Wednesday, February 21, 2024

Amino Acids And Parkinson’s

Could Something As Simple As Targeted Amino Acid Supplementation Be The Missing Piece To Your Parkinsons Adhd Or Insomnia Healing Regimens

L Tyrosine and Parkinson’s Disease – Brain Optimization Made Easy , Part 1

Neurologic issues are some of the most common and complex health challenges we face and the treatments are often worse than the disease itself! When it comes to medications for Parkinsons, ADHD, and insomnia, the side effects can be downright dangerous, ranging from balance issues all the way to suicidal depression. It may surprise you to know that there are safe, natural amino acid therapies that get to the root causes of these complicated illnesses to provide relief from the debilitating symptoms.

Categorizing Symptoms Associated With Carbidopa/l

The FDA-approved prescribing information for carbidopa/l-dopa preparations was reviewed and a list of side effects, adverse reactions, and problems associated with administration was generated. Each side effect was then placed in one or more of the general categories listed below by the authors of this paper. While the listing of each side effect may be open to further discussion, these are the categories that have evolved in this research project since 2001. The six categories of carbidopa/l-dopa side effects are as follows:

Category 1: Problems caused by depletion of serotonin byl-dopa: Tachyphylaxis .

Category 2: Problems caused by imbalance of serotonin and dopamine: Nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss, decreased mental acuity, depression, psychotic episodes including delusions, euphoria, pathologic gambling, impulse control, confusion, dream abnormalities including nightmares, anxiety, disorientation, dementia, nervousness, insomnia, sleep disorders, hallucinations and paranoid ideation, somnolence, memory impairment, and increased libido.

Category 3: Problems caused by dopamine fluctuations due to inadequate tyrosine levels: On-off effect, motor fluctuations, dopamine fluctuations, implicated as an etiology of dyskinesia.

How Much Protein Do I Need

For optimal health, you need about a half gram of protein per pound of body weight every day. Take your weight in pounds and divide it by two to determine the grams of protein you need. For example, if you weigh 140 pounds, you should eat about 70 grams of protein. Since seniors are less efficient at processing protein, spreading protein consumption evenly throughout the day can improve absorption. If you eat three meals a day, divide the 70 grams by three. You should eat about 23 grams of protein in each meal. Of course, if you weigh more, eat more protein. If you weigh less, eat less protein.

You may think 20-25 grams of protein is a lot in one meal however, if you plan ahead, incorporating the amount of protein you need is easy.


Breakfast is the time that most people dont eat enough protein. Just eating oatmeal or cereal with milk isnt enough. Add Greek yogurt, a slice of cheese, peanut butter on your whole-grain toast, an egg, or turkey sausage to increase protein.


For lunch, two cups of chili with beans provide 20 grams of protein. Add some cornbread with some honey, and a half cup of milk or a dairy alternative, such as soy milk and you have met your protein requirement for lunch. A grilled cheese sandwich with tomato soup and carrots sticks is another balanced meal idea.


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Prd But Not Lpd Improved The Bioavailability Of Levodopa

It has been shown that PRD had a better clinical outcome than LPD.In silico, the PRD had also a better performance due to the improved bioavailability of levodopa . A combination of factors has been suggested to result in the superiority of protein redistribution diet. In LPD, we showed that competing amino acids decreased the levodopa peak . It is likely that the decrease is more pronounced with impaired GER. A slower GER potentializes the loss of levodopa by competition through exposing the dietary proteins to intestinal peptidases for longer periods of time, thus releasing amino acids. It has been shown that in healthy volunteers after protein intake, a minor part of the diet is transformed into free amino acids in the small intestine, while the major part forms di- and tri-peptides and is absorbed by PEPT1. A clinical trial conducted on healthy volunteers showed no difference in the pharmacokinetics of levodopa when absorbed alone or with a solution of proteins, which questioned the influence of the gastrointestinal processes on the absorption of levodopa. With most proteins being transformed into non-competing peptides, levodopa is not subjected to competition for luminal transporters. Thus, the delay in GER exacerbates the competitive potential of dietary amino acids, which leads to higher loss of levodopa in the small intestine.

