our What is NAD page.
How long is the Treatment?
The treatment differs for every patient upon an assessment that Dr. Milgram will do. It depends on what reason the NAD is being taken and all the other personal and health factors present. Typically the NAD is initially dispensed intravenously for 2-6 hours each day.
The treatment of chronic degenerative diseases like Parkinsons disease or Alzheimers will likely require one or a few days of NAD with periodic follow ups.
A treatment for Aging Reversal typically runs 4-6 days.
Do we accept insurance?
Will My Insurance Company be notified?
What to bring?
Is NAD Treatment Safe?
Therapeutic Potential For Vitamin B3/niacin
These results suggest that in familial Parkinsons, available NAD is an underlying factor in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and keeping the disease at bay. Dr. Martins comments that: Drugs that block NAD-consuming DNA repair already exist to treat cancer, and loading up on niacin probably cant hurt either. While neither of these would be a cure, they would expand treatment options for Parkinsons patients with faulty mitochondria. This study strengthens the therapeutic potential for Vitamin B3/niacin-based dietary interventions and PARP inhibition in the treatment of Parkinsons disease.
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How Does Nad+ Work
NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It helps turn nutrients into energy and works as a helper molecule for proteins that regulate other biological activity such as immune function and cellular repair . Unfortunately, as we age, our NAD+ levels decline. Fortunately, we administer boosts of NAD+ intravenously which allows us to quickly increase the level of NAD in your body which can be used to treat osteoarthritis, inflammation, aging, age related memory impairment, parkinsons disease , dementia, traumatic brain injury, addiction, low energy, and much more. To date there are over 64,000 published peer review medical journal articles written about NAD. Truly this is a very exciting topic in medicine.
Why Does Nad+ Seem To Have This Positive Influence On Neurodegenerative Conditions
For starters, every cell in each organ system of the body has a critical role. If this role is not met, the cell cannot properly function within that environment to perform its given purpose. If the DNA structure is damaged or the energy source , isnt able to be produced, symptoms of disease will begin manifesting in a variety of ways. In particular, neurons are especially susceptible to energy fluctuations due to mitochondrial dysfunction. In turn, damaged neurons can lead to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases.
NAD+ has the ability to regulate a class of proteins known as sirtuins. Sirtuins play a vital role in regulating anti-inflammatory processes throughout the body and the brain. Many studies have linked the neuroprotective effects of sirtuins and its implications to AS, PD, MS, as well as ALS.
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New Research Supports Niacin For Parkinsons Disease Treatment
New research1 further supports the use of Niacin in the treatment and long-term management of Parkinsons Disease . Parkinsons disease occurs when dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra are lost the loss of dopamine causes the neurological manifestations of PD. This loss of dopaminergic function can have various etiologies, but as Dr. Miguel Martins, lead researcher of the study points out,
in some hereditary cases, the main problem is unhealthy mitochondria.
The role of dysfunctional mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD has been explained before2, as a cascade of events which includes cellular insult leading to a decreased membrane potential and more permeable transitional pores. The increased pore permeability, in turn, leads to a depletion of NAD+ and ultimately cell death.
What Should I Expect After Treatment
You may begin feeling better right away after NAD therapy, with optimal results appearing over time. Your doctor might recommend a series of NAD treatments to help you achieve the most desirable outcome, especially if youre recovering from drug or alcohol addiction.
Your Malibu Medical Group provider personalizes each treatment based on your unique needs. They may suggest vitamin IV therapy or another wellness treatment in addition to NAD therapy.
Dont live with physical stress, fatigue, mental issues, or addiction when noninvasive treatments are available at Malibu Medical Group. Schedule an appointment over the phone or online to find out if NAD therapy is right for you.
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Nad+ & Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is a major cause of disability and death across the globe. Statistics tell us that at least 2 percent of men and women aged 65 and above are at risk, with its prevalence rising with age.
Evidence reveals that a deficiency in NAD is key in the pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease. This is where NAD+ IV therapy comes into play, as studies suggest that the best way to correct the metabolic defect and treat this disease is by increasing levels of NAD.
NAD+ IV therapy can help keep Parkinsons symptoms at bay and stop their progression, while helping the body restore cellular function. After receiving NAD+ IV therapy, Parkinsons patients can expect to experience improved mental clarity, emotional balance, and mood.
Gene Therapies Targeting Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Parkinson’s Disease
Gene therapy entails the treatment of disease via delivery of a transgene that either replaces or corrects a defective gene or is generally supportive of cells in the disease environment . Gene therapy vectors can be either viral or non-viral .
Autosomal recessive mutations in the PRKN gene cause loss of function or inactivation of the parkin protein . Overexpression of PRKN has been shown to have a protective effect against numerous cellular insults . For example, overexpression of wild type parkin in a transgenic mouse model was shown to alleviate MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration via protection of mitochondria and decreased striatal alpha-synuclein . Furthermore, recombinant AAV vector-mediated intranigral delivery of parkin prevented motor deficits and dopaminergic cell loss in a chronic MPTP-minipump mouse model of PD .
