What Distinguishes Cannabidiol From Marijuana Cannabis And Hemp
CBD, also known as cannabidiol, is the second most common active ingredient in cannabis . While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is either extracted directly from the hemp plant, a cousin of marijuana, or synthesized in a laboratory. CBD, one of hundreds of components in marijuana, does not produce a high on its own. According to a World Health Organization report, CBD has no effects in humans that suggest the possibility of abuse or dependence. There is currently no evidence of any public health issues associated with the use of pure CBD.
Cbd Oil Dosage For Parkinsons Disease
Unfortunately, there is no one single dose of CBD oil that is effective for Parkinsons disease. Because no two people are exactly alike, what works for one person may not work for another. Unless told otherwise by a doctor, it is recommended that you start with the lowest recommended dose listed on your CBD oil product and adjust up or down as needed from there. You can also consult with a cannabis doctor who specializes in helping people overcome conditions using CBD oil and other natural treatment methods.
If youre looking for a general baseline dosage, we at CBD Oil Review we have analyzed hundreds of products and come up with a standard serving suggestion:
The CBD Oil Review Serving Standard is 25mg of CBD, taken twice daily.
If you are not getting results from this amount, we recommend increasing the serving size by 25mg every 3-4 weeks until you find relief.
For more information on CBD oil dosage and tips on how to assess what might be best for you, you can check out our CBD Oil Dose Guide.
Mechanism Of Action Of Cbd
Cannabidiol binds to several receptors including cannabinoid type 1 , CB2, TRPV1, PPARy and several others. These receptors are distributed throughout multiple systems in the body. CB1 is found within the nervous system, including hippocampus and basal ganglia.
While the research is focusing on CB1 because of its direct connection with the nervous system, it is possible that the benefit is derived through the modification of the immune response via CB2. CB2 is found primarily on the cell of the immune system, but is also found on the nerves of the enteric/ gastrointestinal nervous system. Thus, CB2 could theoretically modify the gut brain interaction and influence the composition of the gut microflora.
Overall, cannabidiol exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anti-convulsant effects on the brain.
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Cannabidiol As An Adjuvant In Parkinsons Disease Treatment
Various studies have suggested that both genetic and idiopathic factors may contribute to the neurodegeneration that occurs in pD. However, the etiology of this disease, namely the underlying cause of dopaminergic neuronal death, is unknown . Several studies have linked the idiopathic factors in PD to both aging and environmental factors . Two processes, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, are closely related to both the genetic and idiopathic factors observed in PD . There is evidence that the dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc are vulnerable to oxidative damage, as they present low levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, and high levels of pro-oxidants, such as free iron and neuromelanin . The oxidative characteristics of the SNpc promote increased ROS levels, induce the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increase glutamate levels, stimulate NMDA receptors, and, finally, induce the processes of excitotoxicity and neuronal death . Indeed, one of the aims of neuroprotective therapeutic strategies for PD is to reduce the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress, namely lipid peroxidation, protein nitration, and DNA oxidation, a point reviewed in the next section.
What Is Cbd Oil
CBD is one of several cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. CBDs potential therapeutic applications have been investigated by researchers. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD are two compounds found in marijuana. These compounds have various effects. THC was the most well-known compound in cannabis until recently. It is the most active component and has a psychological impact. When smoked or used in cooking, it produces a mind-altering high. This is because THC degrades when it is heated and introduced into the body. CBD, on the other hand, is not psychoactive. It has no effect on a persons mental state when they use it. However, it has been shown to cause significant changes in the body.
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What Does The Fda Say About Using Cbd Oil For Parkinsons
CBD oil hasnt been approved by the FDA as a treatment for Parkinsons disease. In fact, there are no FDA-approved cannabis treatments for this condition as of today. However, the FDA did acknowledge a CBD-based medication, Epidiolex, to treat two types of drug-resistant epilepsy.
