Mitochondria Microbiota And Marijuana
The microbiome also plays an important role in the health of our mitochondria, which are present in every cell in the brain and body . Mitochondria function not only as the cells power plant they also are involved in regulating cell repair and cell death. Dysfunction of the mitochondria, resulting in high levels of oxidative stress, is intrinsic to PD neurodegeneration. Microbes produce inflammatory chemicals in the gut that seep into the bloodstream and damage mitochondria, contributing to disease pathogenesis not only in PD but many neurological and metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and Alzheimers.
The evidence that gut dysbiosis can foster the development of PD raises the possibility that those with the disease could benefit by manipulating their intestinal bacteria and improving their microbiome. Enhancing ones diet with fermented foods and probiotic supplements may improve gut health and relieve constipation, while also reducing anxiety, depression and memory problems that afflict PD patients.
Cannabis therapeutics may also help to manage PD symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Acclaimed neurologist Sir William Gowers was the first to mention cannabis as a treatment for tremors in 1888. In his Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System, Grower noted that oral consumption of an Indian hemp extract quieted tremors temporarily, and after a year of chronic use the patients tremors nearly ceased.
Benefits Of Cbd Oil For Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons Disease represents an inflammatory condition within the brain. One of CBDs functions is as an anti-inflammatory compound. It mediates the effects of inflammatory cytokines involved in PDs neuroinflammation. Thus, one of CBDs potential advantages is that of an anti-inflammatory. CBD may also act as an antioxidant in the oxidative stress associated with PD. CBD might protect the brain cells from oxidation and inflammation.
People with Parkinsons Disease may have a decreased quality of life. CBD oil for Parkinson may help relieve anxiety, depression, pain, insomnia, and, thus, improve the quality of life.
Cbd As An Antioxidant
Among its several functions, inflammation acts as a kind of call-to-arms for other immune cells.
After the cytokines have done their job, other immune cells rush to the inflamed area to attempt tissue repair in various ways.
Some of these immune cells release reactive oxygen species , which increases the ratio of free radicals to antioxidants in the body
This imbalance is the defining trait of oxidative stress, which leads to premature cell damage and death as well as, in a circular fashion, more inflammation.
We already have to contend with free radical production from other sources, including dietary and environmental influences, cellular processes like the breakdown of dopamine, and the natural aging process, which is why its wise to seek out antioxidant-rich foods and supplements.
CBD is one such supplement, as evidenced in this Complutense University of Madrid study involving PD-infected rats.
The researchers detected that CBD administration caused an upregulation of mRNA levels for Cu,ZN-superoxide dismutase, which is an enzyme that our bodies use to fight off oxidative damage and slow degeneration.
CBD can even neutralize reactive oxygen species, which are molecules that steal electrons from healthy neighbors and turn them into free radicals, by donating this electron without becoming reactive themselves.
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Benefits Of Using Cbd Oil To Treat Parkinson’s Disease
There are many potential benefits that can come with using CBD oil to treat Parkinsons disease and its symptoms.
The loss of physical control that comes with the advancement of Parkinsons is due to a drop in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine available in the brain. The most commonly prescribed medications for balancing these dopamine levels are levodopa and carbidopa, often available in a combination pill, tablet, or liquid form. Levodopa, sometimes called L-dopa, is converted to dopamine by the brain carbidopa aids in this conversion by protecting levodopa from being broken down before it reaches the brain.
Popular brand names for levodopa-carbidopa combination medications include Sinemet, Duopa, Rytary, and Parcopa. While these medications are very helpful, they can have several side effects, some of which can be almost as disruptive as Parkinsons itself, including:
- Weakness and exhaustion
- Muscle stiffness
CBD oil may be able to help manage some of the symptoms of Parkinsons disease without producing side effects like these, though research on the subject is still in its infancy.
The Pros And Cons Of Cbd Oil For Parkinsons Disease
- Preclinical trials, observational studies, and clinical trials on human and animal models have revealed CBDs therapeutic effects on Parkinsons disease.
- Compared to the usual medications for PD like levodopa, CBD has a more favorable safety profile.
- To date, there is no recorded case of CBD dependence in humans. Hence, it is not a substance that has the potential for abuse.
- Further research needs to be made on CBD use, especially as a preventive therapy for Parkinsons disease.
- CBD use also has side effects, such as diarrhea, tiredness, and changes in weight or appetite.
- The United States Food and Drug Administration has not approved the use of CBD in treating Parkinsons disease.
- Due to the lack of FDA regulation, incidences of mislabeled CBD products are prevalent, especially products that are sold online.
