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Parkinson’s Disease Case Study

Results And Achievements For This Project

Parkinson’s Disease Case Study

The research has identified many variations within the DNA of patients to compile an extensive list of genetic markers associated with Parkinsons disease. The next phase of the study will investigate the role of genetic markers in the progression of Parkinsons disease and potentially identify treatment options that delay the onset of aggressive deterioration.

The findings will be used to identify variants that might occur more frequently in individuals with Parkinsons disease, and whether these patterns are associated with rapid progression of the disease. Ideally, this will lead to more accurate diagnosis of a patients Parkinsons disease journey and inform better treatment plans to improve the patients quality of life.

The Influence Of Environmental Risk Factors On Gut Microbiota

An important issue in the present study was that the control group were recruited from relatives of our patients with nearly same age- and sex-distribution in order to limit any differences in diet, residency, job, water source, pesticide exposure, and daily intake of fluid and water, or fruits as confirmed by the absence of significant differences between PD patients and controls in any of these items. Our findings showed that there was a significant association between pesticide exposure and Bifidobacterium levels in patients with PD, which is higher in non-pesticide exposed patients than pesticide-exposed patients . Our data with Hill-Burns and colleagues who found that there is may be a correlation secondary to long-standing exposure to pesticide/herbicide contaminant in stream and ground water and the increased activity in PD of pathways that degrade xenobiotics.

A Case Of Parkinsons Disease With No Lewy Body Pathology Due To A Homozygous Exon Deletion In Parkin

Krisztina Kunszt Johansen

1Department of Neurology, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway

2Department of Pathology, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway

3Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

4Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Academic Editor:


Parkinsons disease is a clinical diagnosis based on the presence of cardinal motor signs, good response to levodopa, and no other explanations of the syndrome. Earlier diagnostic criteria required autopsy for a definite diagnosis based on neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies and neurites. Here, we present a patient who developed parkinsonism around the age of 20, with an excellent response to levodopa who, at age 65, received bilateral STN deep brain stimulation . The patient died at age 79. The autopsy showed severe neuronal loss in the SN without any Lewy bodies in the brainstem or in the hemispheres. Genetic screening revealed a homozygous deletion of exon 3-4 in the Parkin gene. In this case report we discuss earlier described pathological findings in Parkin cases without Lewy body pathology, the current diagnostic criteria for PD, and their clinical relevance.

1. Introduction

In this report we present EOPD carrying homozygous Parkin deletion of exons 3-4 with no LB pathology at autopsy.

2. Case Report

3. Autopsy Findings

4. Discussion

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History Of Present Illness

The onset of his Parkinsons diagnosis started with Ted experiencing difficulties with regular tasks around the house because he was experiencing shaking and noticed a lot of his movements were much slower and difficult to get going. His son suggested he see his doctor after witnessing him have difficulty entering the front door of his home, he was frozen and needed guidance to step in. Prior to these symptoms, Ted recalls losing his sense of smell intermittently and noticed his handwriting becoming smaller but dismissed these as part of getting old.

Nursing Case Study Parkinson’s Disease


Info: 1982 words Nursing Case Study 12th Feb 2020

Thomas Aitken

1) Introduction

The following discussion shall be about Parkinsons disease with an emphasis on the diseases association with John Magill. In Australia, deaths because of Parkinsons disease comprised 19. 8% of deaths from nervous system disease in 2010 . The aetiology and risk factors associated with the disease shall be discussed, in addition to its clinical presentation and the required essential physical assessments. Furthermore, the medical management of the disease shall be developed before concluding the discussion.

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Johns vital signs appear unremarkable although his respirations are slightly elevated which is most likely due to anxiety-worrying about medications. He has a sick wife suffering from multiple myeloma. This is a form of cancer that would reduce her ability to care for John. John may also be suffering from depression, as evidenced by his teary manner.

It was also noted that there was a skin tear to his right hip and that he started to cough when given a drink of water. There could be a risk of infection with the skin tear and the risk of aspiration due to dysphagia. He had a fall, suffered bruising, has tremors and moves slowly.

