Sunday, February 18, 2024

Is There Pain With Parkinson’s

Akinetic Crisis And Pain

Pain and Parkinson’s

This type of pain may occur in the advanced stages of Parkinsons. Its brought on by akinetic crisis, which is a rare and sometimes dangerous complication of Parkinson’s.

Akinetic crisis involves a worsening of Parkinsons symptoms, which can include severe rigidity, a complete loss of movement, fever and difficulty swallowing. People with Parkinsons who have akinetic crisis pain say that they feel pain in their muscles and joints, and experience headaches. Some people also experience whole-body pain.

This type of pain can be brought on if you abruptly stop taking Parkinsons medication, or if you develop an infection, both of which can cause Parkinson’s symptoms to suddenly get worse. Akinetic crisis requires urgent medical help. If it looks like someone is experiencing akinetic crisis, call 999.

What Can I Do On A Regular Basis To Manage My Pain

Remember, youre your best advocate as you understands how your pain feels. Understanding and communicating the kind of pain youre experiencing can greatly inform your treatment plan and will allow your doctors to address the type and severity of your specific pain. Keep your care team informed about activities that cause pain or the times of day your pain is worst so they can help fine-tune your care plan. Do you notice the pain starting to creep in at a certain point after you take your medication? Do you feel fine when you bike but experience pain when you jog? Did you start experiencing this pain before or after your Parkinsons diagnosis? Taking stock of these sorts of questions can be helpful as you work with your care team to effectively treat your pain.

Incorporating approved medications and following the pain ladder can also help you find the right pain management solution, as can taking steps in your everyday life to be an active participant in your own pain management. Regular stretching, heat and cold treatments, exercise, yoga, and dance can all help reduce your pain, and they are all steps that you can take on your own. Making adjustments to your home and workspace, such as minimizing places where fall risks are likely, using an ergonomically designed desk, sleeping in a comfortable bed, and wearing clothes and shoes that dont exacerbate pain, can help you establish a more pain-free daily routine.

How Is Pain Diagnosed Assessed And Treated

Diagnosing and treating pain in people with Parkinsons can be difficult and often, common ways of reducing pain, such taking painkillers or doing regular, gentle exercise may not help.

Usually, your doctor or Parkinsons nurse specialist will be able to help you to manage the more common types of pain, such as shoulder pain and headaches. Certain other types of pain, however, such as pain caused by involuntary movements or burning mouth, may need the help of your Parkinsons specialist.

Completing a Kings Parkinsons Disease Pain Questionnaire and showing it to your heath-care professional will help them to understand the pain you are suffering from1. Completing the 24-hour Hauser2 diary, a home diary designed to assess your motor symptoms, over the same period of time, would further help your doctor or Parkinsons nurse to better understand the pain you are experiencing and to treat it more quickly.

To ensure Parkinsons pain is assessed and diagnosed efficiently, a specific scale has been designed. Kings Parkinsons Pain Scale 1 is a validated scale which covers the common types of Parkinsons related pain. Your Parkinsons specialist might use this scale to help understand the type of Parkinsons pain you have even better and assess what needs to be done to help you further.

References:

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Improve Your General Fitness

Increasing your level of fitness will help you manage your weight and ensure your joints arent under any added pressure. You could try walking, swimming, dancing, cycling or aerobics its up to you.

Many of Parkinsons UKs local groups have physiotherapist-led exercise classes you can join. Visit our Local Support page or call our helpline on 0808 800 0303 to find one near you.

Q What Role Does Exercise Play In Pain Management In Pd

Pain

Dr. Fleisher: Exercise and physical therapy can be tremendously helpful in managing pain in PD, in addition to being important for overall disease management.4,8 Evidence suggests that exercise is the best option we have to alter the course of PD, and it has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and neurorestoration in PD.9,10 In addition, research suggests that exercise can activate both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic inhibitory pain pathways, which may help to modulate the experience of pain in PD.10

Good exercise options include walking, swimming, dancing, and using a recumbent bike. In particular, forms of dance with smooth movements and those that encourage bigger steps appear to be especially beneficial in helping retrain the brain that the shuffling gait of PD is not the norm. Incredible work has come out of the Mark Morris Dance Company, in New York City, which has started a Dance for PD class that has spread throughout the country. In addition, yoga and tai chi can help with balance and core strength, which are critical for people with PD.