Loss of function mutations in PINK1 can also lead to autosomal recessive PD . Removal of Drosophila PINK1 homologue function leads to male sterility, apoptotic muscle degeneration, defects in mitochondrial morphology and increased sensitivity to multiple stressors including oxidative stress. In a portion of PINK1 mutants, expression of human PINK1 in the Drosophila testes restores male fertility and normal mitochondrial morphology .
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Mitochondrial Dysfunction Plays A Central And Multifaceted Role In Parkinson’s Disease
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a fundamental and complex role in many neurodegenerative disorders, including PD . PD-associated mitochondrial dysfunction can result from a number of causes, including impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis, increased reactive oxygen species production, defective mitophagy, compromised trafficking, electron transport chain dysfunction , variations to mitochondrial dynamics, calcium imbalance and possibly other indirect influences on mitochondrial function from unrelated pathways . If these insults cannot be overcome by protective mechanisms, a relentless cycle of dysfunction will eventually evoke all these dysfunctions, leading to cellular impairment and ultimately cell death. Besides the mitochondrion’s major function of generating cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate , their involvement in the regulation of cell death via apoptosis, Ca2+ homeostasis, haem biosynthesis, and the formation and export of iron-sulphur clusters, control of cell division, and growth have also been shown to be altered in IPD and mPD .
Internal Medicine & Addiction Medicine Located In Malibu Ca
If you suffer from alcohol or drug dependency or desire more energy and enhanced brain function, the expert internal medicine team at Malibu Medical Group in Malibu, California, offers a simple solution. They use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD therapy, to improve your overall physical and mental health. Schedule an appointment with Malibu Medical Group over the phone or online to learn more.
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Analysis Of Dopaminergic Neurons
Brains from 20-day-old flies were dissected and stained using anti-tyrosine hydroxylase as previously described . The brain samples were placed in PBS+0.1% Triton in a coverslip clamp chamber , positioned using a harp-like apparatus made of platinum wire and nylon string and imaged by confocal microscopy. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive PPL1 cluster neurons were counted per brain hemisphere. Data acquired for the assessment of each genotype were obtained as a single experimental dataset before statistical analysis.
How Nad Treatment For Parkinsons Disease Works
NAD+ involves a high dose IV infusion that goes directly into the bloodstream. IV drips allows NAD to bypass the digestive system resulting in greater absorption. NAD+ works rapidly to repair cells throughout the body and within the neurons in the brain. When NAD levels are increased, cells produce more energy, DNA is repaired and many other functions throughout the body and brain are optimized New Springs Wellness Center and its staff have been trained by the longest running NAD+ clinic in the US.
We use NAD+ their proprietary protocol to restore brain function. Our nutritionally-based Intravenous infusion gives the brain what it needs to become healthy and repairs damage caused by stress, depression, addiction, alcoholism, post-traumatic stress, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. These conditions deplete the brain of neurotransmitters. Our NAD+ protocols, which include the purest NAD available, help patients replenish their supply of neurotransmitters. These protocols are completely nutrient-based and are made of compounds a healthy body produces naturally. Being completely natural, there is no drug to become addicted to or dependent on. The only side effect is naturally better health.
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Nad Treatment For Alzheimers Disease
If you are a loved one is struggling with Alzheimers disease call us at to get an assessment and see if Dr. Milgram can help with an NAD infusion.
Alzheimers disease is defined as a chronic neurodegenerative disease that is associated with loss of memory, coordination, and spatial awareness, among other things.
NAD is essential to living and is found in every cell of all living things. There is much more NAD in the bodies of babies and growing adults. Declining NAD is due to the inability of our cells to recycle NAD, or to synthesize new NAD. This decline is associated with Alzheimers.
Protein Extraction And Western Blotting
Protein extracts from whole flies were prepared by grinding the flies in lysis buffer as previously described . The suspensions were cleared by centrifugation at 21,000 g for 10min at 4°C, and the protein concentrations of the supernatants were determined by Bradford assay . All supernatants were mixed with 4× LDS loading buffer. For SDS-PAGE, equivalent amounts of proteins were resolved on 4-12% NuPAGE Precast Gels and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes for incubation with -PAR or to PVDF membranes for incubation with -Tubulin. The membranes were blocked with TBS containing 5% dried non-fat milk for 1h at room temperature and were then probed with the indicated primary antibody, followed by incubation with the appropriate HRP-conjugated secondary antibody. Antibody complexes were visualised using Pierce’s enhanced chemiluminescence system . The levels of total PAR were calculated as ratio to the total protein load, which was visualised by staining the membrane with Ponceau S , and performing densitometry analysis with ImageJ software .
