What Causes Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that currently affects about 1 million Americans. Parkinsons disease involves a small, dark-tinged portion of the brain called the substantia nigra. This is where you produce most of the dopamine your brain uses. Dopamine is the chemical messenger that transmits messages between nerves that control muscle movements as well as those involved in the brains pleasure and reward centers. As we age, its normal for cells in the substantia nigra to die. This process happens in most people at a very slow rate.
But for some people, the loss happens rapidly, which is the start of Parkinsons disease. When 50 to 60 percent of the cells are gone, you begin to see the symptoms of Parkinsons.
Estimation Of The 2020 Global Population Of Parkinsons Disease
N. Maserejian, L. Vinikoor-Imler, A. Dilley
Objective: To estimate the number of individuals living with PD globally in 2020.
Background: Although previous studies have estimated PD prevalence in many countries, the number of individuals with PD globally in 2020 has not been estimated.
Method: We comprehensively reviewed the literature for recent and reliable prevalence estimates of PD globally. The Global Burden of Disease Study was the only source available that provided an overall global estimate, with 2017 the most recent year available from the published manuscript or online tools . We verified the estimates of the PD prevalence of several countries that comprised the GBD summary estimate, by reviewing the individual publications and comparing them to the GBD estimates. GBD estimates tended to be in the lower range but close to estimates from the individual papers. For all but two countries , we applied the GBD prevalence proportions in 2017. For the US and Canada, we applied more recent prevalence proportions by Marras et al. 2018 . We assessed the worldwide PD population in 2020 by multiplying the most reliable prevalence proportions by the corresponding 2020 population, using CDC data for US, Statistics Canada for Canada, Eurostat for European countries and UN population estimates for the rest of the world.
To cite this abstract in AMA style:
Parkinson Disease And Rurality
To test the hypothesis that Parkinson disease is associated with rural living, we used the United States Department of Agriculture’s rural-urban continuum classification system to classify residence for Medicare beneficiaries from the year 2003 and determined the mean prevalence and incidence per rural category. There was a significant difference in age- and race-standardized Parkinson disease prevalence and incidence between the rural classification categories .4). Post hoc analysis revealed that Parkinson disease prevalence for the most urban counties was significantly greater than that for the most rural counties . Similarly, Parkinson disease incidence for the most urban counties was significantly greater than that for the most rural counties .
Recommended Reading: Can Parkinson’s Come And Go
Rates Of Parkinsons Disease Are Exploding A Common Chemical May Be To Blame
Researchers believe a factor is a chemical used in drycleaning and household products such as shoe polishes and carpet cleaners in the US
Asked about the future of Parkinsons disease in the US, Dr Ray Dorsey says, Were on the tip of a very, very large iceberg.
Dorsey, a neurologist at the University of Rochester Medical Center and author of Ending Parkinsons Disease, believes a Parkinsons epidemic is on the horizon. Parkinsons is already the fastest-growing neurological disorder in the world in the US, the number of people with Parkinsons has increased 35% the last 10 years, says Dorsey, and We think over the next 25 years it will double again.
Most cases of Parkinsons disease are considered idiopathic they lack a clear cause. Yet researchers increasingly believe that one factor is environmental exposure to trichloroethylene , a chemical compound used in industrial degreasing, dry-cleaning and household products such as some shoe polishes and carpet cleaners.
To date, the clearest evidence around the risk of TCE to human health is derived from workers who are exposed to the chemical in the work-place. A 2008 peer-reviewed study in the Annals of Neurology, for example, found that TCE is a risk factor for parkinsonism. And a 2011 study echoed those results, finding a six-fold increase in the risk of developing Parkinsons in individuals exposed in the workplace to trichloroethylene .
Adrienne Matei is a freelance journalist
Rural Versus Urban Analysis
The United States Department of Agriculture’s rural-urban continuum classification system defines rurality by absolute population and classifies each county in the US by degree of rurality in a rank order fashion using a nine-tier scale from a population of less than 2,500 to a population of greater than 1 million. This system separately classifies less populated areas which are adjacent to large urban areas, such as suburbs.
