Manual Therapy And Exercise
Chiropractic manipulation, osteopathic manipulation, and Trager therapy have been suggested to benefit patients with Parkinsons disease. No studies exist, however, to refute or confirm this position. The Alexander technique has shown some benefit and patient improvement has been noted in some studies.
Standard physical therapy, as well as occupational therapy, did result in improved functional outcomes, but the benefit was small and was not sustained when the exercise therapy stopped.
Levodopa In The Treatment Of Parkinson’s Disease: Current Status And New Developments
Article type: Review Article
Affiliations: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain | Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas Barcelona, Spain
Note: Correspondence to: Eduardo Tolosa MD, FRCP, Neurology Service, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 080036, Spain. Tel.: +34 93 227 57 85 Fax: +34 93 227 57 83 E-mail:
Keywords: Levodopa/carbidopa, Parkinson’s disease, wearing-off, dyskinesia, entacapone
Journal: Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 255-269, 2013
Exploring Seven Recently Approved Parkinsons Treatments
Remarkably, in the last five years, seven new medications have been approved for the treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinsons disease , with two approved in 2020. Thats exciting progress! And while it is great to have so many choices, the various options can be confusing so today I will describe these new medications and their uses.
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Pharmacologic Strategies To Directly Address The Incidence Of Dyskinesias
Restoration of striatal dopaminergic stimulation is the goal in the treatment of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Levodopa provides the greatest benefit for treating parkinsonian motor dysfunction, but because its use is associated with the development of motor complications, one of the great unmet needs for the treatment of PD is a medication that will match the efficacy of levodopa but not cause motor complications. Until such a medication is available, it is useful to identify treatment strategies that can provide adequate efficacy while minimizing motor complications.
The short half-life of levodopa and the resultant pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation appear at least in part to be responsible for the development of motor complications . Therefore, CDS may delay the onset of dyskinesias in early disease and alleviate dyskinesias in advanced disease.
Pathogenetic Mechanism Of Long Term Motor Complications
The pathogenesis of motor complications associated with chronic levodopa therapy is only partially understood. There has been extensive research in recent years that has shed some light into this matter. It is generally agreed that two factors are important in the aetiopathogenesis of motor complications: disease severity and levodopa use.
The degree of nigrostriatal damage has been shown in several studies to be a very important risk factor for the development of motor complications. This is also supported by observations that dyskinesias usually do not develop when levodopa is used in the treatment of conditions that are not associated with nigrostriatal damagefor example, levodopa responsive dystonia, secondary parkinsonism, and amyotrohic lateral sclerosis. In monkeys exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , dyskinesias are most easily evoked in animals with greater than 95% dopamine depletion. As a corollary to this, it is shown that in asymmetric Parkinsons disease, dyskinesias tend to appear first on the worst affected side.
Chronic dopaminergic therapy is the other important factor that is required for the production of dyskinesia. It is shown that untreated patients do not develop dyskinesia even if their disease is advanced and that a prolonged period of levodopa treatment is needed to produce dyskinesia in MPTP-exposed primates.
The pathogenesis of long term motor complications of levodopa is summarised in fig 5.
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Does Levodopa Slow The Progression Of Parkinsons Disease
Levodopa does not slow or reduce the progression of Parkinsons disease. In a clinical trial, levodopa + carbidopa was found to have no disease-modifying effect when it was used in patients with early Parkinsons disease compared with patients who started it later on in the course of their disease.
- Food and Drug Administration . Sinemet. Available from: . .
- US National Library of Medicine. MedlinePlus. Levodopa and Carbidopa. Available from: . .
- American Parkinson Disease Association. Carbidopa/Levodopa: Answers To Frequently Asked Questions. May 21, 2019. Available from: . .
- European Parkinsons Disease Association . Motor symptoms. Rigidity. Available from: . .
- European Parkinsons Disease Association . Motor symptoms. Bradykinesia. Available from: . .
- Verschuur CVM, Suwijn SR, Boel JA, et al. Randomized Delayed-Start Trial of Levodopa in Parkinson’s Disease. N Engl J Med. 2019 380:315-324. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1809983.
Anosmia And Other Sensory Manifestations Of Pd
Loss of smell has long been reported to be an early sign of PD, present in 70100% of PD patients . As the loss of smell frequently can precede the onset of motor symptoms, recent research has focused on the role of smell-testing in the early identification of PD . If proven to be sensitive and specific, a smell test would be an easy-to-administer inexpensive screening tool that would be useful for identifying populations at risk of PD and for enrollment in neuroprotection clinical trials. Anosmia does not improve with dopaminergic therapy, and thus cannot be used as a measure of efficacy for dopaminergic agents.
Pain is another common manifestation of PD . The pattern and distribution of pain varies, but a subset of patients experiencing pain is responsive to dopaminergic therapy . The nature of pain in PD is likely multifactorial, and more data on the mechanisms of pain and potential disease-specific treatment interventions are necessary.
