Thursday, September 22, 2022

Parkinson’s And Restless Leg Syndrome

Can Restless Legs Syndrome Develop Into Something More Serious

Neurology 20 Parkinson’s Restless Leg Syndrome

Most people with restless legs syndrome have the “idiopathic” form, meaning there’s no known cause. For them, there is no risk of RLS developing into something more serious, like Parkinson’s disease.

Restless legs syndrome can get worse in people with other medical conditions if they don’t get those conditions treated.

How To Treat Restless Leg Syndrome

How to Treat Restless Leg Syndrome naturally. The best way to treat RLS naturally is to stop the source of your pH imbalance which is causing your symptoms of restless legs. It is the usually the balance between the minerals calcium and magnesium and very little magnesium in most foods. Calcium makes your muscles contract, magnesium makes your muscles relax. Adding pink Himalayan sea salt to your diet can help. You can also use a holistic nerve and muscle relaxing cream called Mind Body Matrix It naturally relaxes the legs that are prone to restless leg syndrome.

Drinking a high level quinine tonic water can also be very helpful for RLS. Organic Hemp CBD Oil or Creams contain Cannabinoidsand can help reduce or stop the twitching and provides awesome pain relief Supplemental Iron and Magnesium are tops since they are deficient in people with restless legs and muscle cramps. All types of disease are imbalances that when you discover what they are and balance them, your symptoms will vanish too.

The Link Between Rls And Parkinsons: Dopamine Agonists

Although the cause of RLS remains unknown, we know that RLS runs in families in about one-half of the cases, and that some families have an abnormality on chromosome 12. Because RLS is well treated by medications that also treat Parkinsons disease, it is likely that some aspect of brain dopamine function is altered in RLS. However, unlike in Parkinsons disease, in which the deficit in substantia nigra dopamine-producing cells can be proven in many ways, no such abnormality has been shown in RLS. For example, studies show that there is no major deficit on PET or other imaging studies of the brain, as is there is in PD. The spinal fluid is normal in RLS, but shows low dopamine in PD.

Lastly, RLS does not progress to cause other major symptoms such as tremor, gait disorder, or loss of taste or smell, and does not progress to PD. In fact, one of the leading possibilities as the cause of RLS and for which there is good scientific evidence and much research is a form of iron-transport abnormality in the brain. In effect, RLS patients may have low levels of iron in brain nerve cellsjust the opposite of some portions of the brain in PD.

Dr. Poceta is a Consultant in Neurology and Sleep Disorders in the Division of Neurology, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, and the Scripps Clinic Sleep Center. His current interests include organized medicine and Internet medicine.

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Magnesium For Restless Leg Syndrome

Magnesium for restless leg syndrome. Most people have way too much calcium in their bodies because most foods now are highly calcium fortified Sea shell calcium supplements cant be absorbed fully by your body and end up in your joints as joint deposits and bone spurs. They also end up clogging your arteries as arteriosclerosis and in your brain as memory problems and dementia. Excess calcium competes with magnesium in your body and leads to stiffness in joints, muscle cramping, nerve pain and depression feelings! Natural full spectrum magnesium brings calm to mind and body and properly balances every cell in your body.

90% of all people are deficient in natural magnesium and it leads to all types of health conditions like anxiety, panic, depression, SAD, restless legs, arthritis, heart disease, insomnia, constipation, muscle cramps and weak bones and teeth. Using a natural full spectrum magnesium like Magnesium Breakthrough and is proven to give you a natural healing effects you can feel, body and mind. It is #1 natural mineral for anxiety relief. It just naturally calms so you look and feel relaxed and in control.

Pathological Evidence Of Dopamine Dysfunction In Pd And Rls

Restless Leg Syndrome Effective, Natural Therapy ...

Post-mortem studies in PD demonstrate loss of nigral neurons resulting in striatal dopamine deficiency, with differing morphological lesion patterns according to the clinical subtypes of PD. Cell loss in the ventrolateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta projecting to the dorsal putamen is more prominent in the akinetic-rigid type, whereas tremor-dominant PD shows predominantly medial SNPC cell loss . Variability in lesion patterning might explain why some patients with PD may develop RLS. In addition, loss of dopamine 2 receptors has been documented in advanced PD .