Researchers from the University of Colorado are using Epidiolex to analyze its benefits on people with Parkinsons-triggered tremors. The study is currently in its second stage.
Cbd Oil For Parkinson’s Disease: Best Products Safety & Dosage
Parkinsons disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder.
Evidence suggests CBD may be able to provide relief from some of the most irritating symptoms.
Heres how it works.
Parkinsons disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, behind Alzheimers disease. The condition affects an estimated 10 million people worldwide primarily men over the age of 60.
Parkinsons disease is characterized by muscle tremors, stiffness, and issues with movement.
Although there is no cure for Parkinsons disease, the progression of the disease can be delayed with carefully orchestrated changes to the diet, lifestyle habits, and the use of medications and supplements.
New research suggests CBD oil may offer powerful support for common side-effects of Parkinsons disease.
Here, well discuss the best CBD oils for Parkinsons disease, what dosage to use, and what side-effects to watch out for.
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What Products Are People Using
The most common cannabis-derived product people with Parkinson’s used was CBD oil. People interested in using a cannabis-derived product in the future said this is what they’d consider using.
If the side effects are less than traditional Parkinson’s drugs, then I would want to try cannabis. Person with Parkinson’s who has never used a cannabis-derived product
Does Cbd Help Parkinsons
CBD hasnt been used in Parkinsons Disease patients long term, and there are few studies to rely on for treatment guidance. Recently, a Phase II clinical trial was completed on CBDs role in the treatment of Parkinsons Disease. Treatment outcomes were positive for sleep, depression, behavior and emotion, anxiety, and cognition. Improvements in psychotic features were seen as well. About 20-40% of PD patients experience psychotic symptoms. And, treatment with antipsychotics may bring out Parkinson-like symptoms. Taking CBD may relieve pain associated with PD, although research favors THC for this effect.
CBD oil for Parkinsons symptom treatment can be in the form of edibles, oils, tinctures, ointments, vape cartridges, and creams. Topical CBD can be used for the muscle spasms so common in patients with PD, and oils can be used to relieve symptoms faster. However, data is lacking regarding this mode of delivery. Tinctures also offer speedy effects as a way to take CBD. The only FDA approved way of taking CBD, however, is through the drug Epidiolex although its benefits have been shown from other CBD oils.
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The Role Of Cannabidiol In Levodopa
The word dyskinesia is derived from the Greek word dis, meaning difficult or abnormal, and kinesis, meaning movement, and is used to indicate abnormal involuntary movements . Initially, the administration of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine , the precursor of DA, produces significant motor symptom improvements in PD patients, reducing tremor, muscle stiffness, difficulty initiating gait, and bradykinesia . The beneficial effects of l-DOPA last for approximately five years from the start of treatment, considered a honeymoon period between l-DOPA and PD, although they can sometimes last longer. After chronic l-DOPA administration, most patients develop motor fluctuations or dyskinesias, due to increases and decreases in l-DOPA plasma levels .
Normally starting on the side contralateral to the hemisphere most affected by PD and occurring first in the lower extremities, LIDs are either choreiform or dystonic . Factors such as the age of PD onset and its severity, gender, and the l-DOPA dose administered are factors related to the onset and intensity of LIDs , which commonly affects the extremities, head, neck, and trunk, and are characterized by rapid and irregular movements .
Lifestyle Modifications For Pd Patients
It is important to treat the patient as a whole mind, body and soul. The following are a few lifestyle modifications that may provide relief from PD symptoms and improve quality of life.
Nishi Whiteley, a Project CBD research associate and contributing writer, is the author of Chronic Relief: A Guide to Cannabis for the Terminally and Chronically Ill . Special thanks to Juan Sanchez-Ramos for reviewing this article, Ethan B. Russo, M.D. for providing a summary of Parkinsons research for inclusion in this article, and to Adrian Devitt-Lee for his research support.
Copyright, Project CBD. May not be reprinted without permission.