To determine the relationship between rurality and Parkinson disease, we applied the rural-urban continuum classification system to county level age and race standardization for Parkinson disease prevalence and incidence from the year 2002. We compared the mean prevalence and incidence across these categories of rurality using a Kruskal-Wallis test. The prevalence and incidence for the most rural counties were also compared to those of the most urban counties with a two-tailed t test.
You May Like: Is Magnesium Good For Parkinson’s
Prevalence Of Parkinsons State
Western and Southern states appear to have lower rates of Parkinsons disease, while Northeastern and many Midwestern states have higher rates . Mississippi and Montana have the lowest rates of Parkinsons, at 5.1 per 10,000. Vermont has the highest rate of Parkinsons at 9.9 per 10,000.
Exhibit 2: Prevalence of Parkinsons Disease, by geography
Nj Has One Of The Highest Parkinsons Disease Rates In The Nation New Jersey 1015 Fm Radio
This post was added by Alex Diaz-Granados
New Jersey has one of the highest rates in the nation of Parkinson’s disease a neuro-degenerative disorder, typically affecting residents between ages 60 and 70 years old.
Dr. Elana Clar, a neurologist at North Jersey Brain and Spine, said the disease affects more than 22,000 people in New Jersey, or approximately 1,600 patients for every 100,000 individuals. That puts New Jersey in seventh place among the United States for prevalence of the disease.
She said it is possible to live a good quality of life with Parkinson’s, which is why it is so important to have resources at hand a medical team, the right nutrition, exercise and therapy programs.
“Awareness and education are important to destigmatize the disease and give people living with PD the confidence that they can still have a fulfilling life,” Clar said.
Research is ongoing. There are studies investigating the connection between the gut and the brain. There are studies looking at genetic mutationthat increase the risk of developing Parkinson’s.
Parkinson’ssymptoms develop slowly over many years. Clar said people with the disease may start to notice they are slowing down. They may have limb rigidity, tremors and some balance problems. While the cause is unknown, Clar said the symptoms are connected to the loss of dopamine. Although there is no cure, she said there are many good treatment options including various medication and surgery.
More from New Jersey 101.5:
Read Also: Levels Of Parkinson’s Disease
Incidence And Prevalence Of Pd In The Norwegian Population Between 2005 And 2016
The crude incidence for PD between 2005 and 2016 was on average 23.1 for females and 29.6 for males, per 100,000 person-years. The prevalence for PD in the population was on average 0.2% of the females and 0.23% of the males in the general population, and 0.98% of the females and 1.35% of the males for the population > 65 years. For both sexes, the age-specific incidence and prevalence increased with age, peaking at the 7585 age group . However, while the male/female PD prevalence ratio remained ~1.5 across all age groups , the male/female incidence ratio changed with age, increasing by 1.2% for every year of life . Substantial variation in both incidence and prevalence was observed over the 20052016 observation period, for which the measures were calculated . There was no general time-trend in the incidence of PD during the observation period, though a significant decrease was observed among the 3059 age group . In contrast, PD prevalence significantly increased during the observation period in all age groups, with the exception of the 3059 group, for which only a trend for increased prevalence was observed . Interestingly, the yearly rise in PD prevalence increased with age, with the biggest differences observed for older populations .
Table 1 Age- and sex-adjusted PD incidence, prevalence, and mortality.
Trends In The Pd Incidence
Globally, the incident number of PD was 1,081.72 × 103 in 2019, which increased 159.73% since 1990. The overall age-standardized incidence rate was 13.43/100,000 in 2019, and it increased with an annual average of 0.61% from 1990 to 2019 . Compared to female patients, male patients had a larger incident number, and a higher increasing trend in ASIR . Among the age groups, the high incident numbers of PD were observed in the patients aged over 65 years, and the largest increasing percentage occurred in the age group of over 80 years .