At autopsy of 8 patients with primary RLS, there was a significant decrease in dopamine 2 receptors in the putamen compared to a neurologically normal control group. The decrease in the D2 receptors correlated to the severity of the RLS . This evidence that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is affected in both RLS and PD might provide a stronger argument for an etiologic link between the two. Moreover, there were significant increases in tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra, but not in the putamen of the RLS group. Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase was found to be increased in both the substantia nigra and putamen. These findings are consistent with data from animal iron deficiency models demonstrating increased presynaptic dopaminergic activity .

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Characteristics Of Restless Leg Syndrome

There are certain features of RLS that make it a unique and specific disorder.

  • The hallmark of RLS is a feeling of restlessness, usually in the legs. The restlessness is often accompanied by additional sensations such as tingling, creepy-crawly or electric sensations, usually located in the legs. The symptoms are usually not restricted to the toes or feet, as in peripheral neuropathy, but rather are present more generally in the legs, often the calves or thighs.
  • The restlessness is worse when the person is at rest or not moving. This feature makes it hard for people with RLS to get to sleep and can also interfere with the ability to sit still in order to read, relax, or do desk work.
  • Symptoms are improved with moving, particularly walking. Unfortunately, the relief lasts only as long as the movement continues, which makes some people pace the floor for hours when the condition is severe. Besides walking, sometimes providing other stimuli to the legs is helpful, such as rubbing, massage, or stretching.
  • RLS can be accompanied by a related disorder called Periodic Limb Movements of Sleep which are repetitive leg movements that occur during sleep.
  • How Often Do Symptoms Occur

    The frequency of symptoms can vary from person to person. Moderate cases of RLS typically see symptoms occur about once or twice a week, while severe cases may cause symptoms to appear more than two times a week.

    Sometimes RLS symptoms may go away for weeks or months at a time before reappearing. This typically happens in the early stages of developing this condition.

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    Is It Difficult To Diagnose Restless Legs Syndrome In People With Parkinson’s

    Because there isn’t a specific test for restless legs syndrome, it can be difficult to diagnose the condition. Sometimes symptoms only happen briefly or from time to time.

    Also, the condition can cause discomfort at night-time and this can be mistaken for arthritis in people with Parkinson’s.

    Another reason why a person with Parkinson’s may experience disturbed sleep is due to dyskinesia. Dyskinesia is involuntary movements sometimes seen in people with Parkinson’s. If you’re concerned about this, speak to your GP, specialist or Parkinson’s nurse.

    Your treatment will depend on how severe your symptoms are and what may be causing them.

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    Drug Patch for Parkinson’s & Restless Legs Syndrome ABC7

    The current study assessed the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of RLS in a cohort of AD patients.

    It concluded that RLS prevalence in AD cohort was estimated to be about 4%. RLS appeared to be associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as apathy. RLS and apathy might share a common pathophysiological basis represented by a dysfunction of the central dopaminergic system.

    Methods: Three hundred and thirty-nine subjects with a diagnosis of AD were recruited. Cognitive, functional, and neuropsychiatric measures were collected at baseline and six-monthly for a 2-years follow-up

    Results: Fourteen subjects met the RLS criteria. RLS subjects were more frequently male and younger than AD subject without RLS . MMSE, ADL and IADL were not significantly different. NPI total scores did not differ significantly, however, AD patients with RLS were found to be more apathetic than AD subjects without RLS.TALARICO, G., CANEVELLI, M., TOSTO, G., VANACORE, N., LETTERI, F., PRASTARO, M., TROILI, F., GASPARINI, M., LENZI, G. L., BRUNO, G. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS28:165-170, 20131533-3175

    Restless legs syndrome and Parkinsons disease

    Tasneem Peeraully and Eng-King Tan. Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608, Republic of Singapore

    Keywords:Parkinsons disease Restless-legs syndrome Pathophysiology Dopaminergic dysfunction.