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I See Two Different Carbidopa Dosing Options: 10 Mg Or 25mg: Both Are Combined With Levodopa Which Option Is Better
While the primary Parkinson drug is levodopa, the levodopa needs some help from carbidopa to reach your brain. Without carbidopa it will not work as well and it will stay in the gut meaning more side-effects . The standard has been to take at least 75 mg of carbidopa per day, however every case is different. In general it translates to mean that if someone takes levodopa/carbidopa 3-4 times per day, a 25 mg formulation of carbidopa would be ideal. However, the same goal would not be achieved with 10 mg formulations . Therefore, the 25 mg formulation of carbidopa is preferred over 10 mg formulation in most circumstances. Some experts have argued that the 10mg could be tried in brittle dyskinesia where perhaps getting less to the brain may possibly be an advantage. In practice the 10mg is rarely used.
What Should I Know About Storage And Disposal Of This Medication
Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture .
Store cassettes containing levodopa and carbidopa enteral suspension in the refrigerator in their original carton, protected from light. Do not freeze the suspension.
Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA’s Safe Disposal of Medicines website for more information if you do not have access to a take-back program.
It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location â one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach.
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Parkinsons Treatment For Motor Symptoms
The majority of medications developed specifically to treat Parkinsons disease target common motor symptoms. Many of these treatments are designed to increase the level of the dopamine, a neurotransmitter that transfers signals between nerve cells. Dopamine is involved in regulating signals for movement, which is reduced in the brains of Parkinsons disease patients.
Common Drugs For Parkinson’s Disease
Levodopa and carbidopa . Levodopa is the most commonly prescribed medicine for Parkinsonâs. Itâs also the best at controlling the symptoms of the condition, particularly slow movements and stiff, rigid body parts.
Levodopa works when your brain cells change it into dopamine. Thatâs a chemical the brain uses to send signals that help you move your body. People with Parkinsonâs donât have enough dopamine in their brains to control their movements.
Sinemet is a mix of levodopa and another drug called carbidopa. Carbidopa makes the levodopa work better, so you can take less of it. That prevents many common side effects of levodopa, such as nausea, vomiting, and irregular heart rhythms.
Sinemet has the fewest short-term side effects, compared with other Parkinsonâs medications. But it does raise your odds for some long-term problems, such as involuntary movements. An inhalable powder form of levodopa and the tablet istradefylline have been approved for those experiencing OFF periods, OFF periods can happen when Parkinsonâs symptoms return during periods between scheduled doses of levodopa/carbidopa.
People who take levodopa for 3-5 years may eventually have restlessness, confusion, or unusual movements within a few hours of taking the medicine. Changes in the amount or timing of your dose will usually prevent these side effects.
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Progression Of Parkinsons Disease
The disease progression of PD from diagnosis has been conceptualised into four stages . It is also important to recognise a prodromal phase in which non-motor symptoms, such as anosmia, constipation and rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder may predict the development of motor PD. Motor complications are more common as PD progresses, and typify transition to the complex phase. Many so-called axial symptoms of later stage PD, such as dysphagia, gait disturbance and falls, do not respond to levodopa, but may be helped by multidisciplinary team input. Dementia occurs in up to 80% of people with PD after 20 years disease duration. The rate of PD progression is heterogeneous and is generally more rapid in those with older age and more severe motor impairment at onset.
Stages of Parkinsons disease. RBD = rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.
Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors
Other PD medications work by inhibiting the enzymes involved in dopamine metabolism, which preserves the levels of endogenous dopamine. One such class is the MAO-B inhibitors. As is discussed above, MAO-B is one of the main enzymes involved in the breakdown of dopamine, and reducing the activity of this enzyme therefore results in increased dopaminergic activity within the striatum, mediated by endogenous dopamine . Their use relieves motor symptoms in PD patients, and as with dopamine agonists they may be used as an initial treatment option, to delay the need for levodopa therapy, to reduce the risk of levodopa-induced motor complications . While they are sometimes sufficient for control of symptoms in early disease, most patients ultimately require levodopa-based treatment. MAO-B inhibitors may also be used in combination with levodopa-based preparations, to allow for a reduction in the levodopa dose.
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Parkinsons Disease: Management And Guidance
An overview of Parkinsons disease management, including discussion of the updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines.
Nervous system diseases
DR. MICHAEL SOUSSAN/ISM/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Parkinsons disease is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative condition resulting from the loss of the dopamine-containing cells of the substantia nigra, and its prevalence increases with age. Using primary care data from 2015, a Parkinsons UK report of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink found that the prevalence of PD is 45 per 100,000 people who are aged 3039 years, compared with 1,696 per 100,000 people who are aged 8084 years. Prevalence rates almost double at each five-year interval between the ages of 50 and 69 years for both men and women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with PD is 2.7% equating to 1 in every 37 people being diagnosed at some point in their lifetime. Owing to population growth and an increasing ageing population, the estimated prevalence of PD is expected to increase by 23.2% by 2025.