2) Possible causes / risk factors related to the health condition.

4) Discuss medical management including medications.

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The Potential Assessment Tools For The Patient With Parkinsons Disease And Setting Goals

As mentioned earlier, Parkinsons disease has multiple effects on the patients performance of the daily activities is characterised by the motor as well as cognitive impairment. This tendency occurs because the same processes in the patients brains that lead to the limitation of physical abilities create cognitive problems such as memory problems and slowness in thinking.

As a concept, cognition is challenging to define for since it refers to a multitude of functions and capacities such as the perception of the world around, making sense of information, applying knowledge, learning, storing and retrieving memorised information, solving problems, using language, planning tasks and activities, forming insights, to name a few.

Attempting to measure the cognitive impacts of Parkinsons disease, the researchers presented a variety of conflicting and inconsistent data . This tendency occurred because, in different studies, the authors used different tools to assess the effects of the condition on the mental capacity of the affected individuals . Approaching the impairments from various perspectives, the tools generated diverse results. The tools and tests available today provide the professionals with an ability to assess even the mildest impacts of Parkinsons disease on the cognitive capacities of the patients that they do not notice in daily life.

Parkinsons Patient Case Study Dementech Neurosciences

The video is displaying the difference in life quality that can be achieved by correct diagnosis and appropriate medical treatments. The case study is based on a Parkinsons patient that has been wheelchair-bound for over two years.

The patient achieved a very significant improvement after having a consultation with an expert neurologist in our team. That led to a change of diagnosis and change in medication. She can be seen later in the video now able to stand up and walk.

This case is one of the many that we come across. The great difficulties in managing the condition are usually due to the wrong initial diagnosis or incorrect course of Parkinsons treatment.

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Parkinsons Disease Sample Essay & Outline

Parkinsons disease is one of the diseases that affects millions of people in the United States alone. I was therefore, interested in the way this disease worked and the way it affects persons. I was especially interested in its relation with the endocrine system as there were several studies that had showed there was a relation between the two. Therefore, this made this topic more interesting and I wanted to find more information regarding it. It is through this literature that I stumbled upon an article on endocrinology. I found an article that discussed the effect of Parkinson disease on the endocrine system and dysfunction of the system. The whole idea was important to me as I wanted to understand the information better and understand the correlation that existed between the two. The article was on a study regarding the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in subjects with idiopathic Parkinsons disease referred to as IPD on the newer dopaminergic agents . The article discussed whether indeed the Parkinsons disease was related to newer dopaminergic agents.

The results were able to justify the conclusion, in that they showed that the newer DA do not often cause significant endocrine dysfunction.

How The Project Was Completed

Case Study – Parkinson’s Disease

As early genetic studies have shown the onset and progression of Parkinsons disease can be influenced by multiple genes, this research sought to understand the varying trajectories of the disease for individuals to help create personalised treatment plans.

Using specialised genotyping software, the study analysed sequencing data from the Parkinsons Progression Markers Initiative a study that followed individuals with early stage Parkinsons or with risk factors and control volunteers over time.

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Parkinsons Disease Case Study

Parkinsons Disease Case Study



Doug and his wife Maria have three adult children, all of whom are married with young children of their own. Doug works as a regional sales representative for a chemical company that produces plastics, chemicals, and agricultural products. He has been in the position for 15 years, having moved into this job after leaving a different company doing similar work. The job requires him to travel to give demonstrations of the products across a six-state region. This requires him to fly and drive in unfamiliar areas. Maria works as a junior high school principal. Doug and Maria are financially set for retirement at age 65. Overall, they are in good health. At the age of 60, Doug received a diagnosis of Parkinsons Disease .

Early phase

Middle phase

Late phase

  • Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice resource for additional guidance.
  • Must use at least three scholarly sources in addition to the course textbook.
  • The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.

