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Vitamin E And Parkinson’s Disease

Vitamin E Prevents Neurodegeneration And Protects Dopaminergic Neurons In Preclinical Research

Vitamin D and Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinsons disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. As the disease advances, neurons or brain cells in areas of the brain that are responsible for our movement are damaged or die.

Presence of higher levels of vitamin E can prevent such neurodegeneration.

Nor did the researchers observe any benefit of dietary Vit E or supplemental tocopherol in PD.

However recent studies have a different view.

Early treatment with vitamin E can help protect the brain from PD. It boosts levels of natural antioxidant- glutathione and improves motor function.

Mucuna pruriens, a natural source of dopamine, is a proven effective natural aid for PD.

According to an animal study, Vitamin E is as effective as clinical drugs such as minocycline, and Sinemet in improving motor activity in PD. It helped improve motor function by regulating the activity of Parkinsons related genes and tyrosine hydrolase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of dopamine.

Estrogen, a female hormone, is said to offer protection against Parkinsons disease. Vitamin E interacts with estrogen receptors in our body to protect dopamine-producing brain cells in PD.

Gamma and delta tocotrienol bind to estrogen receptors to activate biochemical pathways that help boost antioxidant defences and protect brain cells.

This interaction with estrogen receptors helps prevent loss of dopaminergic neurons .

Vitamin C Genetic Variants With Pd And Pd Aao

We successfully extracted the summary statistics corresponding to the 11 vitamin C genetic variants in PD and PD AAO GWAS datasets, respectively. It is noted that rs56738967 =0.321) is an ambiguous palindromic variant . Hence, we selected the allele frequency to distinguish the effect allele in both GWAS datasets. More detailed information about the association of these 11 vitamin C genetic variants with PD and PD AAO is proved in Table .

Table 4 Association of 11 vitamin C genetic variants in PD and PD AAO

Antioxidants Vitamin C And Vitamin E Linked To Lower Risk Of Parkinsons

The American Academy of Neurology is the world’s largest association of neurologists and neuroscience professionals, with 36,000 members. The AAN is dedicated to promoting the highest quality patient-centered neurologic care. A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis, concussion, Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy.

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Vitamin E In Foods Prevents Parkinson’s

But Pills Don’t Pack Anti-Parkinson’s Punch

Oct. 21, 2002 — Say “nuts” to Parkinson’s disease. Nuts and other foods rich in vitamin E lower the risk of this debilitating illness, a dietary study suggests.

These foods must have more good stuff than just the vitamin, however. People who took vitamin E pills did not lower their risk of Parkinson’s. Only those whose diets were heavy on vitamin-E-rich foods — particularly nuts — got the benefit.

“We found no evidence that use of vitamin E or C supplements or multivitamins reduced the risk of Parkinson’s,” study author Shumin Zhang, MD, ScD, said in a news release. Zhang and colleagues at Harvard Medical School reported the findings in the Oct. 22 issue of Neurology.

Zhang’s team gathered detailed information on the diets of 76,890 women and 47,331 men enrolled in two huge studies of diet and health. Both studies enrolled healthcare workers. People who sign up for this kind of study tend to have healthier lifestyles than those who don’t. That means there may be other healthy things, in addition to a diet rich in vitamin E, that help lower the risk of Parkinson’s disease.

Compared with those who ate the fewest servings of vitamin E-filled food, those who ate the most had 32% fewer cases of Parkinson’s disease after 12 to 14 years.

Foods rich in vitamin E include:

Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms Of Vitamin C In Pd

Can Vitamin E help prevent Parkinson

There is evidence that ascorbic acid can protect against both levodopa toxicity and the MPTP neurotoxicity . Vitamin C can increase the production of dihydroxyphenylalanine . Seitz et al. noted overproduction of DOPA in a dose-dependent manner after incubation of the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH with ascorbic acid for 2 hours. Additionally, the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase increased threefold after incubation with ascorbic acid for 5days. The scholars speculated that ascorbic acid may be effective in the treatment of early-stage PD .