Importantly, there doesnt appear to be an upper limit for the benefits of exercise on the disease. I encourage patients to aim for at least 30 to 45 minutes a day at least 3 to 4 days a week. Patients who are sedentary should start with 5 minutes per day for a week, and then increase the duration each week.

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Since A Back Injury In 1985 John Has Experienced Multiple Types Of Pain Some Of Which Have Been Triggered By His Parkinson’s He Was Diagnosed With The Condition In 2016

Ive been experiencing varying degrees of pain since injuring my back, which caused me to have lower-back pain, which continues to this day. Since then, I have also developed pain in other parts of my body due to Parkinsons, including my hands, ribs, upper back and shoulder.

The pain in my ribs is deep, aching and constant, and I get internal tremors in this area. However, the pains in my legs are sharp, intermittent and become very rigid, especially in my calves.

When I walk, the pain can get so bad that I end up having to stop and rest. On really bad days, I use a wheelchair. When Im in a lot of pain, it affects my Parkinsons symptoms even more, and also my spatial awareness, that I tend to lose my balance and fall or freeze.

I was referred to a pain specialist…who enrolled me on an 8-week pain management course led by a Parkinson’s-trained physiotherapist. Now I do an hour of gentle movements and stretching every morning.

I cant stand for long enough to wash and have a shave, or to wash the dishes, so I use a perching stool. I can no longer carry out my hobby of canoeing to the same degree. While I use to be able to do it all day, I’m now lucky if I can do it for an hour.

I was referred to a pain specialist, who prescribed me medication, and advised on workable changes to my lifestyle and diet. They also enrolled me on an 8-week pain management course led by a Parkinson’s-trained physiotherapist. Now I do an hour of gentle movements and stretching every morning.

What Are The Different Types Of Pain Experienced By People With Parkinsons

Five main types of pain are common for people with Parkinsons. Multiple types may be present simultaneously or occur at different points throughout a persons path with Parkinsons. Recognizing which kind of pain is present can help you optimize treatment, as can paying attention to what activities or times of day make your pain better or worse.

Musculoskeletal pain

Musculoskeletal pain that affects muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments, and/or nerves. The pain can be localized or generalized and can fade or intensify at different times. Existing musculoskeletal pain can be exacerbated by Parkinsons.

Neuropathic pain

Rather than being caused by a physical injury, this type of pain is caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system or a disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system, which responds to external stimuli like touch, temperature, and vibration. It tends to be fairly consistent throughout the day and is present no matter what activity youre doing. Unlike the aching you may feel when youre doing a strenuous physical activity, neuropathic pain feels more like a tingly, crawly, uncomfortable sensation.

Dystonic pain

Dystonia, the movement disorder in which involuntary muscle contractions cause repetitive or twisting motions, is often very painful. Many people with Parkinsons experience dystonia as a motor symptom, whether its localized , in multiple nearby body parts , or all over .

Akathisia
Central pain

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Parkinson’s Pain Can Be Linked To Depression

If exercise and/or adjusting your medications do not help with the pain, ask yourself and your doctor if you might be depressed. Pain in Parkinson’s disease is linked to depression, and treating the depression may help to diminish any persistent pains. Depression affects about 40% of people with Parkinson’s. In some cases, psychotherapy may alleviate pain from Parkinson’s.

If you don’t have depression or if the pains persist after treating your symptoms of depression, then you may want to consider seeing a pain specialist before taking over-the-counter remedies. Pain control specialists have a whole array of pain control treatments and techniques, ranging from special medications to special surgical procedures, that are known to be effective.