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Parkinsons Disease Case Study Sample Essay & Outline

History of Present Illness

S.E is a business manager who explains that he has been experiencing shoulder pains and stiffness. He explains that the problem started six months ago. However, the his condition was previously mistaken for musculoskeletal and he was referred for physical therapist treatment. The patient now presents with a stiffness in the right shoulder extending into the elbow and a resting tremor in the right and left hand. He was referred to a neurologist and he was diagnosed with early Parkinsons Disease.

Current Medications

Ropinirole 5mg p.o TID.

Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons disease occurs because of loss of dopamine a chemical produced by the brain that helps in facilitating movement. Furthermore, dopamine also affects ones mood. Thus, medications for the Parkinsons disease entail prescription of pills that replace dopamine in the body.

Parkinsons disease presents with various signs and symptoms. However, symptoms are different among patients. Some patients show early stages symptoms, while others start showing symptoms during the later stages. Normally, symptoms for the disease present in individuals who are aged between 50-60 years. Symptoms develop gradually and the close family may not notice anything wrong with the patient. Parkinsons disease can cause motor or non-motor symptoms. Motor symptoms involves symptoms that affect movement, whereas non-motor symptoms do not affect movement .

Motor symptoms

Non-motor symptoms


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Gut Microbiota And Pd

This study provides further insight into the association between gut microbiota and PD. The main finding was a significantly higher copy number of gut microbiota from Clostridium cluster IV, Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and lactic acid bacteria in the PD group compared with the control group, while Firmicutes were significantly lower in PD .

The higher Clostridium cluster IV in PD patients was consistent with data reported by Qian and colleagues . Clostridium produces elevated levels of noxious brain metabolites that can lead to neurological symptoms .

The high abundance of Akkermansia microbiome was consistent with Heintz-Buschart and colleagues, and Keshavarzian and coworkers . They evaluated microbiota composition in fecal samples of PD patients and age-matched controls, and all found that Akkermansia was more abundant in fecal samples from PD patients. Previous studies have shown that Akkermansia causes alterations in the function of the mucosal barrier that substantially increases the intestinal permeability. Akkermansia uses mucus as a source of energy, which leads to increased exposure of microbial antigens to the immune cells . Endotoxins derived from the gut can also activate -synuclein aggregation or neuronal damage .

Management Of Paradoxical Amino Acid Reactions


Most Parkinsons disease patients treated under this novel approach do not achieve gradual relief of symptoms as the l-dopa dosing values are increased. Symptom cessation tends to be abrupt, analogous to turning a light switch from off to on.,,

Paradoxical reactions with concomitant administration of serotonin and dopamine amino acid precursors occur in approximately 5% of patients. A paradoxical reaction is defined as an outcome to treatment that is the opposite of what is expected. In the Parkinsons disease patients being treated with balanced amino acid precursors, the most common paradoxical reactions are agitation and confusion, although any disease process related to monoamine diseases may be exacerbated such as depression, insomnia, or anxiety. With most Parkinsons disease patients, paradoxical reactions occur after many weeks or months when the l-dopa dosing value is on the threshold needed for control of Parkinsons disease symptoms late in treatment.,,

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Parkinsons Disease Case Study Assignment

Parkinsons Disease Case Study Assignment

As the average life span increases, the likelihood of developing a chronic disease increases as well. This assignment focuses on Parkinsons Disease , which is a neurodegenerative disease. Neurodegenerative disease causes dysfunction and death of nerve cells in the brain and can affect motor, cognitive, and behavioral or psychological functioning. Usually, such disease has a profound impact on the family, as well as the affected individual. The case study below gives you the opportunity to learn more about issues faced by people who have PD as well as exploring the impact of PD on the micro-, meso-, and macro-level systems and the reverse the micro-, meso-, and macro-level effects on the individual.

Parkinsons Disease Case Study Details:


Early phase

Middle phase

Late phase

Categorizing Symptoms Associated With Carbidopa/l

The FDA-approved prescribing information for carbidopa/l-dopa preparations was reviewed and a list of side effects, adverse reactions, and problems associated with administration was generated. Each side effect was then placed in one or more of the general categories listed below by the authors of this paper. While the listing of each side effect may be open to further discussion, these are the categories that have evolved in this research project since 2001. The six categories of carbidopa/l-dopa side effects are as follows:

Category 1: Problems caused by depletion of serotonin byl-dopa: Tachyphylaxis .