Vitamin C can improve the absorption of levodopa in elderly PD patients with a poor levodopa bioavailability . Previous studies showed that ascorbic acid can reduce the levodopa dosage under the premise of equal efficacy . Combination of anti-PD drugs and vitamin C may be more effective for alleviating the symptoms of PD.

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Vitamin E The Crucial Molecule Of Our Diet

Vitamin E is an essential component of our diet. Apart from its many other functions in the body, vitamin E is involved in the proper development and function of the brain. Its deficiency has been associated with many brain diseases including Alzheimers and Parkinsons .

Therefore, one must consume enough vitamin E in order to protect from brain diseases. Dry fruits like walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, and leafy vegetables like spinach and broccoli are the rich sources of vitamin E. Other sources include plums, sesame seeds, wheat germ, vegetable oils, soy, and avocado .

It Offers Neuroprotection Against Parkinsons Disease

Tocotrienol is suggested to be a good neuroprotective agent against Parkinsons disease.

Glutamate is a neurotransmitter or chemical in the brain that is involved in memory and learning. However, when present in excess it causes toxicity to brain cells and can lead to cell death.

Glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is observed in Parkinsons disease as well.

It is reported that tocotrienol is more effective in preventing the glutamate-induced neuronal death than tocopherols. .

An experimental study published in Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 2014 demonstrated that a tocotrienol-rich fraction containing 25% alpha tocopherol and 75% tocotrienol can protect the brain cells from glutamate injury with its potent antioxidant activity.

Repeated Vitamin E administration protects dopaminergic neurons and offers neuroprotection in Parkinsons disease.

Quick Gist: Tocotrienols antioxidant action can protect the brain from glutamate toxicity. Regular dietary intake of vitamin E can help protect brain health in PD.

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It May Protect Memory And Cognition In Parkinsons

Cognitive impairment is one of the non-motor complications in Parkinsons disease.

Cognitive impairment is a clinical term that involves memory issues, difficulties in thinking, learning and focusing and issues in making decisions pertaining to everyday life.

The severity of this impairment differs with patients based on the region affected, time of onset and progression of the disease.

Tocotrienol can help in improving memory and learning by counteracting cognitive deficits caused by oxidative stress.

Vit E deficiency can be a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction. The deficiency can accelerate the oxidative processes in the brain leading to cognitive dysfunction.

An 8-year follow-up study reported that the elevated levels of tocopherol and tocotrienol lower the risks of cognitive impairment in older adults.

Neuroplasticity is a term which indicates the ability of the brain cells to rewire themselves throughout the life. It significantly affects learning, memory and cognition of a person.

Vitamin E is suggested to influence the neuroplasticity at the hippocampus of the brain, a part of the brain that is actively involved in our memory function.

Hence, proper dietary intake of Vit E can help in maintaining healthy brain function, memory and cognition.

Quick Gist: Parkinsons disease may pave the way for cognitive impairment and memory loss. Maintaining optimum levels of Vitamin E in the body can help reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in the elderly.

Vitamin Therapy For Parkinsons Disease

Vitamins, supplements, & other drugs for Parkinson’s disease – 2017 Parkinson Symposium

Parkinsons disease also termed as paralysis agitans, is a degenerative disorder of the nervous system, marked by gradual loss of the ability to control physical movements. It results from the destruction of brain cells that are primarily responsible for the production of a neurotransmitter called dopamine and most often affects people over the age of 50.

Insufficient production of dopamine prevents the execution of smooth and controlled movements, thus leading to symptoms like trembling, slurred speech, loss of flexibility of muscles, slowness of movement and gait, difficulty while walking and cognitive decline.

Even though, there is no cure for Parkinsons disease, a multidisciplinary approach involving lifestyle changes, healthy eating habits, regular physical activity and medications can work in concert to help you manage the symptoms of the disease in a better way, thus enabling you to enhance the quality of your life.

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Clinical Studies Regarding Vitamin C In Pd

Although vitamin C has many potential positive effects on PD, the serum level of vitamin C in patients with PD remains controversial . Noteworthily, the vitamin C level in lymphocytes has been found significantly lower in patients with severe PD . Theoretically, vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial for the treatment of PD. A cohort study involving 1036 patients with PD supported this hypothesis, which found that dietary vitamin C intake significantly reduced the risk of PD, but this effect is invalid for a 4-year-lag analysis . Controversially, many studies did not support that vitamin C supplementation can reduce the risk of PD . We speculate this contradiction may be related to the timing of vitamin application.

