Caregiving In The Late Stages Of Parkinsons Disease
In late-stage PD, patients have significant mobility challenges. Caregivers likely need to provide more hands-on assistance to help them get around the house. Its important that caregivers learn safe and effective methods to provide help without injuring themselves. Physical therapists can be a great resource to assess an individual situation and teach effective ways of giving assistance.3
Freezing, a sudden but temporary inability to move, can become more common in late-stage PD. Freezing often happens when initiating movement or navigating around obstacles, and freezing episodes contribute to falls. Caregivers can help their loved one overcome freezing by providing a visual cue to step over, like a laser pointer, or using music or rhythm for the person with PD to walk to.3
Late stage PD can make daily activities, such as getting dressed, much more challenging. Caregivers can make getting dressed easier by ensuring adequate time to account for slow movement, choosing a time when medications are “on” and working well, and assembling all necessary items close to the person. Allowing the person with PD to do as much as they can gives them a sense of participation in the process.3
How Is Parkinsons Diagnosed
Doctors use your medical history and physical examination to diagnose Parkinson’s disease . No blood test, brain scan or other test can be used to make a definitive diagnosis of PD.
Researchers believe that in most people, Parkinson’s is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Certain environmental exposures, such as pesticides and head injury, are associated with an increased risk of PD. Still, most people have no clear exposure that doctors can point to as a straightforward cause. The same goes for genetics. Certain genetic mutations are linked to an increased risk of PD. But in the vast majority of people, Parkinsons is not directly related to a single genetic mutation. Learning more about the genetics of Parkinsons is one of our best chances to understand more about the disease and discover how to slow or stop its progression.
Aging is the greatest risk factor for Parkinsons, and the average age at diagnosis is 60. Still, some people get PD at 40 or younger.
Men are diagnosed with Parkinsons at a higher rate than women and whites more than other races. Researchers are studying these disparities to understand more about the disease and health care access and to improve inclusivity across care and research.
Aging is the greatest risk factor for Parkinsons, and the average age at diagnosis is 60. Still, some people get PD at 40 or younger.
The Michael J. Fox Foundation has made finding a test for Parkinsons disease one of our top priorities.
The Role Of Aggregation Of Misfolded Proteins In Pd
Tau. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau can cause an accumulation of paired helical filaments of tau, known as neurofibrillary tangles , a hallmark pathology of different neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism , and progressive supra-nuclear palsy . The FTDP is linked to chromosome 17 , with p-tau accumulation occurring in cortex and SNpc areas . The p-tau can also be co-localized with LB, which is often associated with the development of sporadic PD . Similarly, in the case of FTDP, a mutation of gene coding for microtubule associated protein causes an increase in the accumulation of p-tau . The p-tau also has been linked to the LRRK2 gene mutations . Although NFTs are associated most closely with AD, they can co-localize with SNCA in LB and play an important role in destabilization of DA-neuronal architecture, which ultimately leads to rapid degeneration and death of DA neurons .
Schematic diagram showing the steps that cause an accumulation of SNCA. Natural SNCA becomes misfolded under stress and is deposited as oligomers, small aggregates, or fibrils, which play a significant role in DA-neuronal loss in PD
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Stooping Or Hunched Posture
People who have Parkinsons disease may notice changes in their posture due to other symptoms of the disease, such as muscle rigidity.
People naturally stand so that their weight is evenly distributed over their feet. However, people who have Parkinsons disease may start bending forward, making them appear hunched or stooped over.
How Upper Cervical Chiropractic Benefits Dizziness Patients
Upper cervical chiropractic is a niche within the chiropractic field that focuses solely on the top two bones of the neck. Rather than popping or twisting the spine, upper cervical chiropractors use low force corrections that help the neck realign naturally. This is a safe way to get the atlas and axis back into place. Their realignment can help vertebral arteries do their job properly again, improving blood flow to the brain and relieving conditions caused by the previous reduction in blood flow.
to schedule a consultation today.
To learn more about what upper cervical chiropractic may be able to do for you. Contact a practitioner in your area and schedule a no-obligation consultation.
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What Is Multiple Sclerosis In Laymans Terms
I have been blogging about living with Multiple Sclerosis for many years. But, what is Multiple Sclerosis and how does this debilitating disease really affect a patient? However, the research for this article was completed with the aid of Google. The first thing I have noticed is that Google attempts to list the frequently asked question about Multiple Sclerosis.
Multiple Sclerosis is a disease wherein the bodys immune system attacks the insulation and support around nerve fibres. This results in impaired nerve function. This damages the nerves that are involved in sensory, movement, cognition, and autonomic functioning. This is due to the demyelination of the axons.
Learn More About Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons Disease: The Essentials
If youre new to Parkinsons disease and would like a good overview to help you better understand the disease, please view our Parkinsons Disease: The Essentials presentation. Its a great place to get started with reliable and concise information.