    Connies Comments

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    Impact Of Symptoms On Sleep

    The symptoms of Parkinsons really impact on sleep. These symptoms include tremor, rigidity, dyskinesia, depression, nighttime urination, pain, dystonia, breathing issues, REM sleep disorder, and restless leg syndrome.

    There may also be other underlying causes of sleep problems which may be unrelated to Parkinsons and these need to be investigated.

    Common complaints about sleep from people with Parkinsons are:

    • Medications are not lasting the full time a that is wearing off.
    • A difficulty getting in and out of bed.
    • Difficulty turning over in bed.
    • Need to get up to the bathroom overnight sometimes several times.
    • Dystonia or prolonged muscle cramping.
    • Anxiety and depression.
    • REM sleep disorder.
    • Vivid dreams.

    Sleep issues should always be discussed with your neurologist. A medication review may be able to improve the symptoms and manage things better to improve sleep, which then impacts positively on the rest of your day.

    How Can I Get A Good Night’s Sleep Despite Restless Legs Syndrome

    Experts agree that simply changing your behavior can often help you sleep if you have restless legs syndrome. For people with mild to moderate RLS, these steps can reduce or prevent symptoms:

    • Cut down on caffeine.
    • Stop smoking, or at least cut back.
    • Go to bed and get up at the same time each day, including weekends.
    • Exercise regularly, but moderately .
    • Apply heat or ice, or soak in a hot bath.

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    Risk Factors For Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    About 6% of the general population has PLMD. However, the prevalence in older adults is much higher, reaching almost 60%. Studies suggest that PLMD may be especially common in older women. As with RLS, there are many conditions that are associated with PLMD. They include sleep apnea, spinal cord injuries, stroke, narcolepsy, and diseases that destroy nerves or the brain over time. Certain drugs, including some antidepressants and anti-seizure medications, may also contribute to PLMD. About a third of people with PLMD also have RLS.

    Environmental And Dietary Factors

    (PDF) Restless Legs Syndrome in Parkinson

    The following environmental and dietary factors can trigger or worsen RLS:

    • Iron deficiency. People who are deficient in iron are at risk for RLS, even if they do not have anemia.
    • Folic acid or magnesium deficiencies.
    • Smoking.
    • Caffeine. Coffee drinking is specifically associated with PLMD.
    • Stress.

    Drugs that may worsen or provoke RLS include:

    • Antidepressants
    • Calcium channel blockers
    • Metoclopramide
    • Antihistamines
    • Spinal anesthesia

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    Want To Learn More About The Latest Research In Parkinsons Disease Ask Your Questions In Our Research Forum

    Having RLS in 2002 and/or 2008 was associated with a higher risk of constipation in 2012, compared with controls. Only individuals who had RLS in both 2002 and 2008 showed higher odds of having possible RBD alone, and both constipation and possible RBD in 2012, indicating a potential association between continuous/recurrent RLS and , according to the researchers.

    They cautioned that constipation is a relatively non-specific Parkinsons symptom and may not indicate a direct link between RLS and Parkinsons.

    No differences were found between olfactory scores of men with or without RLS. However, the team noted that olfactory scores were only available from a subset of participants. Additionally, the timing of the smell sense analysis may also have influenced this result, since a loss of sense of smell has been reported as a relatively late symptom in the early stages of Parkinsons compared with RBD and constipation, they said.

    We assessed the association between RLS and prodromal signs, but not between RLS and incidence. However, our focus was on identifying whether RLS is an early indicator of the underlying common disease process in , the authors wrote.

    The findings warrant future studies for RLS and Parkinsons incidence in the long-term, they said.

    Among the studys limitations, the authors mentioned that the link between Parkinsons and RLS may differ by gender, since women, although they have a reduced risk for Parkinsons, are more susceptible to RLS.

    What Is Restless Legs Syndrome

    Restless Legs Syndrome is a condition in which a person feels an uncontrollable need to move their legs. In most cases, the desire to move is due to feeling uncomfortable sensations throughout the legs. Researchers believe RLS may result from an imbalance of dopamine, a chemical found in the brain that sends messages to regulate muscle movement.

    RLS is also sometimes referred to as Willis-Ekbom disease. It is typically more pervasive at night and while someone is at rest, which is why its known to interrupt sleep.

