Tuesday, August 16, 2022

Can Blows To The Head Cause Parkinson Disease

Other Therapy For Dementia After A Head Injury

Parkinson’s Disease and the Basal Ganglia

Diet

Persons who are unable to prepare food or feed themselves are in danger of becoming malnourished. Their diets must be monitored to be sure that they are getting proper nutrition. Dementia patients who may have a poor gag reflex or difficulty swallowing may need special medical assistance for obtaining nutrition. Otherwise, no special dietary prescriptions or restrictions apply.

Activity

In general, the person should be as active as possible. In the early phases of rehabilitation, simple physical exercises and games may improve endurance and self-confidence. These activities should gradually increase in difficulty.

It may be necessary to change the surroundings to prevent falls and accidents that could cause repeat injuries. Often, guidance from an occupational therapist and physical therapist can be helpful for maintaining a safe and appropriate environment and level of activity.

People who play contact sports should not return to play until cleared by their health care provider. Even a mild head injury makes the brain more fragile. A second blow to the head, even a very slight one, could cause a person with a recent head injury to die of sudden brain swelling. This is called second injury syndrome.

What Is Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s is a neurodegenerative disease in which your brain cells that produce dopamine start to die, which causes you to gradually lose muscle control. No matter your age, Parkinsons can seem like a scary thing, but thankfully, with the right care, the symptoms of Parkinsons can be manageable.

Muhammad Ali’s Death: Can Head Injuries Cause Parkinson’s

    Boxing champion Muhammad Ali lived with Parkinson’s disease for three decades before his death on Friday at the age of 74, and many have wondered whether Ali’s boxing career caused him to develop the neurological disorder.

    Although it’s likely that frequent head injuries played a role in the boxer’s Parkinson’s disease, certain genes may have also increased his susceptibility to the disease, experts said.

    ” likely his repeated head injuries contributed to his Parkinson’s disease,” said Dr. Barbara Changizi, a neurologist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, who was not involved with Ali’s treatment. But given how young Ali was when he was diagnosed with the disorder the boxer was 42 there’s a “strong chance that genetics played a significant role as well,” Changizi said. The average age of Parkinson’s onset is 60 years old, according to the Michael J. Fox Foundation.

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease, the brain cells that produce a chemical called dopamine start to die off. Because dopamine is important for the control of muscle movement, Parkinson’s patients experience symptoms such as tremors, slowed movements and muscle stiffness.

    Still, head trauma has also been linked with Parkinson’s disease. In a 2013 review study, researchers found that people with head trauma that resulted in a concussion were 57 percent more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease, than people who never experienced such head trauma.

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    The Facts About Parkinsons Disease

    Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurogenerative disease that causes nerve cells in the area of the brain that controls movement to weaken and/or die. While healthy neurons produce a chemical called dopamine, which the brain needs a certain amount of in order to regulate movement, weakened neurons produce lower levels of dopamine. What causes these neurons to weaken is currently unknown.

    Some patients with Parkinson’s disease also suffer from a decline in norepinephrine, a chemical that transmits signals across nerve endings and controls various functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

    More than 10 million people worldwide are currently living with Parkinson’s disease and nearly one million will be living with the disease in the United States this year, according to the Parkinson’s Foundation.

    Treatment For Brain Injury

    Understanding the Brain: Final Project

    A range of tests, including x-rays and CT brain scans, can help pinpoint the exact areas of damage. In some cases, surgery may be needed. Recovery depends on the extent and location of the brain damage, the age and general health of the person, the speed of first aid received and the quality of treatment.The consequences of a person having an ABI are far reaching. Coping with any loss of functioning and going through rehabilitation can be difficult. The person with an ABI will have great distress. Family, friends and partners will also experience difficulties as they deal with emotional and practical challenges, interruptions to family life and role changes.An ABI can affect intimate relationships, friendships, social networks, recreational and vocational activities. It may force the person and their immediate family to adapt to a completely new way of life and new kinds of relationships.Caring for someone who has had a brain injury may bond a family closer together. It can also mean enormous burdens for the family, which may tear it apart.It will help if family members:

    • have good information about the effects of ABI
    • appreciate the difficulties that might be encountered
    • understand that recovery is a slow process.

    For carers to cope with the situation, it helps to:

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    Symptoms Of Parkinson’s Disease

    These common symptoms of Parkinson’s disease often begin gradually and progress over time:

    • Shaking or tremor
    • Poor posture
    • Slowing of body movements

    As the disease continues to progress, additional symptoms can occur such as slurred or soft speech, trouble chewing and/or swallowing, memory loss, constipation, trouble sleeping, loss of bladder control, anxiety, depression, inability to regulate body temperature, sexual dysfunction, decreased ability to smell, restless legs and muscle cramps.

    Discussion And Future Directions

    In order to more effectively develop therapeutic targets to treat, and perhaps prevent the development of neurodegenerative disease, it is essential to identify the key steps responsible for the pathological cascade progressing from TBI to neurodegenerative disease. Between the initial brain reserve hypothesis, the metabolism hypothesis, and the overall intertwined natures of their pathologies, it is evident that TBI and neurodegenerative disease are not mutually exclusive. So why have the results of these large epidemiological studies been so conflicting? It is possible that the relationship simply does not exist or it is not strong enough as indicated by previous epidemiological studies. However, an overwhelming trend in the neuroimaging and pathological findings suggests otherwise.