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What Is Nad Therapy
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide is a metabolic co-enzyme and is charged with the important job of structuring, repairing, and remodeling every cell in the body. These specialized enzymes require constant replenishment in the body. Unfortunately, drug and alcohol abuse prompt the human brain to reorganize, particularly on a cellular level. This process, known as neuroadaptation, is directly responsible for addiction-related brain damage and depletion of neurotransmitters. NAD IV therapy is said to replenish the drained enzymes and target brain restoration.
Nad Therapy For Parkinsons Disease Treatment
NAD therapy can restore your brains levels of the chemical nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Usually, every cell in your body produces this chemical. However, for various reasons, your NAD levels may drop. This is important because NAD helps sustain some of your bodys most important functions. That includes the automatic repair of damaged DNA. It also includes controlling your metabolism and the rate at which you age. Low levels of NAD may interfere with these essential processes. During NAD therapy, you receive IV doses of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The amount of the chemical supplied in these doses is high enough to produce a therapeutic effect.
Parkinsons disease is associated with low NAD levels. If you receive NAD therapy during the early stages of the disease, you can reverse this deficit. The net effect is often a slowdown in the progression of Parkinsons. In turn, this slowdown helps you limit your symptoms for as long as possible.
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Why Harvard Medicine Is Calling Nad Iv Therapy The Crown Jewel Of Detox
Over the past years, NAD IV Therapy has been getting a lot of attention lately as the preferred choice to stop substance addiction due to not only its effectiveness, but also its all-natural and holistic approach.
According to Emerald Neuro-Recover Centers, Harvard Medicine states that NAD IV Therapy is proven to have an 87% success rate and is considered the crown jewel of detox because of its rapid cleanse and restoration therapies, and it radically repairs cell damage in the brain and body. In addition, Amora Scott, Vice President of Emeralds says The ancient way of treating addiction was to substitute one drug for another, which is only a quick fix. With NAD we can repair the brain and lose the cravings and anxiety of the addiction.
Mutation Of Parp Rescues Mitochondrial Dysfunction Of Pink1 Mutants
Depletion of cellular NAD+ levels has been linked to enhanced oxidative stress, which causes activation of the NAD+-consuming PARP enzymes . We have previously shown that Drosophila parkin mutants have increased levels of the oxidative stress markers methionine sulfoxide and homocysteine, a marker of oxidative stress and a metabolite that generates reactive oxygen species upon auto-oxidation, respectively .
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Five Clinical Studies Showing Improvement Using Nad+ Treatments
1) Human Alzheimers study : Treatment of Alzheimers disease with stabilized oral NAD: a randomised, double blind study
after 6 months of treatment, subjects treated showed no evidence of progressive cognitive deterioration and had significantly higher total scores on multiple medical assessment tools. Subscales revealed significantly better performance on verbal fluency, visual construction activity and abstract verbal reasoning
2) NAD+ & Parkinsons Study. The NAD+ precursor NR rescues Mitochondrial defects and neuronal loss in iPSC and fly models of Parkinsons disease:
Mitochondrial dysfunction is emerging as a key in PD. We report that increasing NAD+ significantly ameliorates mitochondrial function in patient neurones. Our findings suggest that NAD+ as a viable clinical avenue for neuroprotection in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
3) Treating Dementia with Vitamin B3 and NADH, a study but Chief Naturopathic Medical Officer, Canadian College of Medicine.
4) NAD+ & Alzheimers Study. The NAD+ precursor NR restores cognition in Alzheimers mouse models:
our studies suggest that treatment with NR might benefit AD cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, thus preventing A beta production in the brain
5) NAD+ and NADH in brain functions, brain diseases and brain aging.
Addressing Mitochondrial Calcium And Metal Ion Dyshomeostasis
Mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to excitotoxicity through a reduction in cellular ATP levels, an increase in cellular Ca2+, or both . Inhibition of C.I, and consequently ATP generation, lowers intracellular ATP, leading to partial neuronal depolarization due to a reduction in the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase . Mitochondria can take up Ca2+ from the cytosol via a uniporter transporter, which relies on the mitochondrial membrane potential. The ROS generated by mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction can damage the mitochondrial membranes and disrupt this mechanism of Ca2+ uptake and storage, thereby raising intracellular Ca2+ levels and exacerbating the excitotoxicity . Disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential leads to an increased susceptibility to Ca2+ overload. This suggests that mitochondrial-driven excitotoxicity is a major contributory factor in PD . Currently, there are no mechanistic treatment approaches available. Based on the ubiquitous role of Ca2+ for neuronal signalling, it is unlikely that this pathway will be currently considered as a viable treatment target. However, this might change as we gain a more in-depth insight into the crosslink of mitochondria-related Ca2+-dyshomeostasis and the specific vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons.
In conclusion, preliminary evidence suggests targeting the redistribution of metal ions may be beneficial in PD, with potential neuroprotective effects involving mitochondrial function.
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