Diagnosis Of Parkinsons Disease
The diagnosis of PD is clinical and requires bradykinesia, defined as slowness of movement and decrement in amplitude or speed, usually assessed using finger tapping, foot tapping or pronationsupination hand movements. In addition, rest tremor or rigidity is required to confirm a parkinsonian syndrome. Tremor was absent at presentation in 30% in one series of pathologically proven PD. Patients with suspected PD should be referred quickly and untreated to a specialist in movement disorders for evaluation. Key points for discussion at diagnosis include the need to inform vehicle licensing agencies and insurers, signposting to written or web-based information on newly diagnosed PD, and provision of contact details for the local PD nurse specialist .
Current International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society diagnostic criteria for Parkinsons disease adapted from Postuma RB, Berg D, Stern M et al. MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinsons disease. Mov Disord 2015 30:1591601. At least two supportive criteria and no red flags required for a diagnosis of clinically established Parkinsons disease. Conditions in italics should be considered if the corresponding exclusion criteria or red flags are present.
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What Should I Do If I Forget A Dose
Take the missed dose of the regular tablet, orally disintegrating tablet, extended-release tablet, or extended-release capsule as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.
If you are using levodopa and carbidopa enteral infusion and will be disconnecting the infusion pump for a short time , other than the normal nightly disconnection, ask your doctor if you should use an extra dose before you disconnect the pump. If the infusion pump will be disconnected for longer than 2 hours, call your doctor you probably will be advised to take levodopa and carbidopa by mouth while you are not using the suspension.
Amantidine And Nmda Antagonists
As discussed under pathogenetic mechanisms, there is an upregulation of NMDA receptor subtype of GABA-ergic efferents caused by the pulsatile stimulation of dopaminergic neurones in patients with motor complications. It is reported that amantadine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, may reduce dyskinesias in patients with Parkinsons disease without worsening parkinsonian symptoms. However, a recent Cochrane analysis of trials using amantidine in treating motor complications has commented that the evidence for its efficacy is insufficient. Dextromethorphan, another NMDA antagonist has been shown to reduce motor complications when given with levodopa.
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What Causes Dyskinesia
Dyskinesia is a side effect of levodopa use. The underlying cause of dyskinesia is complex and is not completely known. Normal brain function depends on a complex network of cells that communicates and functions via an array of different brain chemicals. One of these chemicals is dopamine. In Parkinsons, there is a loss of brain cells called dopaminergic neurons that make dopamine therefore, the level of dopamine in the brain starts to decrease. The purpose of taking levodopa is to temporarily restore the dopamine that is lost. However, since levodopa is intermittently taken over the course of a day, the level of dopamine will rise and fall. These dopamine level fluctuations, in combination with the loss of dopaminergic neurons, are thought to cause dyskinesia. Dyskinesia can occur when the level of levodopa in the body is at a maximum, referred to as peak dose dyskinesia, or when the levels of levodopa are rising or falling, referred to as diphasic dyskinesia.
How Is It Diagnosed
Diagnosing Parkinsons disease is mostly a clinical process, meaning it relies heavily on a healthcare provider examining your symptoms, asking you questions and reviewing your medical history. Some diagnostic and lab tests are possible, but these are usually needed to rule out other conditions or certain causes. However, most lab tests arent necessary unless you dont respond to treatment for Parkinsons disease, which can indicate you have another condition.
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Symptomatic Treatment Of Motor Symptoms
A majority of patients with PD require levodopa therapy within 2 years of symptom onset. Levodopa, the most effective drug in the treatment of PD, is almost always combined with carbidopa or benserazide, aromatic acid decarboxylase inhibitors that prevent its peripheral metabolism and markedly reduce the risk of nausea. Increasing the ratio of carbidopa:levodopa from the current standard 1:4 has been shown to increase on time without dyskinesia and reduce off time.
The global antiparkinsonian efficacy of levodopa is so predictable that a positive therapeutic response is used to support the diagnosis of PD. Adverse effects of levodopa include nausea and vomiting, orthostatic hypotension, sedation, confusion, sleep disturbance, hallucinations and dyskinesias. There are many different types of dyskinesia but peak-dose chorea or stereotypy and wearing off dystonia are most common. About half of the patients experience wearing off, and a third experience dyskinesias within 2 years after initiation of levodopa therapy. Latency from ingestion of levodopa to observable therapeutic benefit can be shortened by taking levodopa on an empty stomach , avoiding or reducing protein intake, or by crushing the levodopa tablet and mixing it with a carbonated beverage.
Besides levodopa, there are many other types of medications available for the treatment of PD-related motor symptoms: anticholinergics, amantadine, MAOIs, COMTIs, dopamine agonists and istradefylline.