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    Knockout Head Injuries Linked To Parkinsons But Not Alzheimers

    Massive new study turns up surprises on the long-term fallout of unconsciousness-causing brain injuries that occur early in life

    There has long been debate about a link between serious blows to the head and the development of neurodegenerative diseases later in life. Research has made cases for and against a relationship between traumatic brain injuries and neurological ailments such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons and general dementia. Now the question is drawing ever more scrutiny as the alarming extent of these injuries becomes better knownand new research is finally casting some light on this murky and often quietly terrifying topic.

    A large-scale analysis of three separate studies published this week in JAMA Neurology found no association between unconsciousness-causing traumatic brain injuries and Alzheimers disease or general dementiabut it did find a strong association between TBI and Parkinsons disease. I cant decide if the positive or negative findings are more surprising, says one of the studys investigators, physician and Alzheimers researcher Paul Crane at the University of Washington. The positive association his team found between Parkinsons and TBI was not entirely novel, but Crane says the magnitude of the link was unexpected. The researchers found the risk of Parkinsons rose threefold for people whose head injuries had caused them to go unconscious for more than an hour.

    When Does A Head Injury Increase Your Risk

    Understanding Parkinson’s disease

    And sustaining a head injury when youre older, around age 55, may also increase your risk. Repeated mild injuries also may increase your risk of future problems with thinking and reasoning. Youre likely at greatest risk of developing dementia or Alzheimers later in life, post-head injury, if you also have other risk factors.

    Multiple system atrophy. Multiple system atrophy, or MSA, is a rare progressive neurological disorder that causes movement disorders such as Parkinsonism .

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    How Common Are Concussions

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that almost three million adults and children in the United States suffer a concussion each year. Each day, an average of 150 Americans die of traumatic brain injury.

    How does a concussion happen? The main causes of a concussion are head injuries from car accidents, falls, and sports-related concussions.

    There are long-term effects of concussions in football. Football players are especially vulnerable to severe or mild traumatic brain injury.

    Since it is a contact sport, football is a risk factor for long-term concussion symptoms. The NFL has been slow to admit the link between playing football and sports concussions. However, researchers have concluded there is indeed a link.

    But American football is not the only dangerous sport. There are a few sports where a higher percentage of athletes suffer concussions:

    • Mens ice hockey
    • Womens ice hockey
    • Womens soccer

    It is estimated that one third of former amateur contact sports athletes have CTE, which is a progressive brain disorder resulting from repetitive head injuries.

    The long-term effects of multiple concussions can be even worse. The more often you are concussed, the more likely these symptoms of concussions will occur.

    Ali Was And Is An Inspiration For Those Dealing With Parkinsons Disease

    Ali lived for almost half of his life with Parkinsons disease. He showed the millions of people who have this disease worldwide that there is life after a Parkinsons diagnosis. Not just life, but love.

    Although Ali received an early diagnosis of Parkinsons disease at the age of 42, he didnt allow it to derail his life. He went on to marry his fourth and final wife, Lonnie, in 1986. Lonnie was his most ardent fan and faithful caregiver. The couple also adopted a son.

    Ali continued to travel the world, this time as an ambassador of hope and human optimism.

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    Moderate Or Mild Head Injury And Et

    Here are a few examples of research reports that linked moderate or mild head injury with ET.

  • A German team contacted 158 patients 4-6 years after they had moderate or mild head injury. Sixteen of them had developed movement disorders most like related to brain trauma, though not severe. The most frequent finding was a low-amplitude postural/intention tremor that appeared to resemble enhanced physiological or essential tremor.
  • An older University of Chicago observational study described tremor brought on by mile head injury without loss of consciousness. Tremor appeared from 1-4 weeks after the trauma, and it was postural and action-triggered, affecting the hands and/or head. There were no other neurologic symptoms, and neurologic imaging was normal. Three patients experienced tremor reduction on clonazepam, the propranolol helped on other. The authors concluded, A tremor, similar to essential tremor, can be a rare complication of head trauma.
  • If, however, you have ET that does not respond to medication, contact our Center for information on a noninvasive procedure called Neuravive to control hand tremors.

    i. Joe Ward, Josh Williams, Sam Manchester, 110 N.F.L. Brains. NY Times, Jul. 25, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/07/25/sports/football/nfl-cte.html

    ii. Oh, IJ. Movement disorders in brain injury. Undated powerpoint presentation at https://www.scripps.org/assets/documents/34a_movement_disorders_oh.pdf

    Home Care After A Head Injury

    What is Parkinson

    The extent to which a person with a head injury can care for themselves at home depends on their disabilities. If self-care is possible, a plan should be developed with input from the professional care team and family members. The team should assess the personâs ability to function on their own and comply with medical treatment. In many cases, the person must be supervised by a caregiver to ensure compliance and safety.

