Friday, March 1, 2024

What Is An Off Period In Parkinson’s

What Should The Patient Experience In The Wearing Off Syndrome

Managing Parkinsonâs: What Are âOn-offâ? Fluctuations?
  • Every patients experience with Parkinsons disease is quite different. Thus, the symptoms of wearing off are seen to differ individually.
  • It is seen that some patients experience wearing off symptoms within around 1 or 2 years after starting the levodopa therapy.
  • For others, wearing off symptoms may happen so that the levodopa may continue to work effectively for 5 or more years.

Many patients find that the primary motor symptoms that are the problems with movements return during the wearing-off phase while other non-motor symptoms do not. Although, this may not hold true for every patient.

Types Of Motor Fluctuations

Motor fluctuations take a variety of forms:

“On-off” phenomenon. You cycle between good control and periods of symptoms. During the “on” times, your symptoms are well managed. In “off” periods, the problems come back.

Some people only get “off” periods when their levodopa starts to wear off. Others get symptoms at random times that aren’t related to their medicine. Your doctor may prescribe add-on medications which can lessen the “off” times.

Wearing off. The effect of your levodopa starts to fade before it’s time to take the next dose. You might be tempted to take your medicine earlier than usual to prevent symptoms.

Delayed “on.” You have to wait longer than usual after you take levodopa for your symptoms to improve. This delay can happen when you take your first dose in the morning. It’s also common after meals, because the protein in your food can cause the medicine to get absorbed more slowly.

Delayed “on” is more common with time-release versions of levodopa. These drugs take a while to get from your stomach into your bloodstream and then travel to your brain.

Partial “on” or dose failure. Partial “on” means that your symptoms don’t fully improve after you take a dose of levodopa. A dose failure is when you don’t feel any better after taking your medicine.

You’re more likely to have freezing during an “off” period.

Dyskinesia. This is uncontrolled twitching, jerking, or other movements. It can affect one limb, such as an arm or leg, or your whole body.

Q What Are The Key Signs Of Wearing Off That People With Parkinsons And Their Family Friends And Carers Should Look Out For

A. The usual signs of wearing off are slowness of movement or an increase increase in tremor before your next dose of medication is due. But wearing off can increase other symptoms associated with Parkinsons too, including fatigue and pain from dystonia . If you notice an increase in any of your Parkinsons symptoms before you take your medication, speak to your specialist or Parkinsons nurse to see if it could be related to wearing off.

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Exploring The Clinical Burden Of Off Periods In Parkinson Disease

Supplements and Featured Publications


Parkinson disease, the second-most-common neurodegenerative disorder, affects approximately 1 million individuals in the United States, and this number is projected to increase to 1.2 million by 2030. Characterized pathologically by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, with widespread pathology in nondopaminergic systems, Parkinson disease leads to an array of motor and nonmotor symptoms that can significantly impact an affected individuals quality of life. Treatments for Parkinson disease typically focus on controlling the motor symptoms of the disease, including treating OFF periods when motor symptoms return. OFF periods can occur for many individuals with Parkinson disease, especially as the disease progresses, and can pose a substantial burden to those with the disease and their caregivers. Available treatments for OFF periods may help alleviate this burden.

Am J Manag Care. 2020 26:S255-S264.

For author information and disclosures, see end of text.


Diagnosis of PD usually occurs after age 50 years, and incidence rises with increasing age.1 In most populations, incidence of PD is twice as common in men as in women.1 In a population-based study conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, incidence was observed to increase over a 30-year period, particularly in men 70 years or older .4


Diagnosis of Parkinson Disease

Symptoms of Parkinson Disease

Nonmotor Symptoms

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Come To A Common Definition Of Off

This is perhaps the most important action you can take to navigate and hopefully minimize OFF periods. When it comes to a definition of OFF, you dont have to agree with the rest of the medical community, you just have to agree with your doctor and care team.

For example, your doctor might not think that predictable wearing off is equivalent to an OFF state. You might think it is. In order to account for differences in how you define OFF, its important to determine what OFF means to both of you. And to come up with a working definition together. You might even have a code such as, When I say X, I mean Y.

You have Parkinsons, so chances are, youre going to be seeing your doctor on a regular basis for many years to come. The earlier you can establish a language for how you talk about OFF, the better chance you have of getting the interventions and treatment you need to live well with Parkinsons.

To download this post as a PDF, .

On / Off In Parkinsons

On/Off Motor Fluctuation in Parkinsons Disease

What does On/Off mean?

The On/Off Phenomenon in Parkinsons Disease is related to uctuating benet of the medications used to treat PD.

Being On describes the time when the Person with Parkinsons feels that their medication is benecial and that their symptoms are well controlled.

Being Off describes the time when the PwP feels that their medication is not working as well as usual, and some of their symptoms may have returned .

The On/Off phenomenon can best be described as a quick, unpredictable reappearance of PD symptoms. Likewise, switching from Off to On can occur just as suddenly. The speed of this shift can be so dramatic that some people have likened this effect to a light switch being turned on and off.

