Thursday, April 11, 2024

Microbiome Diet For Parkinson’s Disease

Dietary Patterns Affect Parkinson’s Disease Via The Microbiota

Nutrition, Parkinsons Disease and the Gut Microbiome

Focus has been placed on dietary patterns for the influence of Parkinson’s disease .

The potential mechanisms underlying dietary patterns-induced effects on PD have been summarized.

The microbiota-gut-brain axis mediates dietary patterns-induced effects on PD.

Personalized microbiota-directed dietary intervention for PD has been suggested.

Can An Altered Microbiome Contribute To A Diagnosis Of Pd

Research studies in animals have shown that an altered microbiome might contribute to PD pathology. For example, one study showed that in a mouse model of PD that overexpressed alpha-synuclein, there was more alpha-synuclein accumulation in the brain of the mice with an intact microbiome as compared to the same mice who were raised in a germ-free environment with no bacteria in their gut. This supports the theory that abnormal alpha-synuclein accumulation in the brain is enhanced by a particular microbiome in the gut.

Other studies showed that transplantation of fecal material from PD mice to normal mice, thereby introducing a PD microbiome into mice without PD pathology their brain, led to impairment of motor function and a decline in brain dopamine. These studies also support the theory that a particular microbiome might be integral in causing PD pathology in the brain.

Can Altering The Microbiome Improve Parkinsons Symptoms

With the awareness that the microbiome may play a role in PD, came the idea that altering the microbiome may help with PD symptoms. While there is still a lot of research to be done, there have been some small, but promising findings so far.

Probiotics, or particular strains of bacteria that are ingested in order to alter the gut microbiome, have been studied to help PD symptoms. A number of small studies suggest that probiotics may improve constipation in people with PD, which is a common problem for many people with the disease.

As mentioned above, treatment of Helicobacter pylori and SIBO typically requires antibiotics, which are drugs designed to kill particular bacteria. Antibiotics can be helpful, but are only considered if a particular gut organism is being targeted. Otherwise, antibiotics can kill both good and bad bacteria, and potentially be detrimental to the overall health of the gut microbiome.

Another idea that has been considered is fecal transplantation, a technique in which fecal matter from a healthy person is delivered to the gut of a person with PD, with the goal of restoring a less PD-like microbiome. Only case reports and very small studies have been reported so far in the literature, but this may be an area worth exploring. There are a few additional studies underway which you can read about here:

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Small Intestinal Epithelial Cell Culture

Rat small intestinal epithelial cells , a model for the crypt region which regulates intestinal permeability were supplied by CellBank Australia . IEC-6 cells were maintained in Dulbeccos Modified Eagles Medium /5% fetal calf serum containing penicillin and streptomycin at 37°C in a CO2 incubator . For experimentation, IEC-6 cells were seeded in 24-well plates at approximately 5 × 104 cells/well in 500 l DMEM/5% FCS and used for studies 13 days after plating.

Lps Alters Quantity And Distribution Of Zo


As previously mentioned, gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria produce LPS, an inflammatory endotoxin. Given the increased abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in the pilot clinical cohort and the inferred increase in intestinal LPS, we next explored the effects of LPS on IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. The expression of the known LPS receptor, TLR4, was confirmed in IEC-6 cells . Acute exposure of IEC-6 cells to LPS did not affect cell viability or expression of TNF- when compared to untreated cultures . However, LPS treatment resulted in a noticeable reduction and altered distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and e-Cadherin in cells when compared to untreated IEC-6 cells.

Figure 4. Gammaproteobacteria-produced LPS treatment increases intestinal permeability in vitro. IEC-6 cells express TLR4, a known LPS receptor . Acute LPS treatment resulted in a noticeable reduction of and alteration in the distribution of ZO-1 and e-Cadherin .