Dietary Amino Acids Regulate Pd

(PDF) Recent Advance in the Relationship between ...

Rescue effects of dietary amino acids are retained via late life diet switch. A, Schematic representation of the diet switch study. A set of LRRK2 G2019S flies were aged on 25, 50, or 200N diets for 6 weeks and tested for locomotor function. Another set of mutant LRRK2 flies were fed 50N diet for 5 weeks and then switched to either 25 or 200N amino acid diet for an additional 1 week. B, All flies were reared on standard sugar/yeast food. Switching flies from a 50N diet to either a 25 or 200N diet significantly improved motor function = 7.33 Bonferroni post-tests: *p< 0.05, **p< 0.01 n = 4 replicates of 25 flies/condition). Data are the mean ± SEM.

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Studies Of Ochratoxin A

David then suggested I looked up Malassezia and L-Dopa.

“Malassezia is a genus of fungi, naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals, including humans. Allergy tests for this fungus are available.”


“Investigations show that the Malassezia species causing most skin disease in humans, including the most common cause of dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. As the fungus requires fat to grow, it is most common in areas with many sebaceous glands: on the scalp, face, and upper part of the body. When the fungus grows too rapidly, the natural renewal of cells is disturbed, and dandruff appears with itching .”

This is interesting, because such skin issues are very prevalent in Parkinson’s Disease. Indeed, David makes one more extremely important connection. Malassezia feeds on L-Dopa,

Dietary Influences On Levodopa Pharmacokinetics

Levodopa is absorbed by a saturable facilitated large neutral amino acid transport system, and most of the absorption takes place in small intestine . As levodopa is rapidly metabolized to dopamine in gastrointestinal tract by amino acid decarboxylase , only 30% of orally-administered levodopa reached the systemic circulation when given alone . Therefore, levodopa is commonly co-administered with AADC inhibitors such as carbidopa and benserazide in the treatment of PD . In healthy subjects, fasting levodopa absorption from immediate-release CD-LD tablets is very rapid, with 90% of the oral dose taken up in the first hour, and the absorption was almost complete in 2 h .

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Metformin Reduces Neurodegeneration And Restores Normal Levels Of Mitochondrial Respiration

While disease mechanisms in PD are thought to involve decreased mitochondrial function , our findings instead suggest that elevated mitochondrial respiration may also contribute to PD pathogenesis, potentially preceding an ultimate loss of mitochondrial function. Thus, strategies to restore mitochondrial homeostasis early in the disease may be efficacious. We recently identified the type 2 diabetes medication metformin as one of the top-performing candidates in a high-throughput screen for drugs that improve motor function in bcat-1 worms . Among several known targets, metformin can act as a complex I inhibitor , raising the possibility that reducing mitochondrial respiration may constitute a surprising new treatment avenue for PD.

To determine whether metformin rescues bcat-1associated toxicity in worms with -synuclein expression in dopaminergic neurons, we measured motor function and dopamine neuron degeneration. Worms treated with 50 M metformin as described above showed significantly reduced curling on day 8 . Remarkably, metformin also significantly rescued dopamine neuron viability. On day 8, the number of dopaminergic cell bodies and neurites with healthy morphologies was increased in metformin-treated bcat-1 worms compared with vehicle-treated worms . Neuroprotection was detected as early as day 6, after only 2 d of metformin treatment , with dopaminergic neurons showing significantly improved neurite morphologies .

What Foods Are Good Sources Of Protein

Hope For Parkinsons Interview – Dr Annette Cargioli & Dr Ron Cargioli interview Linda Collier

Good sources of protein include both animal and plant sources. Plant sources include beans, lentils, peas, nuts, seeds, and protein alternatives. Animal sources include meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, and cheese.

Amount of protein in common foods
½ cup 0 grams

Click here to find the amount of protein in different foods. Measure or weigh your portion size to obtain accurate results.