The exact cause of Parkinsons is still unknown, but there is an enormous amount of research being done to learn more. This research has led scientists to formulate a number of theories on the cause of this disease.
While there is no definitive test that can be taken to determine whether a person has Parkinsons disease, movement disorder specialists look for symptoms and use brain imaging technology to accurately diagnose Parkinsons.
Even though Parkinsons is classified as a movement disorderand its motor symptoms are the most discussed and well-knownthere are many non-motor symptoms that display in people with Parkinsons as well.
As of today, there is no cure for Parkinsons disease. But there are many ways in which the disease can be treated to make symptoms more manageable.
Living With Parkinsons
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What Causes Parkinson’s Disease
In the very deep parts of the brain, there is a collection of nerve cells that help control movement, known as the basal ganglia . In a person with Parkinson’s disease, these nerve cells are damaged and do not work as well as they should.
These nerve cells make and use a brain chemical called dopamine to send messages to other parts of the brain to coordinate body movements. When someone has Parkinson’s disease, dopamine levels are low. So, the body doesn’t get the right messages it needs to move normally.
Experts agree that low dopamine levels in the brain cause the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but no one really knows why the nerve cells that produce dopamine get damaged and die.
Role Of Pet Scans In Diagnosis
Scanning for loss of dopamine, the major chemical responsible for some symptoms of Parkinsons, permits comparison against scans of people who have no dopamine deficiency. By itself, a scan does not make the diagnosis of Parkinson’s but identifies the decline in dopaminergic neurones. It is used by experienced neurologists in cases where the diagnosis of Parkinsons is uncertain.Scans include radionuclide positron emission tomography or by injecting radiopharmaceutical agent in the brain) into a patients veins in a procedure referred to single photon emission computed tomography imaging.
PET scans typically focus on glucose metabolism, and DaT/SPECT scans focus on the activity of the dopamine transporter. Unfortunately, this decline is seen in conditions other than Parkinsons such as Multiple Systems Atrophy and Progressive supranuclear palsy .
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Pairwise Correlation Analysis Between Pragmatic And Neuropsychological Tests In Patients With Pd And Controls
Pairwise correlations between APACS scores and neuropsychological variables were performed separately for patients with PD and healthy controls. Detailed results on the correlations are reported in Table 3 . Scatterplots based on all the pairwise relationships are reported in the Supplementary Material.
Table 3. Correlations in patients and healthy controls, between APACS tasks and variables from Clinical Assessment.
Both patients with PD and healthy controls showed several significant correlations.
Concerning the Demographic variables, Education was positively associated with several APACS scores both in patients with PD and controls, while Age showed only a few significant negative correlations. With regard to the Clinical variables , both UPDRS-III and H& Y were negatively correlated with Interview scores and APACS Production scores. Years from Onset did not show any significant correlation.
Overall, variables belonging to General Cognitive Assessment showed several significant correlations both in patients with PD and in healthy controls, with a qualitatively similar pattern. These correlations involved especially the comprehension tasks of APACS and were rarely significantly associated with production scores .
Finally, all Cognitive Reserve scores showed several significant correlations, both in patients with PD and in healthy controls, again involving especially the comprehension tasks of APACS.
What Causes Parkinsons Disease
Doctors dont know exactly what causes Parkinsons disease. In a small number of people, genetics seem to play a role. These people could have inherited the genes for Parkinsons disease from a family member. Or they could have a gene mutation. Environmental factors may also play a role. For example, long-term exposure to certain toxins, such as pesticides, may increase the risk of Parkinsons disease. You have a higher risk of developing Parkinsons if you are over age 60. Men get it more often than women.
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Other Causes Of Parkinsonism
“Parkinsonism” is the umbrella term used to describe the symptoms of tremors, muscle rigidity and slowness of movement.
Parkinson’s disease is the most common type of parkinsonism, but there are also some rarer types where a specific cause can be identified.
These include parkinsonism caused by:
- medication where symptoms develop after taking certain medications, such as some types of antipsychotic medication, and usually improve once the medication is stopped
- other progressive brain conditions such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple systems atrophy, and corticobasal degeneration
- cerebrovascular disease where a series of small strokes cause several parts of the brain to die
You can read more about parkinsonism on the Parkinson’s UK website.
How Long Does Ms Take To Disable You
According to the NMSS, around two-thirds of people with MS are able to walk without a wheelchair two decades after their diagnosis. Some people will need crutches or a cane to remain ambulatory.
I think this is a question without an answer. You can have MS and never become disabled. Or you can have MS and lose the ability to walk in a matter of weeks or months.
In severe cases, you could end up completely immobile, effectively paralysed. However, this is a very rare occurrence.
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Does Multiple Sclerosis Cause Weight Gain
MS causes fatigue, making you feel too exhausted for physical activity. The pain and dizziness can also affect your energy levels when it comes to exercising. Symptoms of depression are also common for people with MS. This can lead to emotional eating, causing weight gain and loss.