Which Vitamins Are Good For Parkinsons Disease

Nutritional interventions, which act via different types of mechanisms may slow or avoid the accumulation of damaged brain cells associated with the production of Parkinsons disease. Particularly, nutrients responsible to increase the utilization of brain energy, prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction, protection against oxidation damages and inflammation of tame are few leading contenders associated with anti-Parkinsons therapies.

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Benefits Of Vitamins In The Treatment Of Parkinsons Disease

Ying Zhang

1Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, First Hospital of Jilin University, Xinmin Street No. 71, Changchun 130000, China

2Department of Pharmacology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, 126 Xin Min Street, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China

3Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China

Guest Editor:


1. Introduction

Vitamins are natural bioactive products with antioxidant properties, which are necessities for maintaining the normal functions of human organisms. Essential vitamins cannot be endogenously synthesized in the organism and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Clinically, vitamin deficiency is quite common, especially in infants and elderly. Vitamins are generally divided into fat-soluble variants and water-soluble variants . The former mainly bind to cellular nuclear receptors and affect the expression of specific genes . The latter mainly constitute a cofactor for the enzyme, affecting the enzymatic activity .

2. The Pathogenesis of Oxidative Stress in PD

3. Vitamin B and PD

3.1. Vitamin B3
3.2. Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Vitamin B3 in PD
3.3. Clinical Studies regarding Vitamin B3 in PD

4. Vitamin C and PD

4.1. Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Vitamin C in PD
4.2. Clinical Studies regarding Vitamin C in PD

5. Vitamin E and PD

5.1. Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Vitamin E in PD

6. Vitamin D and PD

Therapeutic Role Of Vitamin E In Parkinsons From A Research Point Of View

Vitamin E consumption has been linked to reduce the risk ...

During the last 2 decades, studies in both animal and human have been conducted to investigate the potential therapeutic role of vitamin E in the treatment of Parkinsons disease.

Research findings in this regard are largely limited and inconsistent. Some have presented vitamin E as a protective agent, while others have shown that it has no therapeutic property against Parkinsons.

For example, a study performed on mice showed that -tocopherol treatment for 72 hours gave protection against the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the brain .

This protective effect of vitamin E has also been found in cell culture experiments. In one study, dopaminergic cells from the human brain were grown on culture dishes and then treated with and without vitamin E for 24 hours. When these cells were exposed to oxidopamine , there was a much better survival rate of brain cells that were treated with vitamin E compared to untreated cells .

But in contrast to these positive findings, there are some animal studies that show no protective effects of vitamin E against Parkinsons disease. These studies have conducted similar kind of experiments on animals brain and found no preventive role for vitamin E.

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How About Research Studies On The Human

Human research studies also gave inconsistent findings. The very first report showing the protective role of vitamin E against Parkinsons was presented in 1988 . In this study, 81 Parkinsons patients and their sibling were asked for their consumption of the given list of fruits and vegetables. It was found that those who were frequently eating vitamin E rich food at their 40s were tolerant to develop Parkinsons disease.

The similar kind of findings was also observed in two other studies conducted in 1997 and 2002 . Both studies have concluded that a high intake of dietary vitamin E is associated with a lower incidence of Parkinsons disease.

But when it comes to clinical trials on Parkinsons patients, the results are largely disappointing. Most clinical studies ended up with no effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in the prevention and treatment of Parkinsons disease.

Vitamin E May Help Prevent Parkinsons Disease And Can Protect The Ageing Brain

Parkinsons disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimers disease.

A moderate dietary intake of vitamin E can protect brain health better and possibly reduce the risk of Parkinsons disease.

A review study published in Toxicology, 2003 suggests that Parkinsons disease results from the exposure to a number of environmental toxicants and genetic alterations.

These cause oxidative damage in the substantia nigra .

Vitamin E can prove to be an effective antioxidant that protects the substantia nigra from such oxidative damage.