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Eat A Healthy Breakfast

The first meal of the day should be packed with nutrients, fiber, and antioxidants needed for gut healing and building a balanced gut microbiome. Eating brain-boosting foods like fresh fruits and vegetables, healthy fats, nuts, and seeds will also keep your blood sugar balanced so you have more energy throughout the day.

Aim to have the first meal of the day be the healthiest, and ride the wave of success the rest of the day!

Gut Bacteria Could Guard Against Parkinsons

New research suggests that a bacteria which boosts digestive health can slow and even reverse the build-up of a protein associated with Parkinsons.

Researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Dundee have identified a probiotic or so-called good bacteria which prevents the build-up of a protein which is linked with Parkinsons. In people with Parkinsons, alpha-synuclein protein builds up and forms toxic clumps which are associated with the death of dopamine producing nerve cells. The loss of dopamine is what causes motor symptoms in Parkinsons.

Using roundworms, scientists found that a probiotic called Bacillus subtilis could not only protect against the build-up of this protein, but can also clear some of the already formed protein clumps.

These new findings could pave the way for future studies that gauge how supplements such as probiotics impact Parkinsons.

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What Is The Microbiome

The human gut harbors trillions of micro-organisms referred to collectively as the microbiome. Current understanding is that the microbiome provides a number of benefits to the human including help with digestion of food, help with warding off harmful microorganisms, aid in the absorption of particular nutrients, and creation of needed vitamins. These functions can influence the nervous system of the gut, called the enteric nervous system . In addition, the gut microbiome releases byproducts and metabolites that have effects on nerves. The microbiome varies from person to person and is influenced by many factors including diet, environment, and genetics. Although no two microbiomes are identical, people with certain diseases may share similarities in their microbiomes.

Your Gut Microbiome May Be Linked To Dementia Parkinsons Disease And Ms

Microbiome in Parkinson’s Disease

Africa-PressMauritius. Within our body and on our skin, trillions of bacteria and viruses exist as part of complex ecosystems called microbiomes. Microbiomes play an important role in human health and disease and even help us maintain a healthy metabolism and immune system.

One of the most important microbiomes in our body is our gut microbiome. It helps us maintain overall wellbeing by helping us to absorb all the vitamins and minerals from the food we eat.

But when our gut microbiomes balance becomes disrupted , it can not only result in digestion and gut problems, but has even been linked to obesity, diabetes, and surprisingly, brain disorders.

This shows us that it might be time to look outside the skull to understand the cause of some brain conditions. Our gut and brain are closely connected.

They communicate with each other through the system known as the gut-brain axis. This axis influences the digestive systems activity and plays a role in appetite and the type of food we prefer to eat.

Its made up of brain cells , hormones, and proteins that allow the brain to send messages to the gut . The gut-brain axis is known to play a role in irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and colitis.

Stress signals from the brain can influence digestion through this axis, and the gut can also send signals that similarly influence the brain. Gut microbes appear to play a key role in sending and receiving these signals.


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Data Retrieval And Zotu Picking

Raw reads were downloaded from SRA or the European Nucleotide Archive . Adapters were removed using the bbtools suit. Data were analyzed using Lotus and the UNOISE3 algorithm for zOTUs calculation, bundled in a new Lotus version , currently under development. Due to the technical variability among datasets the filtering parameters used by the sdm program called by Lotus, were adjusted for each dataset independently and are reported in the supplementary materials . For the datasets of Petrov et al. and Weis et al., we had to decrease the accepted minimum error due to the low quality of the sequencing data . 16S-based functional predictions were obtained using the default settings in picrust2 and the Metacyc database. In this analysis, the dataset of Qian et al. was not included, as with the default cutoffs the sequences aligned poorly with the reference database used. Count tables for species, genera, families, and functional predictions were then analyzed using R v3.6.2 and processed using the phyloseq R package. We then retained all samples with > 4500 reads, as well as taxa with > 5 counts and predicted functionalities with > 20 counts in at least 2.5% of the samples. These filtration steps left a total of 1211 and 1121 samples for the taxonomic and predicted-function data, respectively. Enterotypes were predicted using rarefied relative abundances of genera via the web-platform.