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What Is The Effect Of Dietary Protein On Carbidopa

The main medication for people with Parkinsons is carbidopa-levodopa. In the body, protein is broken down into building blocks called amino acids. In order to absorb and use these amino acids, your body needs a carrier to transport them to the blood and the brain. Imagine that this carrier is like a bus. Because carbidopa-levodopa and amino acids have a similar shape, they use the same bus to transport them to the blood and brain. Since the bus has limited seats, when you eat protein and take carbidopa-levodopa in the same meal, the seats in the bus are full and less carbidopa-levodopa is absorbed. When less carbidopa-levodopa reaches the brain, your motor and non-motor symptoms can worsen.

What Is Amino Acid Therapy For Parkinsons

As discussed earlier, many of the most prominent, motor function-related symptoms of Parkinson’s disease can be traced back to insufficient levels of a neurotransmitter called dopamine. However, other symptoms such as sleep issues, mood changes, and more, are not linked to dopamine levels. According to an article published in the European Journal of Neurology, those symptoms stem from the influence of “complex, interconnected neuronal systems regulated by a number of different neurotransmitters.” The authors go on to state that developing treatments that optimize levels of several neurotransmitters “could prove invaluable for the treatment of the disease.”

A study published in the journal PLOS One in January of 2018 evaluated the relationship between concentrations of various amino acids in the blood and the progression of Parkinson’s disease. The authors explained that amino acids are crucial to the central nervous system, serving as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and regulators of energy metabolism. Changes in blood concentrations of amino acids in Parkinson’s patients have been linked to the amount of damage to the nervous system. The researchers discovered significant differences in concentrations of four amino acids: alanine, arginine, phenylalanine, and threonine. This specific amino acid profile could serve as a biochemical marker of Parkinson’s progression, they concluded.

Up to 25% off Amino

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Effect Of Tyrosine On Orthostatic Hypotension In Parkinsons Disease

Objective/Rationale: Orthostatic hypotension is a sudden drop in blood pressure when an individual changes position. Individuals with Parkinsons disease commonly suffer from orthostatic hypotension and low BP due to reduced levels of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Medications used to treat PD reduce norepinephrine levels, thus further reducing BP. Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that is the building block for norepinephrine. Supplementing tyrosine may help to increase BP in individuals with PD.

Project Description: Forty subjects with PD, orthostatic hypotension and low blood pressure will keep a food diary detailing fluid and salt intake for seven days before testing. Subjects will be randomly assigned to a tyrosine supplementation group or to a placebo group. Both researchers and subjects will be blind to the treatment assignment. After an overnight fast, subjects will undergo an orthostatic hypotension test and an exercise test to induce stress at peak medication. Blood will be drawn before exercise testing and immediately post test. Heart rate and BP will be monitored every two minutes for the duration of the test. Subjects will then take seven days of tyrosine supplementation or placebo, and continue with the food diary. The same tests will be administered after seven days of tyrosine supplementation or placebo.

Curling And Other Motor Assays

Amino Acid Therapy for Parkinsonâs Disease â The Amino Company

Manual quantification of individual worms curling level was performed as described previously . In brief, worms were picked into a drop of M9 buffer on a microscope slide, and 30-s videos were obtained. The percentage of time spent curling was quantified for each individual worm using a standard stopwatch. Automated curling analysis was performed as described previously . In brief, on the day of analysis, worms were rapidly washed twice with M9 buffer and dispensed into 96-well plates, and 30-s videos or a series of snapshots were obtained for individual wells containing 3 to 30 worms each. Our curling detection software quantified the number of worms in a curled position divided by the total number of worms detected, which was defined as the percentage of worms in a curled position. For body wave number and activity index, 30-s videos were obtained and analyzed by CeleST software as described previously .

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Nigrostriatal Dopamine Transporter Availability In Early Parkinson’s Disease

also confirms my perspective that PD does not necessarily mean cell death:

These results suggest that in the early stages of the disease dopamine cells are still viable and that, given the correct treatment, it should be possible to restore their function, says Andrea Varrone, senior lecturer in nuclear medicine at Karolinska Institutet’s Department of Clinical Neuroscience who led the study.