Q Are There Any Alternative Therapies That Are Effective For Pain In Pd

Ask the MD: Pain and Parkinson’s

Dr. Fleisher: Although alternative therapies may be helpful, there is little evidence-based research to support their use. Certainly massage therapy, anecdotally, seems to be helpful for managing pain. Small studies suggest that acupuncture might improve sleep in patients with PD, but data on the effects on pain in PD is lacking. Larger, more well-controlled and reproducible studies of these therapies are needed.

Patients frequently ask about the effects of medical marijuana in managing PD, including pain symptoms. Several studies have looked at efficacy of marijuana in PD and have found that it probably is ineffective for most PD symptoms.11 However, we just dont have enough evidence to know for sure. The most rigorous study of medical marijuana in PD showed a trend toward worsening tremor.11,12

For most people, stress and anxiety worsen tremor, and anything that relieves anxiety will improve tremor. Thus, modalities such as yoga, meditation, and mindfulness training will improve tremor. Similarly, medical marijuana may improve tremor in certain people by temporarily reducing anxiety and stress, but the evidence has not borne this out yet.

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Pain Pathophysiology And Classification In Pd

However, pain far more frequently presents not as ‘central’ but as musculoskeletal/nociceptive pain in PD patients, and in about half of the PD population, it is related to secondary diseases such as spine or joint arthrosis . Pain related to arthrosis of the spine or joints likely is amplified by akinesia and rigidity, but there is no clear relationship of severity of motor symptoms and pain reported . Accordingly, pain and motor impairment do not correlate well , suggesting that both symptoms do not necessarily share the identical pathogenetic mechanisms . Nevertheless, it has to be kept in mind that musculoskeletal pain preferentially of one side of the body, e.g., as shoulder-arm-syndrome, is a very typical early presentation of akinesia and rigor in PD and frequently might be missed.

Female gender, dyskinesia, postural abnormalities, motor complications, and depression have been found as predictors for pain in PD . Reports on gender differences regarding pain perception support the hypothesis that genetic variants might contribute to pain susceptibility or other pain aspects such as time of onset . Common comorbidities in PD patients known to trigger pain include diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, rheumatic diseases and arthritis .

Today, the classification of pain in PD by Ford is still the most commonly used: it differentiates pain into musculoskeletal, radicular/neuropathic, dystonia-related, akathic discomfort/pain, and central pain.

Specific Pain Syndromes In Pd

Orthostatic hypotension can cause headache or neck pain . If necessary, antihypertensive co-medication should be adjusted in accordance with recently given recommendations . Additional measures are physical exercises, fluid intake, wearing of compression stockings class two, and administration of substances such as midodrine, fludrocortisone or, in severe cases, L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine . Camptocormia is often accompanied with pain. Prior to therapy the cause has to be differentiated . In addition to the use of pain killers, the focus is on physiotherapy. There is no specific pain medication recommended currently.

Migraine is reported less often in PD, and often associated with depression and sleep disturbances . Therefore the therapy has to focus on the comorbidities as well. The usual medication for migraine can be used, but due to an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension in PD, caution should be exercised with beta blockers .

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Sensory Profiling And The Potential For Mechanism

Since psychophysical testing offers the opportunity to explore the functionality of an individuals pain system under controlled settings, a comprehensive assessment of various pain processing and modulatory pathways for use as a surrogate measure of the mechanisms driving the development of persistent pain in a given population/patient cohort is possible. For example CPM deficiencies in patients with neuropathic pain can be targeted by manipulation of central noradrenergic and serotonergic transmission, where the pain-inhibiting impact of Tapentadol potentiates impaired CPM in persistent pain patients in a manner that back translates to animal studies,,. Psychophysical testing can also be used to predict analgesic treatment efficacy.