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Endocannabinoids And Basal Ganglia
On the other hand, CB1 receptor activation dampens amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, as well as the rise in dopamine and glutamate release in the striatum.6868. Polissidis A, Chouliara O, Galanopoulos A, Naxakis G, Papahatjis D, Papadopoulou-Daifoti Z, et al. Cannabinoids negatively modulate striatal glutamate and dopamine release and behavioural output of acute D-amphetamine. Behav Brain Res. 2014 270:261-9. Striatal CB1 receptors also decrease GABAergic input to dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc, thus modulating the firing activity of these neurons.6969. Lovinger DM. Neurotransmitter roles in synaptic modulation, plasticity and learning in the dorsal striatum. Neuropharmacology. 2010 58:951-61. Accordingly, it has been accepted that the endocannabinoid system modifies striatal functioning and interferes with motor control.
Uncertain Responses To Cbd
Both men completed the CBD trial. Neither felt any positive effects after taking the drug, although their experiences were different.
Mullen thinks he got the placebo. I kept wanting to feel something different, he said, but I didnt feel anything. He is anxious to see the results of the trial and added that he would still be willing to take CBD to treat his Parkinsons disease symptoms.
Preusser is convinced that he did get the CBD, explaining that after the first administration he felt lightheaded. Things werent quite as concrete and were more ethereal than how I commonly perceive my surroundings, he said.
The dizziness forced him to go to another room at the clinic to lie down. He said at his second visit, he got half the dose, which seemed to diminish the side effect.
But like Mullen, Preusser said he derived no benefit from whatever he took. I didnt notice any diminishment of my tremor or change in my level of cognition, he said. He remains open, however, to the idea that CBD could help some people with Parkinsons disease.
I understand that every patient is different, he said. It may work miracles for the next guy. For me, not so, but there may be a point when I might reconsider or something may prompt a different assessment.
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Can A Daily Dose Of Cbd Help With Parkinsons Disease
- CBD may have therapeutic effects on Parkinsons disease , especially on the non-motor symptoms associated with the neurodegenerative disease.
- A study in 2009 has found that CBD improved psychosis and decreased delusions, hallucinations, and sleep disturbances in Parkinsons disease patients.
- A study published in The International Journal of Neuroscience reported CBDs positive effects on motor symptoms, such as tremors, of the test subjects with Parkinsons disease.
- A study published in the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology suggests that CBD may be a useful preventive therapy for Parkinsons disease. However, the researchers acknowledge that it is challenging to diagnose PD in its early stages.
- Current research shows that CBD has great potential in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. However, further studies need to be done to establish CBDs benefits for Parkinsons disease.
How Parkinsons Disease Affects Your Brain
Weve already covered the macro-level concepts as it regards how Parkinsons works, but everyday consumers and researchers alike need to learn the underlying mechanisms involved in both a healthy and Parkinsons-affected brain in order to appreciate how therapeutic agents like cannabidiol can help.
How Your Brain Is Supposed to Work
The billions of nerve cells in your brain use cable-like extensions called axons to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next.
When an outgoing impulse or message reaches the end of an axon, it approaches a gap between the sending and receiving nerves known as the synapse.
The impulse is then ferried across the synapse by a specific chemical messenger, or neurotransmitterdopamine in this instance.
Once the dopamine accomplishes its job of getting the impulse across the synapse to the receiving neuron, it is broken down by enzymes.
How Your Brain Works with Parkinsons Disease
In the case of PD, the cells that produce dopamine die off for an unknown reason.
When the dopamine deficiency reaches 80 percent, the more readily recognizable symptoms of tremors and rigidity begin to manifest as communication between neurons is seriously impaired.
The immune system activates microglia in response to the rampant destruction of dopamine-producing cells microglia are a type of immune cell that cause inflammation and further damage to neurons when overstimulated.
How does cannabidiol counteract these harmful developments, you might be wondering?
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How Cbd Oil Compares To Alternative Treatments For Parkinsons Disease
There are various alternative treatments for Parkinsons disease. These include massages, acupuncture, yoga, and meditation.
While these alternative remedies have therapeutic benefits, especially on Parkinsons symptoms, like chronic pain due to movement impairments, CBD use proves to have more benefits.
CBD may aid in alleviating some of the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease, as shown in the studies previously mentioned.
Cbd Oil Dosage For Parkinsons Disease
Unfortunately, there is no one single dose of CBD oil that is effective for Parkinsons disease. Because no two people are exactly alike, what works for one person may not work for another. Unless told otherwise by a doctor, it is recommended that you start with the lowest recommended dose listed on your CBD oil product and adjust up or down as needed from there. You can also consult with a cannabis doctor who specializes in helping people overcome conditions using CBD oil and other natural treatment methods.