Category 2: Problems caused by imbalance of serotonin and dopamine: Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss, decreased mental acuity, depression, psychotic episodes including delusions, euphoria, pathologic gambling, impulse control, confusion, dream abnormalities including nightmares, anxiety, disorientation, dementia, nervousness, insomnia, sleep disorders, hallucinations and paranoid ideation, somnolence, memory impairment, and increased libido.

Category 3: Problems caused by dopamine fluctuations due to inadequate tyrosine levels: On-off effect, motor fluctuations, dopamine fluctuations, implicated as an etiology of dyskinesia.

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Management Of Dopamine Fluctuations With L

As noted in previous writings by two of the authors of this paper, urinary dopamine levels fluctuate on urinary assay significantly if proper levels of l-tyrosine are not co-administered with l-dopa in the competitive inhibition state. This fluctuation in the competitive inhibition state is a direct reflection of OCT2 activity of the basolateral monoamine transporters of the proximal convoluted tubule cells of the kidneys., Research experience leading up to this writing has shown that patients taking l-dopa required minimum administration of 5,000 to 6,000 mg per day of l-tyrosine to prevent significant urinary dopamine fluctuations., It is a novel finding of this research that l-tyrosine depletion and dopamine fluctuations are associated with the onoff effect. The patient in this study began to experience onoff effect. Instead of increasing the l-dopa dosing, the l-tyrosine dosing values were increased as noted in . The maximum required l-tyrosine dosing value encountered for control of onoff effect in all patients studied leading up to the writing of this paper was 20,000 mg per day.

Management Of Sulfur Amino Acid Depletion By L

Parkinson’s Disease Gait – Case Study 20

The sulfur amino acid l-cysteine was selected for use due to its role in synthesis of enzymes that catalyze monoamine synthesis. Theoretically, from the standpoint of enzymes that catalyze monoamine synthesis, any sulfur amino acid, with the exception of n-acetyl-cysteine and glutathione, may serve as a sulfur donor in enzyme synthesis. From a database developed by one of the authors of this article containing over 1.931 million patient-days of amino acid treatment in patients not suffering from Parkinsons disease, objective results revealed optimal l-cysteine dosing was 4,500 mg per day. No objective changes were observed with the daily dosing values of l-cysteine at or below 2,250 mg per day and no additional response was seen in dosing values greater than 4,500 mg per day.,,

Administration of proper levels of sulfur amino acids prevents depletion of all of the following: glutathione the enzymes that catalyze amino acid precursors into monoamines S-adenosylmethionine and epinephrine.,,

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Ehrlichiosis Sample Essay & Outline

1.0 Introduction and definition of terms

Ehrlichiosis is a general term used to refer to a collection of arthropod-borne diseases that are particularly spread by ticks . Arthropods refer to invertebrates with external skeleton , jointed appendages and segmented body. They include arachnids, insects and crustaceans. On the other hand, a vector is an organism that transfers a pathogen from one organism to another. Biological vectors are those that harbor the ineffective agent in their bodies and the agent multiplies and develops in the vector before being actively transferred.

In this case, the vector is essential to the pathogens life cycle, classical examples are ticks, mosquitoes, lice and fleas. In contrast, the mechanical vector is not vital for the pathogens lifecycle because it merely picks the pathogen on the surface of its body and transfers the pathogen passively. A typical example is a housefly which may pick pathogens on its appendages upon landing on feces and transfer it to food before consumption . Ehrlichiosis is mainly transmitted by four tick species Dermacentor variabilis, Amyblyomma americanum , Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus which are widely distributed in the United States, Latin America, New England and Africa

2.0 Etiology and Microbiology of the pathogen

3.0 Reservoir, Transmission, epidemiology

4.0 Pathophysiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment


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