In people with PD, sensory profiling through psychophysical testing has been applied in order to provide insight of the underlying mechanisms of persistent pain. Thereafter, guidance for personalised pain medicine through mechanism-based treatments is a key goal for many chronic pain types,,,. However, a frustratingly disparate range of psychophysical trials exists in the literature for the PD patient cohort, where significant differences in the type of pain considered and methodologies employed leads to incomplete conclusions, as discussed below.

Lower Back Pain And Parkinsons Disease

11 complications of Parkinson

Lower back pain is an extremely common problem in the general population, as well as for people with Parkinsons disease . It tends to make moving more difficult, adding to the challenges of PD. Tim Nordahl, PT, DPT, a physical therapist at Boston University gave an excellent presentation as part of APDAs Lets Keep Moving Webinar Series. Because this is such a prevalent issue, and because there are things you can do to help alleviate your back pain, I wanted to summarize and highlight this important topic.

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Pathological Links Between Pd And Persistent Pain

Do central processing abnormalities act as a catalyst for developing persistent pain in PD? And are they linked to those acting as a catalyst for the development of PD itself? We know that maladaptive central nervous system plasticity underlies the aetiology of PD, while multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that one important mechanism underpinning varied persistent pain states is maladaptive plasticity in central descending inhibitory pathways. Unique descending inhibitory pathways, including diffuse noxious inhibitory controls , are sub-served by monoaminergic neurotransmission,, and monoaminergic neurotransmission is affected by PD-specific neurodegenerative changes already at the prodromal stage of the disease. It is possible that there is a link between an underlying mechanism of PD and the development of persistent pain, where an established link could be therapeutically targeted thus improving not only the level of pain experienced by the affected individual, but also PD progression. Performing the appropriately powered human psychophysics pain experimental quantification studies would have the potential to contribute to our understanding of how the nervous system acts endogenously to modulate pain perception in PD, reveal whether this is linked to the aetiology of PD, and therefore unveil targets for intervention in the management of chronic pain in a personalised manner.

Pain In Restless Legs Syndrome And Pd

PD patients who receive increasing dopaminergic doses over their disease course could show an increased prevalence of restless legs syndrome . First, for the treatment of painful RLS, the compensation of iron deficiency, defined as an iron storage value of less than 5075g/l, is recommended . Iron should be applied preferentially intravenously, because efficacy of oral application has not been adequately evaluated and iron given orally can deteriorate constipation and interacts gastrointestinally with levodopa and COMT inhibitors . Of note, drugs that potentially reinforce RLS such as mirtazapine, SSRI or neuroleptics, should be discontinued.

In general, painful RLS in PD should be treated according to the guidelines for idiopathic RLS recommending low-dose dopamine agonists before night-time as first choice treatment, gabapentine and pregabaline as second line options, and oycodone/naloxone as escalation therapy . In PD, the non-ergoline derivates pramipexole, ropinirole and rotigotine should be preferentially used. Because rotigotine has shown positive effects on PD-associated pain beyond the RLS, it might be preferentially used in painful RLS in PD patients .

Carbamazepine and valproic acid were considered likely efficacious in idiopathic RLS but are not suggested in PD due to potential side effects.

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Examples Of Pain Scales

Visual analog scale

A visual analog scale measures a continuum of a chosen present characteristic. For example, the experienced pain that a patient feels extends over a continuum from no pain to an extreme intensity of pain. This range of perceived pain appears continuous for the patient. Pain does not appear as an ordinary scale with jumps between the values, such as discrete, moderate, or severe. Word descriptors are only used in both ends of the line, which is usually 100 mm in length. This valuation is very subjective and best used within an individual and not between groups of individuals at the same time point. Most experts argue that a VAS at best can produce data of ordinal type. This is important to consider in the statistical analysis of VAS data. Rank ordering of scores rather than the exact values might be the best way to handle patient registrations on the 100 mm line.

Brief Pain Inventory

The Brief Pain Inventory was initially created for the purpose of measuring pain in cancer patients. It measures pain relief, pain quality, and patient perception of the cause of pain in terms of pain intensity and pain interference .

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