On/Off uctuations are different from the phenomenon known as Freezing, which can also affect people who have had Parkinsons for some time. Freezing is the word used to describe the experience of stopping suddenly while walking or when trying to initiating walking, and people feel as though their feet are frozen or stuck to the ground. While Freezing episodes tend to last only a few seconds, an Off period can continue for minutes, or even hours.

How is the On/Off Treated?

What Can People with Parkinsons Do to Help Themselves?


Other Relevant Information Sheets:

M1.1: Motor Fluctuations in Parkinsons Disease M1.2: Wearing Off in Parkinsons Disease

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Talking With Your Doctor

What should I tell my doctor before taking INBRIJA?

Give your doctor as many details as possible about any symptoms you experience between doses of your regular Parkinsonâs medication. It may be helpful to keep a journal that notes when you have symptoms, what they are, the time of day, and how long they last. Use our doctor discussion guide and the symptom checklist provided with it to help you prepare for discussions with your doctor.

Before using INBRIJA, tell your healthcare provider about your medical conditions, including:

  • asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or any chronic lung disease
  • daytime sleepiness, sleep disorders, sleepiness/drowsiness without warning, or use of medicine that increases sleepiness, including antidepressants or antipsychotics
  • dizziness, nausea, sweating, or fainting when standing up
  • abnormal movement
  • mental health problems such as hallucinations or psychosis
  • uncontrollable urges like gambling, sexual urges, spending money, or binge eating
  • glaucoma
  • pregnancy or plans to become pregnant. It is unknown if INBRIJA will harm an unborn baby.
  • breastfeeding or plans to breastfeed. Levodopa can pass into breastmilk and it is unknown if it can harm the baby

What Is The Wearing Off Symptoms For Parkinsons Disease

Dr Stewart Factor Discusses Management of OFF Periods, Treatment Innovations in Parkinson Disease

Wearing off symptoms characteristically occur when the impact of levodopa medication come down / diminish before the time of the next dosage. The symptoms of Parkinsons disease is expected to return or even worsen before the next dosage of levodopa is scheduled, and then again improve after the patient is given the next dose. When the medication works and its effects can be seen, it is said the patient is on during that time, and again the when the effect of the medication worn out, it is said that the patient is in off phase. Thus, cycle is also called the on-off episode of Parkinsons disease.

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Return Of Symptoms: Off Periods

Many people with Parkinsons disease fluctuate between periods in which symptoms are controlled and periods in which they return.3,6 This is commonly referred to as ON and OFF periods. The progression of Parkinson’s disease contributes to the return of symptoms and this can occur despite optimized treatment.7,8

What Types Of Symptoms Might You Experience When Youre Off

Being OFF is more than just having a bad day. It involves experiencing a host of motor and non-motor symptoms that you have come to expect your medication to control.

While the number and severity of symptoms differ for everyone, here are the most common ones people experience when they are OFF:

Motor Symptoms of OFF

  • Dystonia in hands, feet or legs

Non-Motor Symptoms of OFF

Many non-motor symptoms remain present in the ON state, and they do not respond to dopaminergic treatment. Therefore, you would not be considered OFF if those remain present. However, there are some non-motor symptoms that worsen or are more severe in the OFF state. These often include:

  • Fluctuations in cognition, attention, anxiety, depression, apathy
  • Sweating, lightheadedness, abdominal pain, bloating, urinary issues
  • Visual disturbances, pain, dysesthesia, akathisia, restless legs syndrome

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The Bottom Line On On/off Periods With Parkinsons Meds

Managing the cycling between on and off periods with Parkinsons medications can be incredibly frustrating, but luckily, there are a number of effective ways to help reduce the peaks and valleys of motor symptoms.

Scientists are still exploring new and improved ways to help combat off periods with Parkinsons drugs, according to the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research. You may even consider participating in one of these clinical trials, which you can learn more about with the Michael J. Fox Foundations clinical trial matching tool.

Even more exciting is the fact that researchers are also working diligently to try to improve Parkinsons treatments in generalreally looking into the crux of the disease to try to slow its progression overall, which would in turn help with this on-off period struggle, says Dr. Hui.

There are a number of clinical trials going on, so I think we should also stay tuned for development of to slow progression of disease, she says.

What Is The On

Our Parkinson

The On-off syndrome in Parkinsons disease is essentially the switch between a phase of mobility and immobility which usually occurs in levodopa treated patients. This occurs during the wearing off episode of the levodopa effects while worsens the motor functions. On and off essentially implies the unpredictable motor functions.

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As A Person Explains Their Off Period It’s More Of A Sad Testimony Because You’re Sharing What You’re Missing In Life

Steven D., Living with Parkinson’s Since 2005

Co-Chair of the PwP Advisory Board & Founder and CEO of the Connecticut Advocates for Parkinson’s

In a 2014 survey conducted by the Michael J. Fox Foundation, 64% of approximately 3,000 people living with Parkinson’s reported that they spent two or more hours per day in OFF periods15

How Does The Levodopa Drug Help In Managing The Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease

In levodopa drug therapy the patient is given the drug which gets synthesized into dopamine in brain. Levodopa is considered to be the most important drug for the management of Parkinsons disease. This drug is generally given in combination with carbidopa in order to prevent nausea, caused by levodopa. It also enhances the effect of levodopa.

