How Similar Is Canine Parkinsons Disease To The Human Condition
Parkinsons disease in dogs is very similar to how it affects humans.
Firstly, both unpredictably affect your movement. Both dogs and humans with this disease can expect to have sudden moments of stiffness. This could be any limb but also the face.
Equally, both can expect surprise tremors and shakes. This is often one of the first things owners notice in their dogs a Parkinson like tremor in dogs or the dog shaking his head like Parkinsons
The core of the disease is the same in both dogs and humans.
However, it is important to recognize the different ways Parkinsons presents in dogs and humans.
A huge reason why Parkinsons disease is difficult to spot in dogs in the early stages is because they dont speak. Their faces also dont express the same ways that ours do.
The first signs of Parkinsons in humans are mostly not being able to move the face in the same way or slurred speech.
Unless you have a real-life Scooby-Doo in your life that is linguistically gifted, its most likely you wont spot the signs of Parkinsons in your dog until their limbs are affected with those Parkinsons tremors I mentioned a moment ago.
Another critical difference is with the age groups that Parkinsons most affects. As I said in the intro, it is usually the over 50s that are affected by this pervasive disease in the human world.
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What Are The Symptoms
PSP affects movement, control of walking and balance, speech, swallowing, eye movements and vision, mood and behavior, and thinking. The pattern of signs and symptoms can be quite different from person to person. The most frequent first symptom of PSP is a loss of balance while walking. Individuals may have abrupt and unexplained falls without loss of consciousness, a stiff and awkward gait, or slow movement.
As the disease progresses, most people will begin to develop a blurring of vision and problems controlling eye movement. These symptoms may include:
- Slow eye movements.
When Anxiety Causes Difficulty Speaking
At last weeks weekly speech class, The LOUD Crowd, I asked each of the members to share a communication challenge and a goal for improvement. Interestingly, 6/12 people reported anxiety as a major contributor to their speech and communication difficulties.
Anxiety, which can be described as excessive worry, apprehension or nervousness, can be experienced through physical symptoms, such as shakiness, rapid breathing or dizziness, or it can present as a specific fear, such as a fear of social settings or large crowds.
Anxiety is not unique to Parkinsons disease, but its prevalence is cited by researchers to occur in up to 40% of patients with PD, with this rate being higher than in normal or other disease comparison populations and current evidence suggests that anxiety may not be a psychological reaction to the illness but rather may be linked to specific neurobiologic processes accompanying PD.
In a fall report published by the Parkinson Alliance, 26% of respondents to a survey reported that anxiety was present prior to the diagnosis of PD, and 35% of the participants reported experiencing moderate to extreme generalized anxiety.
But what does anxiety have to do with speaking?
Several class members described anxiety as affecting their difficulty with being able to think of the words to express themselves, hence shutting down in conversation. Others described their difficulty as getting tongue tied, and in particular when leaving voice mail messages.
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Symptoms Of Peripheral Neuropathy
The symptoms of PN can be non-specific, and a person therefore may not be able to distinguish on their own whether his/her symptoms are due to PN or another condition. PN, however, often results in specific findings on a neurologic exam, such as decreased sensation to pin prick or vibration or the lack of ability to discern which way a toe is being pointed without looking. Other tests such as Electromyogram and Nerve conduction studies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Small fiber neuropathy which typically causes pain, burning, tingling and/or numbness in the feet, may have normal EMG and NCS and a skin biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. With the appropriate examination and supportive tests however, a neurologist should be able to distinguish the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy from other conditions, including PD, that may cause similar symptoms.
There are many known causes of PN including diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, certain infections, and autoimmune diseases. Many of these causes can be treated, so it is important to know if you do have PN and what the cause is. There are those people however, who have the signs and symptoms of PN, but no known cause can be identified.