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What Causes Parkinson’s Disease
Again, according to the National Institute on Aging, Parkinson’s disease occurs when nerve cells, or neurons, in an area of the brain that controls movement become impaired and/or die. As these neurons degrade and die, brain and motor function decrease overall. It appears that the brain also loses the ability to produce dopamine.
This interruption in neurological function and hormone production impairs motor function in the body. Dopamine is a hormone largely produced and controlled by the endocrine system. This manifests in the body as:
- Shaking limbs
Pain Reduction And Management
CBD oils actions on brain receptors may potentially aid with pain management. Cannabis has been proven in studies to have some benefits when used following chemotherapy treatments. Other pre-clinical studies funded by the National Institutes of Health Trusted Source are looking into the effect of cannabis in treating arthritis and chronic pain.
- Muscle pain from MS
- spinal cord damage
In the United Kingdom and Canada, Nabiximols , a multiple sclerosis medicine produced from a mixture of TCH and CBD, has been licensed to treat MS pain. Researchers believe that the anti-inflammatory qualities of CBD in the medicine may be more important than its pain-relieving properties. Clinical trials of CBD are required to assess whether or not it is effective.
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Cannabidiol As A Drug With Probable Neuroprotective Properties
Studies on the administration of CBD have been undertaken on patients with non-motor PD symptoms . In 2009, Zuardi carried out a study on six patients presenting both psychosis and the motor symptoms of pD. The four-week treatment regime began with a 150 mg dose, which, depending on the clinical response, was increased by 150 mg each week. All evaluations were performed via tests and clinical evaluation scales for anxiety and cognition, with CBD observed to decrease PD psychosis, while no difference was observed in motor processes . The same author conducted two parallel studies evaluating PD motor disorders and REM sleep behavior disorder . The effect of the CBD treatment on RBD was evaluated in a group of four patients with symptoms characteristic of PD and the sleep disorders caused by the disease. The CBD dose was 75 mg/day and 300 mg/day per patient, with both treatments lasting six weeks. The polysomnograph evaluation conducted revealed that the CBD attenuated RBD .
TABLE 1. Clinical research reports on the effect of CBD on Patients of PD.
TABLE 2. Preclinical research reports of effect CBD on various in vivo models of PD.
TABLE 3. Research reports of effect CBD on various in vitro models of PD.
What Evidence Is Available For The Use Of Cbd For Pd
The FDA is aware that patients are frustrated that our understanding of how best to use CBD remains minimal because of the lack of clinical trials. In 2015, the FDA changed some of their regulations to make it easier to study CBD in clinical trials.
There have been a few studies of CBD for various symptoms of PD which have generally involved a small number of patients. Many have been open-label trials, in which the doctor and patient are both aware that the patient is receiving treatment and there is no control group that received a placebo.
- In one, an open label study of CBD was conducted on six patients with psychosis. Psychotic symptoms decreased.
- In a second trial, an open-label study of CBD was conducted on four patients with REM behavior sleep disorder. Symptoms decreased.
- A third trial was conducted on 21 patients with PD and was double blinded, meaning neither patient nor doctor knew who received treatment and who received a placebo. Motor scores did not improve, but quality of life scores did.
Additionally, three more recent trials of CBD for PD were conducted.
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Study Probes Whether Cbd Helps For Parkinsons Disease Symptoms
In November 2012, Colorado got plenty of buzz as the first state in the nation to pass an amendment legalizing marijuana. The retail sale of recreational marijuana followed in January 2014. Shops peddling the drug soon sprouted across the landscape from street corners to strip malls.
But if marijuana is now a fixture of everyday life in Colorado, questions about it continue. One of the most intriguing is the potential cannabis has to treat a host of ailments, including inflammatory bowel disorder, chronic pain, sleep loss, epilepsy and Parkinsons disease. With legalization, researchers finally had an opportunity to lead controlled clinical trials to test the anecdotal evidence patients have offered of marijuanas medical benefits.