Table 1. The changes in incidence and prevalence of Parkinson’s disease worldwide, and in sexes, SDI areas, and regions, 19902019.
Figure 1. Trends in the ASR of incidence, prevalence, and YLDs of Parkinson’s disease in global, SDI areas and geographic regions from 1990 to 2019. ASR, age-standardized rate SDI, sociodemographic index YLDs, years lived with disability.
Figure 2. The distribution of Parkinson’s disease incidence in age groups, SDI areas and geographic regions from 1990 to 2019. was the incident number in age groups was the ASIR in SDI areas was the incident number in geographical regions. ASIR, age-standardized incidence rate SDI, sociodemographic index.
Read Also: Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms List
Us Parkinsons Rates Highest In Whites Hispanics And Midwest Northeast
The largest epidemiological study of Parkinsons disease in the United States has found that the disease is more common in the Midwest and the Northeast and is twice as likely to strike whites and Hispanics as blacks and Asians.
The study, based on data from 36 million Medicare recipients, is both the first to produce any significant information on patterns of Parkinsons disease in minorities and to show geographic clusters for the condition.
Finding clusters in the Midwest and the Northeast is particularly exciting, says lead author Allison Wright Willis, M.D., assistant professor of neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. These are the two regions of the country most involved in metal processing and agriculture, and chemicals used in these fields are the strongest potential environmental risk factors for Parkinsons disease that weve identified so far.
The results appear online in the journal Neuroepidemiology.
Parkinsons disease is a common neurodegenerative condition that causes tremor, stiffness, slowness, mood and behavioral disorders, sleep problems and other symptoms. The disease is characterized by loss of dopamine, a compound involved in communication between brain cells.
For the new study, Willis analyzed data on more than 450,000 cases of Parkinsons disease per year over six years, 1995 and 2000-2005. Collectively, that data included information from more than 98 percent of all Americans 65 and older.
Pd Is Different For Everyone
It is important to note that PD is different for everyone. Though it is a progressive disorder, not every case of PD progresses the same. Some may progress faster or slower than others.
Different people also experience different symptoms. One person may experience only tremor and stiffness. Another may have difficulty with balance, mood changes, and slowness of movement or gradual loss of spontaneous movement .4
It is difficult to predict how PD may affect someone and how symptoms may progress or change over time.4
If you have more questions about PD or would like to understand if you are at risk for developing PD, talk to your doctor.
Recommended Reading: Stopping Parkinson’s Medication Abruptly
Prevalence Rate Of Parkinson’s Disease
- F.E. De Leeuw, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
We thank Prof. Kazuo Abe for his remarks on our recent article. Large studies investigating worldwide incidence and prevalence of Parkinson disease and parkinsonism are scarce. In prevalence studies, often only idiopathic PD is considered. It has been suggested that Asian populations have a lower prevalence of PD than in North America, Europe, and Australia. However, other etiologies of parkinsonism are frequently excluded and the possible concomitant prevalence of cerebral small vessel disease in study populations is usually not taken into account.
In a recent study on the prevalence of parkinsonism in a Japanese elderly population, 70 of 729 participants were diagnosed with parkinsonism and 21 of the 70 received a diagnosis of vascular parkinsonism . This was the most frequently observed diagnosis in the population, which is uncommon in community-dwelling populations in Western countries where PD is the prevailing observed etiology. This trend might be in line with the higher prevalence of vascular dementia in Japan compared to Alzheimer dementia.
In our study we found a high incidence of VP, probably because of our inclusion criterion that all participants must have some degree of SVD. Future studies are needed to investigate worldwide prevalence and incidence of parkinsonian disorders, taking into account the concomitant presence of SVD on neuroimaging.
Worldwide Parkinsons Disease Statistics
Worldwide Parkinsons Disease Statistics
There are up to 10 million or more people in the world who have Parkinson’s Disease. There may be many more than this due to the incompleteness and inconsistencies of prevalence studies, no precise definition of Parkinson’s Disease, and so many people with Parkinson’s Disease not being diagnosed. The actual number of people in the world with Parkinson’s Disease is not known.