This came from a very good article on Managing Weight for MS. All I can add is that I do not gain weight, I struggle to stop losing weight.
However, I did become aware of a more serious weight condition. I was unable to build muscle mass. In accordance with the guidelines, I was taking regular exercise.
I was doing some lightweight training with 3kg dumbbells. I was doing regular arm curls with these weights. Performing a set number of re[ititions with each arm.
After a few weeks of this routine, I could see a considerable improvement in the bicep muscle of my right arm.
However, despite exercising my left arm in exactly the same way, for exactly the same duration. The bicep muscle in my left arm showed absolutely no improvement.
Macroscopic Pathologypd Msa Psp
PD is often unremarkable, with mild frontal atrophy in some cases. There is no significant atrophy of brainstem, and this can be useful in the differential diagnosis of PSP and MSA, in which there is midbrain atrophy in PSP and pontine atrophy in MSA. Sections of the brainstem usually reveal loss of the normally dark black pigment in the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus, but pigment loss in the substantia nigra is also characteristic of PSP and MSA. The loss of pigmentation correlates with neuronal loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and noradrenergic neurons in the locus ceruleus. Pigment loss in the locus ceruleus is consistent in PD, but less predictable in PSP and MSA.
MSA-P has atrophy and brownish discoloration of the posterolateral putamen , the brown color correlating with increased iron pigment. In cases with significant cerebellar signs, there is also atrophy of the pontine base and atrophy and gray discoloration of the cerebellar white matter. More subtle atrophy is noted in the medulla and the cerebellar cortex.
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Role Of Mitochondrial Damage And Oxidative Stress In Pd
One of the most promising theories in PD research, as well as other age-related neurodegenerative diseases, is the oxidative stress theory . This theory posits that the mitochondria is the hot-spot for degenerative processes. In PD, the abnormal activity of complex-I in mitochondria has been observed, which directly interferes with cellular ATP production, leading to cell death . In addition, the brain monoamines, such as DA and 5-HT, generally act as antioxidants . However, breakdown of DA by monoamine oxidase-B , and combined with ground state O2, leads to the formation of ROS . Researchers have found increased oxidative stress markers and related changes in PD patients . In addition, increased levels of the apoptotic marker protein, Bax has been observed in DA-neurons of the SNpc in MPTP-treated mice . Recently, investigators have developed hybrid cells, called cybrid, to check the role of mitochondria in development of PD . They have placed mitochondrial DNA from PD patients into neuroblastoma cells and found these cybrids develop LB, just like those in the DA-neurons of PD patients. Similarly, certain gene mutations that are involved in cell-survival mechanisms may lead to impairment of mitochondrial activity and ATP production. These findings provide strong support for the idea that mitochondrial defects play a key role in the development of sporadic PD.
Can Ms Just Go Away
Its a chronic condition. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic condition, which means its long-lasting and theres no cure for it. That said, its important to know that for the vast majority of people who have MS, the disease is not fatal.
Again, this comment is from Healthline. I would concur with the Healthline view. Once you have developed MS, you are stuck with it for life.
However, with the correct treatment and the right diet, you can reduce the symptoms to the point where they no longer appear.
So, the symptoms of MS can go away but, the underlying disease will always be there.
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The Laymans Guide To Parkinsons Disease
As a senior, you have to be prepared for any conditions that may come your way, as some inevitably will as you get older. Unfortunately, there are some diseases and conditions that one just cannot prepare for. Parkinsons Disease is one such condition. It occurs predominantly in the elderly but can be present in a small number of younger people. It is not primarily caused by mental degeneration, as is the common perception, although it is related to the brain. However, regardless of that fact, it can still be extremely frustrating for both the sufferer and his or her family because the condition is progressively degenerative and the former will know exactly what is happening for quite a while before the black hole of oblivion takes over.
Parkinsons Disease is caused by the nerve cells in the body slowly breaking down so that they are unable to relay the messages that the body is sending to the brain. The main function of the nerve cells is to connect the brain and the body to let the former know what the latter is doing and vice versa. Unfortunately, as the nerve cells slowly become more damaged, they are unable to function correctly and thus wires get crossed. It is at that point that the sufferer begins to lose all control of what his or her body is actually doing.
Complementary And Alternative Therapies
Some people with Parkinson’s disease find complementary therapies help them feel better. Many complementary treatments and therapies claim to ease the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
However, there’s no clinical evidence they’re effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Most people think complementary treatments have no harmful effects. However, some can be harmful and they shouldn’t be used instead of the medicines prescribed by your doctor.
Some types of herbal remedies, such as St John’s wort, can interact unpredictably if taken with some types of medication used to treat Parkinson’s disease.
If you’re considering using an alternative treatment along with your prescribed medicines, check with your care team first.