Also, several other papers in the scientific literature, such as

The Sooner You Get Started With Amino Acid Therapy For Parkinsons The Better

Parkinsons disease is a progressive neuro-degenerative disease. That is, the disease progresses as more and more neurons are destroyed. The ideal approach is to catch the disease as early as possible so that full function can be restored. This occurs when there are enough dopaminergic neurons remaining so that when given the proper amount and balance of amino acid precursors, they are able to compensate for the damage.

However, without proper intervention, the neurodegenerative process will continue. If enough dopaminergic neurons are destroyed, no amount of amino acids will be able to completely restore proper function. Unfortunately, this often occurs when people with Parkinsons disease-like RND symptoms attempt to exhaust all other options before implementing amino acid therapy. While these people benefit greatly from amino acid therapy, most do not achieve complete relief of PD-like RND symptoms due to the extent of the neurodegeneration.

Therefore, a person with Parkinsons disease-like RND symptoms should implement a course of properly guided amino acid therapy as soon as possible to obtain optimal results. All other therapy options are associated with a progression of the disease. Unlike the medical approach of using L-DOPA/carbidopa, amino acid therapy needs to be implemented as early as possible to optimally manage the symptoms of Parkinsons disease-like RND symptoms.

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Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile

Reviewed by

University of Alberta, Canada

The editor and reviewers’ affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review.

Protein And The Brain

Elevated Homocysteine in Parkinsons disease

Protein helps our bodies to carry out key functions to stay healthy, including looking after our brains.

Our brains are made up of neurons cells which transmit information around the body. They use proteins to communicate with each other.

The amino acid tyrosine is found in many different foods. It is needed in the brain, along with nerve cells, to help produce a chemical called dopamine. People with Parkinsons dont have enough dopamine because some of these nerve cells have died. We dont yet know exactly why this happens but researchers think its a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

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Modeling Intestinal Absorption Of Levodopa Using A Combined Pbpkcobra Model

Figure 1

The multiscale PBPKCOBRA model used in this study. We combined a spatially and temporally refined PBPK model of the gastrointestinal tract with seven copies of a mechanistically accurate and detailed metabolic model of small intestinal epithelial cells . COBRA, constraint-based reconstruction and analysis PBPK, physiologically based pharmacokinetic WB-ACAT, whole-body advanced compartmental absorption and transit.

Using the WB-ACAT-sIEC model, we predicted that the addition of serine in the systemic circulation could improve the bioavailability of levodopa as shown by the increase of the AUC above the efficacy threshold . The subsequent increase of amino acids concentration in the plasma improved the bioavailability of the next dose through a higher absorption in the basolateral side of the seven compartments of the small intestine. Taken together, we propose that a serine-rich meal after a levodopa dose could improve the brain bioavailability of levodopa.

Side Effects Of Protein

A modulation of levodopa dosage is the major method to control dyskinesia on a protein-restricted diet. In two studies of Pincus et al., respectively, 75 and 73% of the subjects required a reduction in levodopa dosage to avoid chorea . In addition, there were two outpatients who noticed that a reduced dosage of Sinemet helped to improve their dyskinesia without shortening their on time . Beside a smaller medication dosage, a pro re nata protein supplement was also reported to reverse dyskinesia on PRD by two patients . Compared with a low protein-high carbohydrate diet, Berry et al. indicated that a diet with a carbohydrate: protein ratio of 5:1 was less likely to cause dyskinesia as well as fluctuations in levodopa concentrations . However, the effectiveness of these approaches to relieve dyskinesia on protein-restricted diets has only been reported in small numbers of patients without any statistical analysis. Additional large-sample studies or double-blinded trails are still required.

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C Elegans Strains And Maintenance

Worms were maintained at 20 °C on standard nematode growth medium plates or high growth medium plates seeded with OP50 E. coli or HT115 RNAi E. coli, as indicated. The following strains were used in this study: wild-type worms of the N2 Bristol strain, neuron-only RNAi strain CQ511 uIs69 , and the following neuronal RNAi-sensitive strains: CF512 , CQ434 baIn11 vIs69 , and TU3311 uIs60 .

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