Excessive iron content may damage the brain cells, thereby contributing to Parkinsons pathology. It causes inflammation and toxicity in the brain.

Vitamin E along with iron chelators inhibits such iron accumulation, reduces oxidative damage and restores dopamine levels back to normal.

It also exerts an anti-inflammatory action. It reduces the increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumour necrosis factor, interferons and interleukins .

Ageing is one of the major risk factors for developing Parkinsons disease. As we age, the level of natural antioxidants reduces and causes mitochondrial dysfunction.

Mitochondria are energy-producing units of the cells and are involved in maintaining antioxidant defences.

Such age-related mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in the brain cells of the substantia nigra in Parkinsons disease.

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/5vitamin C And E And Parkinson’s Disease

It has been recently found that vitamin C and vitamin E might be strongly linked with Parkison’s diseases. As per a new study published in the journal Neurology, vitamin E and C intake are inversely associated with the risk of Parkinson. The researchers reached the conclusion after thoroughly studying the health records of more than 43,800 adults between 18 to 94 years from 1997 to 2016. They analysed their question based on the diet and deduced that diet plays a critical role when it comes to reducing the risk of neurological disorders like Parkison’s disease. Adding foods rich in vitamin E and C might help to prevent the development of Parkinson’s disease later in life.

Which Foods Are Rich In Vitamin E

Vitamin E: magical supplement for many health conditions

Given the powerful effects Vit E has on brain and nerve health, one should include it in their regular diet.

Some common sources of vitamin E include almonds, spinach and sweet potato. The compound is also present in avocado and sunflower seeds.

Cooking using olive oil is another way of including Vit E in ones diet. Eating trout can provide the body with both proteins and Vit E.

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Vitamins For Parkinsons Disease

Vitamin B6

Pharmaceutical treatment used for treating Parkinsons disease aim at obtaining an optimum trade-off between achieving a good control over the symptoms and minimizing side-effects related to the use of these drugs.

The role of vitamin B6 in maintaining a healthy nervous system, through its ability to improve blood circulation to the brain and promote the synthesis of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine has been well established by studies conducted by the University of Maryland Medical Center.

A study has established a strong link between the deficiency of vitamin B6 and an increased risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Although, vitamin B6 may not be very efficient in reversing the damage done to the brain cells, it can certainly help in the second stage of the treatment by helping patients cope with the side-effects associated with many drugs used to treat PD.

However, it has been recommended to limit your vitamin B6 intake to 100 grams per day, since an overdose can cause negative side effects like loss of sensation, balance and co-ordination. Hence, vitamin B6 can be more beneficial, if obtained through the consumption of foods like fish, chicken, turkey, spinach, broccoli, asparagus, nuts, beans, legumes, etc., rather than obtaining it through the intake of over-the-counter supplements, which have doses of vitamin B6.

Antioxidant Vitamins

Vitamin C

Vitamin E May Protect Brain

In the study, researchers reviewed studies on vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene and Parkinson’s disease risk published between 1996 and March 2005. The results appear in the May 19 online edition of Lancet Neurology.

Overall, seven studies showed that diets that contained a moderate amount of vitamin E reduced the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease by 19%.

Moderate vitamin E diets were those that fell in the middle range of intake of the vitamin in each of the studies included. According to the federal government, the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin E is 15 milligrams of the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E. Alpha-tocopherol is the form of the vitamin that the body uses.

Although eating larger amounts of vitamin E appeared to further reduce Parkinson’s risk, researchers say too few studies contained data on this to draw any firm conclusions.

But seven studies on vitamin C and four on beta-carotene did not indicate that diets rich in these nutrients had a protective effect against Parkinson’s disease.

The American Dietetic Association gives the following examples of how much vitamin E is in a variety of foods:

  • 24 almonds. About a handful has 7.4 milligrams
  • Hazelnuts. 20 nuts has 4.3 grams
  • Broccoli. 1 cup cooked has 2.9 milligrams
  • Wheat germ. 1 tablespoon has 1.3 milligrams
  • Avocado. 1 ounce has 0.4 milligrams

Show Sources

Lancet Neurology

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