WORLD’S HIGHEST PREVALENCE
China is the country with the world’s greatest number of people with Parkinson’s Disease. In China there are probably more than 1.7 million people who have Parkinson’s Disease.
The world’s highest prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease is along the River Nile in Egypt, south of Cairo, amongst illiterate Egyptians in rural areas. They have a prevalence rate of 1,103 per 100,000. The high prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease is probably related to poverty rather than illiteracy. In some of the villages south of Cairo there are only mud roads and open sewers. Egypt is the country with the third highest prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease in the world.
The world’s next highest prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease is in the vicinities of ferromanganese plants near Brescia in Italy, with 407 people per 100,000 population. Manganese concentrations in settled dust were found to be significantly higher in the surroundings and downwind from the ferromanganese plants. In high concentrations, manganese is a known cause of Parkinson’s Disease.
Recommended Reading: All About Parkinson’s Disease
Trends In The Pd Prevalence
The global prevalent number of PD increased 155.50% from 1990, and reached 8,511.02 × 103 in 2019. The overall ASR of prevalence was 106.28/100,000 in 2019, and showed an upward trend from 1990 to 2019 . Compared with female patients, male patients had a higher prevalence, and showed a larger increasing trend . Among the age groups, the pronounced high prevalent numbers occurred in patients aged over 65 years , and the largest increasing percentage occurred in the age group of over 80 years .
All SDI areas presented increasing trends in the ASR of PD prevalence, and the most pronounced one was seen in the middle SDI area . At the regional level, the largest prevalent number in 2019 appeared in East Asia , while the lowest one occurred in Oceania . The increasing percentage of prevalence varied from 27.54% in Eastern Europe to 256.90% in Central Latin America. In 2019, the ASR of prevalence ranged from 55.94/100,000 in Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa to 145.44/100,000 in East Asia. Trends in the ASR of prevalence increased in most regions, particularly East Asia . Whereas, only Oceania had a minor downward trend . A positive association was observed between the ASRs and SDI in 2019 among regions .
Sardinia Has The Highest Rate Of 100 Year
This category is a little different: death before age 100. On the Italian island of Sardinia , the approximately 1.6 million inhabitants have the worlds highest documented percentage of people who have lived longer than 100 years. The secret is likely a combination of diet , lifestyle , and genetics. In fact, a research team discovered a gene in the Y chromosome that can significantly reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack in men in Sardinia.
You May Like: Early Stages Of Parkinson’s
Analysis Of The Influential Factors Of Eapc
The ASR in 1990 served as the disease reservoir at baseline, and the HDI reflected the level of human development, and the availability of health resources in settings, including regions and countries. The EAPCs of the incidence, prevalence, and YLDs had a negative association with the corresponding ASRs in 1990 . Meanwhile, only the EAPCs of incidence had a positive association with HDI in 2019 , which further explained that the trends of the ASIR increased pronouncedly in the high SDI regions and countries from 1990 to 2019.
Figure 7. The association s between EAPCs and ASRs in 1990 at the national level. EAPCs of incidence , prevalence , YLDs had negative associations with ASR in 1990, respectively. The association was calculated with Pearson correlation analysis. The size of circle is increased with the numbers in 1990. EAPC, estimated annual percentage change ASR, age-standardized rate YLDs, years lived with disability.
Spatial Analysis Of Smoking Behavior
Since studies have consistently demonstrated a protective effect of smoking on incident Parkinson disease, we examined the geographic distribution of smoking behavior and Parkinson disease using data from the National Center for Health Care Statistics . Ever smoker rates for those survey respondents aged 65 and above were calculated for each state from the years 2000 to 2006 and compared to mean state Parkinson disease prevalence from 2000 to 2005 using a Spearman correlation analysis.
You May Like: Young Onset Parkinson’s Support Group