If youre looking for a general baseline dosage, we at CBD Oil Review we have analyzed hundreds of products and come up with a standard serving suggestion:
The CBD Oil Review Serving Standard is 25mg of CBD, taken twice daily.
If you are not getting results from this amount, we recommend increasing the serving size by 25mg every 3-4 weeks until you find relief.
For more information on CBD oil dosage and tips on how to assess what might be best for you, you can check out our CBD Oil Dose Guide.
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Cannabis And Parkinson’s Disease
- Demystifying Medicine
Parkinsons disease, also known as PD, is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. The disease is characterized by a loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, which is an area of the brain responsible for movement. Cannabis, specifically CBD, has shown promise in treating some of the symptoms of PD. In this video we will define Parkinsons disease and cannabis, explain how cannabis can help with PD, and physician perspectives on prescribing cannabis.
Thc Vs Cbd For Parkinsons Disease
A 2014 study found that movement dysfunction in Parkinsons patients improved when using THC-rich marijuana. These improvements were found in overall movement deficiencies and specific motor dysfunctions like tremor, rigidity and slowed movements.
The study also noted that these patients showed improvements in sleep and pain.
This suggests that Parkinsons patients may benefit from using a combination of cannabinoids. THC and CBD, when used together, may help target a wider range of Parkinsons symptoms, and may offer a better overall improvement than either cannabinoid used alone.
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Can You Use Cbd Oil As A Prevention For Parkinsons
Studies have suggested that CBD may be able to help prevent Parkinsons disease, but the current data comes only from animal models.
The research also suggests that CBD can do nothing to help treat PD after its onset. Based on this, it may only be useful as a preventive supplement.
However, most clinical trials only use CBD after a person is diagnosed with Parkinsons disease. This is important because about 60 percent of the dopamine-receptive neurons in the brain are already destroyed by the time a person begins showing the symptoms of their condition.
Its also difficult to predict who will develop Parkinsons and who will be more resistant to this disease. There are only a few preventive strategies, and thus far, we dont know if CBD can help everyone.
Does Cbd Help Parkinsons
CBD hasnt been used in Parkinsons Disease patients long term, and there are few studies to rely on for treatment guidance. Recently, a Phase II clinical trial was completed on CBDs role in the treatment of Parkinsons Disease. Treatment outcomes were positive for sleep, depression, behavior and emotion, anxiety, and cognition. Improvements in psychotic features were seen as well. About 20-40% of PD patients experience psychotic symptoms. And, treatment with antipsychotics may bring out Parkinson-like symptoms. Taking CBD may relieve pain associated with PD, although research favors THC for this effect.
CBD oil for Parkinsons symptom treatment can be in the form of edibles, oils, tinctures, ointments, vape cartridges, and creams. Topical CBD can be used for the muscle spasms so common in patients with PD, and oils can be used to relieve symptoms faster. However, data is lacking regarding this mode of delivery. Tinctures also offer speedy effects as a way to take CBD. The only FDA approved way of taking CBD, however, is through the drug Epidiolex although its benefits have been shown from other CBD oils.
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What To Look For Cbd Oil
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What Might Cbd Do For Parkies
CBD has shown potential in early studies for reducing dyskinetic activity in people with PD and treating motor symptoms in various neurodegenerative conditions.
According to a 2018 review study published by the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology, Cannabidiol is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Data also suggest that CBD could potentially play a protective role in the treatment of certain movement disorders. Results are promising, but further studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of CBD.
Cannabis Shown To Relieve Parkinson Disease Symptoms
A recent survey found that patients experienced relief of certain motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease from using cannabis.
A recent survey on community perceptions of cannabis use in patients with Parkinson disease found that patients reported cannabis to be effective at reducing symptom severity.
Results also show a lack of knowledge on the different types and administration routes among patients. Researchers said that this is the largest study analyzing the view of patients on cannabis therapy in PD.
The study, published in Journal of Parkinsons Disease, took place in Germany, which in 2017 approved medical cannabis as a therapy for patients with severe symptoms of PD when other therapies were unsuccessful or not tolerable. MC is eligible for reimbursement in these cases.
Although many cannabis products and formulations are available to patients, there is a lack of controlled clinical studies addressing MC effectiveness on PD symptoms. Its also unclear which PD symptoms would be best treated with MC, whether certain cannabis formulations are more effective, or which routes of administration patients would prefer most. Further, the prevalence of MC use and patient opinion on its use for PD symptoms relief are unknowns.
Cannabis users made up 15% of participants, of which 13.9% were regular users, 32.2% were occasional users, and 42.6% had tried it once 11.4% did not answer. Users were on average 5.6 years younger than nonusers.