Gut Microbiome Diet & Parkinsons Disease

The field of gut microbiome research has attracted much attention and interest in the last decade. Theres a growing body of evidence that links gut microbiome with health and disease, and supports the idea that Parkinsons disease may actually originate in the gut before spreading to the brain.

The human gut microbiome consists of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that live on and inside our bodies and digestive tracts. These microbes have the potential to impact most of our physiological processes by controlling our food digestion, immune system, and central nervous system. Researchers have come to understand how microbes keep humans healthy and are also learning how microbiome imbalances may cause disease, affect brain health and contribute to neurodegenerative disorders.

The link between gut microbiome and Parkinsons disease may account for why many people with Parkinsons disease complain of constipation and other digestive issues for years before motor symptoms present. Research has shown that changes in the composition of gut bacteria can contribute to and may even result in the deterioration of motor skills. Gut bacteria may be releasing chemicals that over-stimulate parts of the brain leading to Parkinsons symptoms. Theres also evidence that people with Parkinsons disease have different gut microbiome to other healthy adults.

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Add Medication For A Winning Combo

Diet and exercise are important for managing PD, but dont forget about medications. Take them regularly and exactly as your doctor prescribes.

If you tend to forget your medication, set an alarm to remind you. You can also use a pillbox thats labeled with days and times of day. Take your meds on a set schedule, dont skip doses and dont double dose, says Dr. Gostkowski. When youre diligent about taking your medications and following a healthy lifestyle, youll feel your best.

The Mediterranean Diet And Western Diets

New insights into the role of gut microbiota in Parkinson ...

The Western diet is characterized by high intake of protein , saturated fat, refined grain, sugar, alcohol, salt, and high fructose corn syrup and lowintake of fruits and vegetables . It promotes inflammation that arises from both structural andbehavioral changes in the resident microbiome . The Western diet can lead to increased levels of endotoxin-producing bacteria in the intestinaltracts of both humans and mice, resulting in metabolic endotoxemia . Lipopolysaccharides ,commonly referred to as endotoxins, are components of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria found in the gut microbiota . It has been foundthat the Western diet induces changes in the barrier function mechanism associated with metabolic endotoxemia in rats . Pro-inflammatorystimulants of Toll-like receptor-2 and Toll-like receptor-4 , are abundant in some processed foods . Diet-induced inflammation could be mediated partly by the PAMPs produced by microbes in processed foods. PAMPs arise frombacterial growth during the process between food preparation and heat treatment, which are likely to be extended in industrial processing compared with home cooking .

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A New Perspective: Parkinsons And The Microbiome

Have you ever had an Aha! moment? In science, these moments happen all the time. Old ideas are refreshed, and new perspectives pave the road to medical discovery. In fact, research concerning the prevention and treatment of Parkinsons disease is moving in the wake of such an Aha! moment. The human microbiome, identified as a driving force behind health, is now considered a key player in the pathology of PD. The microbiome is comprised of all of the bacteria that live in your gut. By taking a closer look at the interconnectedness of PD and the microbiome, we see a hopeful future that explores the use of probiotics to manage a common neurodegenerative disorder.

Take a moment and think about your experience with PD. What comes to mind? Has your gait turned into a shuffle? Do you have a tremor? Maybe you simply feel a bit stiff and off-balance. While motor symptoms are hallmarks of advanced PD, a slue of non-motor symptoms may appear 10 years prior to shaky, slow, and stiff movements. Among the early symptoms of PD are gastrointestinal disturbances that tend to worsen as the disease progresses. Although the percentage of PD patients who experience constipation varies, researchers Jost and Schimrigk at Saarland University in Germany found that constipation may affect up to 80% of PD patients.