    The injured person’s surroundings must be neither too calm nor too hectic. They should have regular routines of light and dark, eating, sleeping, relaxing, using the bathroom, and taking part in rehabilitation and leisure activities. This helps the injured person remain emotionally balanced and minimizes the caregiverâs burden.

    • The environment should be made safe by taking away area rugs to reduce falls, removing hazards, providing grab bars in bathtubs and showers and around toilets, and putting child locks on cabinets or stove knobs if necessary.
    • If the patient is capable of going out alone, they should know the route well, carry identification, wear a medic alert bracelet, and be able to use phones and public transportation.

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    Exams And Tests For Dementia After A Head Injury

    In most cases, the appearance of dementia symptoms is clearly linked to a known head injury. The health care provider will ask for a detailed account of the onset of symptoms. This account should include the following:

    • The exact nature of any injury and how it happened, if known
    • Medical attention received in the period immediately after the injury
    • The personâs state since the injury
    • Any prescription or over-the-counter medications, or illicit drugs, the person may be taking
    • A description of all symptoms and their timing and severity
    • An account of all treatment undergone since the injury
    • Whether any legal action is pending or under consideration

    The medical interview will ask for details of all medical problems now and in the past, all medications and other therapies, family medical history, work history, and habits and lifestyle. In most cases, a parent, spouse, adult child, or other close relative or friend should be available to provide information that the injured person cannot provide.At any time in this evaluation process, the primary health care provider may refer the injured person to a neurologist .

    A thorough physical exam will be done to identify neurological and cognitive problems, problems in mental or social function, and unusual appearance, behavior, or mood.Many health care providers refer head-injured persons for neuropsychological testing. This is the most reliable way to document cognitive impairments following a head injury.

    Other tests for head injury

    Causes Of Acquired Brain Injury

    Acquired brain injury is any damage to the brain that happens after birth. The specific symptoms or losses of functioning depend on which brain areas are affected.Some of the causes include:

    • alcohol or drugs which can poison the brain
    • disease such as AIDS, Alzheimers disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis or Parkinsons disease
    • lack of oxygen called anoxic brain injury
    • physical injury such as an impact to the head, which may occur in vehicle or sporting accidents, fights or falls
    • stroke when a blood vessel inside the brain breaks or is blocked, destroying the local brain tissue.

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    Ali Introduced Many Of Us To Parkinsons Disease

    Before Alis diagnosis in 1984, many people were unfamiliar with Parkinsons disease. But his celebrity made many of us aware of what Parkinsons disease is and how it can affect the human body.

    While many celebrities may have chosen to quietly retire out of the public eye, Ali was just as outspoken as ever during the early stages of his disease.

    Treatment For Dementia In Head Injury

    A world-first trial for Parkinson’s disease

    Head injuries often bring an abrupt “coping crisis.” The sudden adverse changes that go with a head injury inevitability cause many emotions. Anxiety is a common response, and the person may become demoralized or depressed. Damage to the brain may impair the personâs ability to cope at a time when the need to adapt is greatest. Persons with head injury typically are more distressed and have more difficulty coping with their injury than persons who have other types of injuries.

    Usually, a particular family member assumes most of the responsibility for the injured personâs care. Ideally, more than one family member should be closely involved in caregiving. This helps family members share the burdens of providing care and helps the primary caregiver keep from becoming isolated or overwhelmed. Caregivers should be included in all significant interactions with health care professionals.

    Caregivers must encourage and expect the injured person to be as independent and productive as possible. At the same time, caregivers need to be patient and tolerant. They should accept that the person may have real limitations and that these will likely worsen if the person is tired, ill, or stressed. Emphasizing what the person can still do, rather than what seems to be lost, is helpful.

    With head injuries, the greatest improvement is expected in the first six months, but delayed improvement is possible as long as five years after the injury.

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    Parkinsons Disease Or Primary Parkinsons

    This is the most common form of the disorder and what most people think about when they hear the term Parkinsons. Current medical practices typically classify Parkinsons disease as idiopathic, which means without a cause or something that arises spontaneously. However, there have been several genes that have been identified recently that has led to two distinct classifications of Parkinsons disease: that of genetic origin, known as familial Parkinsons disease, and that which rises independently of genetic predisposition, known as sporadic Parkinsons disease.

    Contrary to the belief that Parkinsons disease has no identifiable cause, research indicates that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, pesticide exposure and improper detoxification are all linked with the death of dopaminergic neurons which can lead to Parkinsons disease.

    Where Does A Blow To The Head Cause Brain Injury

    Blows to the head most often cause brain injury, but shaking may also cause damage. The face and jaw are located in the front of the head, and brain injury may also be associated with injuries to these structures.

    Involuntary movements are unintended and uncontrolled movements that fall into the category of movement disorders. Keep reading to learn about the causes and treatments for involuntary head twitching. What causes head twitching? Involuntary head twitching can be caused by a number of different movement disorders.

    These include: Involuntary head movement caused by a number of conditions may be successfully treated with surgery, such as deep brain stimulation . In DBS, tiny electrodes are implanted in your brain.

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