    About 5 percent of people experience Restless Legs Syndrome, however, it affects roughly 10 percent of people 65 and older.

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    Who Gets Restless Legs Syndrome

    About 10% of people have restless legs syndrome, also called RLS. About 2% to 3% of them have moderate to severe symptoms that affect their quality of life. Also:

    • Slightly more women than men get it.
    • Most people with severe RLS are middle-aged or older.
    • Only 2% of children get RLS.
    • People with RLS in their family usually get it at a younger age.

    Demographic Information Of Pd

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    The demographic variables were compared between PD-RLS and PD-NRLS groups, and the data showed a significantly longer disease duration in PD-RLS group than that in PD-NRLS group .

    Table 1 Demographic variables of PD-RLS and PD-NRLS groups.

    Further analysis suggested that RLS-RS score was negatively correlated with the levels of DA and 5-HT in CSF .

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    Iron And Its Relation To The Dopamine System

    Iron is an important cofactor in several DA metabolisms and can also produce neurotoxic species.

    Usually iron accumulates in the normal aging brain, in particular in the putamen, globus pallidus, red nucleus, and substantia nigra . Elemental iron plays a critical role in oxidative metabolism and it also serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters .

    In PD, neurodegeneration occurs mainly in SNc , while other iron-rich areas remain unaffected. In early stages of the disease the identification through the use of transcranial ultrasonography of a hyperechogenicity of the SNc correlates positively with the increase of iron and ferritin evaluated in post-mortem analysis , allowing an early identification of patients at risk for PD .

    The increase in neuronal iron may be secondary to an increase in influx, facilitated by transferrin receptor-2/divalent metal transporter-1 endocytosis or the diffusion of ferric citrate , an increase in efflux, due to alteration of the activity of ceruloplasmin, or a dysregulation of iron homeostasis, mediated mainly by the iron storage protein ferritin .

    Some studies have shown reduced ferritin concentrations in the SN from Parkinson’s disease brain, suggesting an alteration of this storage mechanism and a consequent increase in the level of free and potentially harmful iron .

    Fatigue Sleep Difficulties And Restless Legs

    Although Parkinsons is classified as a movement disorder, it can affect people in various different ways. Sometimes the non-movement symptoms can be more troublesome and can have a bigger impact on the daily life of someone living with Parkinsons.

    Some of the more common non-movement symptoms of Parkinsons are:

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    Problems With The Common Pathophysiology Theory

    Symptoms of RLS in PD are milder than in patients with idiopathic disease and may be difficult to differentiate from other sensory and motor symptoms in PD, in particular akathisia affecting the lower extremities . RLS symptoms may also be a manifestation of wearing-off phenomenon, a levodopa related complication of PD .

    Prolonged dopaminergic therapy in RLS patients, in particular with levodopa use, may result in a phenomenon known as augmentation in which the severity of symptoms increases, onset of symptoms begin earlier in the day and more rapidly, and spread of distribution to other body parts occurs. In contrast, PD patients develop dyskinesias and motor fluctuations after treatment with dopaminergic agents. These complications are not seen in RLS patients.

    Hypofunction of the endogenous opioid system has been postulated to be a mechanism related to the pathogenesis of RLS. Exposure to the iron chelator desferoxamine in cell cultures of rat substantia nigra resulted in DNA fragmentation while pre- administration of enkephalin significantly protected the cells from damage by iron deficiency .

    Tic And Tourette Syndrome:

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    Motor tics are repetitive, usually quick movements that can usually be suppressed by the person who has them, at least for a few seconds. They are not a nervous habit, but are believed to be neurological in their origin. Tourette syndrome is the name applied when motor tics associated with vocal tics begin in childhood, last longer than a year, and change over time. Most people who have Tourette syndrome do not have the famous symptom of uttering obscenities.

    Tic is common, particularly in childhood, and may improve or cease altogether as one grows older. Occasionally it is sufficiently troubling that medication is warranted. Teasing from other children, or misunderstanding and criticism from parents and teachers are sometimes more problematic than the tic itself.

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