Mediterranean Diet As A Treatment

The main components of the Mediterranean diet include: daily consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and healthy fats weekly consumption of fish, poultry, beans, and eggs moderate consumption of dairy products and limited intake of red meat . Adherence to the MedD is associated with decreased risk of PD . One of the most dramatic differences between the traditional Western diet and the MedD is dietary fiber intake. Consumption of dietary fiber is typically very low in Western societies, but high in those who consume a Mediterranean diet . It makes sense then that the Mediterranean diet-associated microbiome is characterized by a high relative abundance of bacteria that can utilize fiber as an energy source such as SCFA-producing bacteria . Indeed, microbiota communities from subjects consuming a Mediterranean diet are enriched in SCFA-producing bacteria . Fiber can also be administered experimentally to alter the microbiota structure and function including an increase in the relative abundance of fiber-fermenting bacteria as well as increased production of SCFA .

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Diet As A Prevention Or Treatment For Pd

Based on these data it is clear that there are several mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria, bacterial products, or bacterial metabolites and intestinal hormones can influence neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes. Therefore, it seems logical that dietary interventions targeted at modifying the intestinal microbiota structure and/or function and intestinal peptides may modify PD disease pathogenesis. Indeed, Hippocrates’ said: Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food . Diet has recently gained importance as a risk factor for developing PD and also as a potential therapeutic approach to treat PD . Below is a summary of dietary interventions that may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of PD as well as the mechanisms by which this benefit may be conferred on the brain.

Probiotics For Parkinson’s Disease: Current Evidence And Future Directions

Ask The Experts w/ Dr. Beate Ritz Ep. 1 | The Gut Microbiome & Parkinson’s Disease

Division of Neurology and the Mah Pooi Soo and Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson’s and Related Disorders, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Ai Huey Tan, Neurology Laboratory, 6th Floor, South Tower, University of Malaya Medical Centre, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Email:

Division of Neurology and the Mah Pooi Soo and Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson’s and Related Disorders, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Ai Huey Tan, Neurology Laboratory, 6th Floor, South Tower, University of Malaya Medical Centre, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Email:

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Protein Extraction And Western Blots Analysis

Western blot analysis was completed as previously described . Briefly, 15 mg of tissue homogenate from each sample was separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using pre-cast Bis-Tris gels . Membranes were blocked in PBS-Tween 20 with ovalbumin for 1 h, followed by overnight incubation with alpha-synuclein , human alpha-synuclein , or -tubulin diluted in 1% PBS-T, and 1-hour incubation at room temperature with goat anti-rabbit Star Bright blue 700 or goat anti-mouse IgG HRP secondary antibodies. All membranes were visualized using ChemiDoc Imaging System . Quantification and densitometry were performed using ImageJ software .

The Gut Microbiome In Parkinson’s: Species Level Resolution And Function

Although Parkinsons disease kills brain cells that affect our ability to move and to reason, the trillions of micro-organisms living in our gastrointestinal tracts may be important contributors to the illness.

At the University of British Columbia and with her colleagues at the University of Calgary, Dr. Silke Appel-Cresswell, a neurologist and associate professor, uses high-resolution screening tools to study the bacteria in the guts of people with Parkinsons. This colony of bacteria, fungi and viruses is known as the microbiota.

Appel-Cresswell is pinpointing the particular strains of bacteria driving inflammation or allowing too many toxic proteins to move from the gut to the brain.

From the evidence we have so far, it really seems that the microbiota in people with Parkinsons are different from those in people who do not have Parkinsons, she says.

If particular strains of bacteria cause inflammation, for example, it could trigger the body to mount a too-aggressive immune response. This could also lead to the accumulation of the protein alpha-synuclein, damaging brain cells, including those that produce dopamine. Lack of dopamine-producing cells causes the stiffness, tremors and difficulty walking that characterize Parkinsons disease.

From the evidence we have so far, it really seems that the microbiota in people with Parkinsons are different from those in people who do not have Parkinsons.

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