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Current Approaches To The Treatment Of Off Episodes In Parkinsons Disease

Olivier RascolResearch Network Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France

The poor efficacy of levodopa in treating the OFF phenomenon in PD is caused by several pharmacokinetic issues including poor bioavailability, being only absorbed through the jejunum. Levodopa tablets can remain in the stomach for several hours due to issues with gut emptying, delaying the drug reaching the brain. In addition, levodopa has a short plasma elimination half-life of 60â90 minutes.33,34 The pulsatility of levodopa plasma levels dysregulates the cerebral and synaptic mechanism, generating post-synaptic abnormal plasticity and abnormal motor function.35,36 Objectives in PD treatment development have therefore been to find faster-acting drugs, to improve the bioavailability of levodopa, and to stimulate dopamine receptors in a more continuous manner. Approaches include:37

  • alternate formulations of levodopa with longer duration of action
  • inhibitors of dopa decarboxylation at the periphery to increase availability of levodopa in the central nervous system
  • inhibiting catechol-O-methyltransferase to increase availability of levodopa in the central nervous system
  • inhibiting monoamine oxidase B to reduce dopamine elimination
  • increasing dopamine release and
  • dopamine agonists to mimic dopamine.

Pathophysiology And Risk Factors For The Development Of Off Episodes In Parkinsons Disease

Dr Stewart Factor on Implications, Treatment of OFF Periods in Parkinson Disease

C Warren OlanowDepartment of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

Levodopa has been used as a treatment for PD for 50 years and remains the most effective therapy available. There are, however, limitations with levodopa, including a lack of control of non-dopaminergic features of PD such as falls and dementia, failure to stop disease progression, and the development of motor complications in the majority of patients.27 Risk factors for the development of these complications have been studied in both open-label and long-term prospective studies which indicate that both OFF time and dyskinesia are associated with young age, high doses of levodopa, and disease severity.8,28 Among these, levodopa dose is the one factor that can be controlled by physicians.

Analyses in this study further indicate that female gender and lower weight correlate with the development of motor complications this likely reflects the same dose resulting in higher plasma levels in these individuals.28 Recommendations arising from this work suggest that physicians should use the lowest levodopa dose that provides satisfactory symptom control, should consider alternative medications to minimize levodopa dose, and should pay particular attention to the dose given to young women. It may also be necessary to consider patient weight and prescribe the dose on a mg/kg basis.

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Communication With Health Care Professionals About Off Periods

PwP and carepartners were asked to recall what aspects of OFF periods were discussed at the office visit. Discussion of motor aspects was reported by a higher proportion of both groups than non-motor aspects . A higher proportion of carepartners than PwP reported discussion of all aspects. Fifty nine percent of carepartners and 79% of PwP felt that the doctor understood the burden of OFF periods on their lives. Motor aspects of OFF periods were also the aspect most frequently reported as discussed by physicians , followed by the impact of OFF periods and on carepartners: 56% of general neurologists and 64% of movement disorder neurologists), followed by non-motor aspects .

The clinical interview was used by all neurologists to assess OFF periods. Including carepartners in the clinical interview was a frequent complementary method . The frequency of use of other methods such as questionnaires, diaries, wearable devices or direct observation are shown in .

Understanding Of Off Periods

Two studies addressed the understanding of off periods .1). A questionnairebased study of patients and their carepartners found that a large proportion of patients and carepartners indicated that they understood the concept of wearing off. On further questioning, however, 53% of patients and 36% of carepartners did not answer the question about the meaning of wearing off and 17% of patients and 47% of carepartners gave incorrect answers . In interviews conducted in Dutch nursing homes, lack of staff knowledge regarding motor fluctuations in PD, including the importance of timely administration of levodopa and avoidance of proteinrich meals at the time of ldopa intake to minimize off time was one of residents’ and caregivers’ main complaints. This lack of understanding was felt to contribute to a lack of empathy. We identified no studies investigating physician understanding.

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Do You Have An Off Story To Share

This post is the first in a series about what it means to be OFF. If you have a story about OFF and what youve done on your own and with your doctor that has helped you to minimize or navigate these periods, and youd like to share it with us, please send us an email at .

This post was written by the Davis Phinney Foundation.

This blog series is sponsored by Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Many Don’t Manage Off Time Well

Pin on Science &  Research News: Parkinson

In the Parkinsons Disease in America 2017 survey, 80% of people with PD reported they currently use a carbidopa/levodopa therapy to treat their symptoms. Carbidopa/levodopa treatment is the most effective treatment available for the management of motor symptoms of PD.

However, half of the survey respondents who use carbidopa/levodopa therapy are experiencing off times. Twenty-five percent of those experiencing off times notice their symptoms for 3 to 6 hours a day.

Another 52% report 1 to 3 hours a day when their symptoms are noticeable and affecting their daily activities. Yet 43% of those experiencing an off time report that they dont take any action to manage these episodes.

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