There have been many obstacles, however, as Dr. Maureen Leehey, a neurologist at the UCHealth Neurosciences Center and Professor of Neurology with the University of Colorado School of Medicine, can attest. Her experience illustrates the difficulties of conducting evidence-based research into the medical effectiveness of marijuana. Despite its popularity, the drug still must clear significant regulatory hurdles before research yields any solid answers about its benefits to patients.
Sticking To The Management Plan
Regardless of the studys findings, Mullen and Preusser said they plan to keep doing the things that help them live productively with Parkinsons disease. For Mullen, that includes stretching, walking, acupuncture, regular pool and gym work, and attention to diet, especially cutting down on sugar.
Preusser said he exercises at least 45 minutes a day and walks regularly, sometimes several miles. His weekly schedule always includes one adventure, rain or shine, winter or summer, such as a lengthy hike or skiing he still hits the slopes at Loveland Basin.
Whatever the outcome of Leeheys trial, Preusser advised others with Parkinsons disease to have as many tools as possible to mitigate the symptoms and lead a healthy life.
Find what works and stick to it, he said. I didnt go into the trial with the idea that its a magic bullet. If not for me, there is still something for research to gain from the study.
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Medical Marijuana And Legislation By State
Thirty-five states and Washington, DC have passed legislation allowing the use of marijuana-based products.
In some states where medical marijuana is legalized, consumers must register to possess and use cannabis. Other states require consumers to acquire a document from a physician stating that the patient has an approved condition. Under federal law doctors cannot prescribe cannabis, but many states authorize them to issue certifications that allow patients to obtain medical marijuana.
PD is listed as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana in Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
Medical marijuana is legal in Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Washington, DC.
Mitochondria Microbiota And Marijuana
The microbiome also plays an important role in the health of our mitochondria, which are present in every cell in the brain and body . Mitochondria function not only as the cells power plant they also are involved in regulating cell repair and cell death. Dysfunction of the mitochondria, resulting in high levels of oxidative stress, is intrinsic to PD neurodegeneration. Microbes produce inflammatory chemicals in the gut that seep into the bloodstream and damage mitochondria, contributing to disease pathogenesis not only in PD but many neurological and metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and Alzheimers.
The evidence that gut dysbiosis can foster the development of PD raises the possibility that those with the disease could benefit by manipulating their intestinal bacteria and improving their microbiome. Enhancing ones diet with fermented foods and probiotic supplements may improve gut health and relieve constipation, while also reducing anxiety, depression and memory problems that afflict PD patients.
Cannabis therapeutics may also help to manage PD symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Acclaimed neurologist Sir William Gowers was the first to mention cannabis as a treatment for tremors in 1888. In his Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System, Grower noted that oral consumption of an Indian hemp extract quieted tremors temporarily, and after a year of chronic use the patients tremors nearly ceased.
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How Thc And Cbd Work
Cannabinoids from cannabis activate the ECS by binding to endocannabinoid receptors throughout the brain and body. The two most affected by cannabis are:
- CB1 receptors: Found in the brain in high levels, they are responsible for marijuanas psychoactive properties, or the high effect.
- CB2 receptors: Found throughout the body, they affect pain levels and inflammation.
THC strongly activates CB1 receptors, triggering a feeling of euphoria. This activation also increases blood flow to the prefrontal cortex of the brain, which is the area that controls the ability to focus, as well as our motor skills, attention, memory, and decision-making abilities.
THC also interacts with CB2 receptors, providing added analgesic , muscle relaxing, and antiemetic effects .
CBD activates both CB1 and CB2 receptors, although less strongly than THC. Although its CB1 and CB2 receptor activation does not produce a high, it has been shown to interact with additional receptors in the body and have calming and anti-inflammatory effects. For this reason, CBD has been used to treat pain, anxiety, and seizures.