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Potential Therapeutic Implications For Non
Current available therapies for treating NMS-PD include pharmaceutical therapies, exercise, and brain stimulation to improve various NMS-PD.88,89 Cognitive deficits contribute largely to the morbidity of NMS-PD and have remained without efficient therapy. AEDs have been proposed to prevent the cellular death and cognitive worsening associated with the presence of epileptic seizures in AD.90 In light of the aforementioned similarities between PD and AD constructs, we believe that the long-term impact and therapeutic implications of AEDs on the natural course of PD should indeed be adequately investigated through properly designed clinical trials in the future.
Many mechanisms of cognitive decline and other NMS-PD have been proposed in PD. These include progressive alpha-synuclein disease, affected neurotransmitter systems, synaptic changes, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, genetic risk factors,91 white matter lesions,92 and network dysfunction.93,94 While studies in AD have begun to support the role of connectome dysfunction in accelerating cognitive decline through recurrent epileptic events, this possibility remains to be investigated in patients with PD. As such, properly designed studies should be conducted to better characterize these phenomena in this specific population.
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Are There Any Medical Conditions Associated With Dizziness And Slurred Speech
There are 42 conditions associated with dizziness and slurred speech. The links below will provide you with more detailed information on these medical conditions from the WebMD Symptom Checker and help provide a better understanding of causes and treatment of these related conditions. Think you might have any of these? Go to Symptom Checker.
What Research Is Being Done
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , a component of the National Institutes of Health, is the primary funder of research on the brain and nervous system. NIH is the leading funder of biomedical research in the world.
PSP is one of the diseases being studied as part of the NINDS Parkinsons Disease Biomarkers Program. This major NINDS initiative is aimed at discovering ways to identify individuals at risk for developing Parkinsons disease and related disorders, and to track the progression of these diseases. NINDS also supports clinical research studies to develop brain imaging that may allow for earlier and more accurate diagnosis of PSP.
Genetic studies of PSP may identify underlying genetic causes. Previous studies have linked regions of chromosomes containing multiple genes, including the gene for the tau protein , with PSP. Researchers hope to identify specific disease-causing mutation and are also studying how genetics and environment interaction may work together to contribute to disease susceptibility.
Animal models of PSP and other tau-related disorders, including fruit fly and zebrafish models, may identify basic disease mechanisms and lead to preclinical testing of potential drugs. Other studies in animal models focus on brain circuits affected by PSP, such as those involved in motor control and sleep, which may also yield insights into disease mechanisms and treatments.
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Why Am I Suddenly Stumbling Over My Words
Anxiety, especially if it crops up when youre in front of a lot of people, can lead to dry mouth, stumbling over your words, and more troubles that can get in the way of speaking. Its OK to be nervous. Dont worry so much about being perfect. Taking that pressure off of yourself might get your words flowing again.
Language Problems Of Parkinsons Disease
Besides the frustrating speech and voicing problems of PD, there may also be language problems. These language problems very likely make the speech problems more difficult to deal with, so it is important to identify these language difficulties when they appear.
Speech is about expressing ideas via the use of language. Language is a cognitive ability that can be present even when you cannot speak. In the case of people with PD, they may exhibit word-finding difficulties and grammatical difficulties. They tend, for example, to use simplified sentence structures with an increase in the ratio of open-class items to closed-class items , as well as an increase in the frequency and duration of hesitations and pauses.
When listening to others speak, it’s sometimes hard for persons with PD to understand the others language, if they use complicated sentences to express their ideas. Thus, in both the production of language and comprehension of language, people with PD sometimes experience significant difficulties.
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How To Find A Speech Therapist
Tell your doctor If you are experiencing any changes in your speech or voice. Ask for a referral and a prescription for a speech evaluation and treatment. If you have not noticed changes in your speech, but a spouse, care partner or friend has: pay attention to their comments. The sooner you get a speech evaluation and start speech therapy, the better.
Speech therapists work in many settings, including hospitals, outpatient rehabilitation centers and private practice offices. To locate one in your area, contact the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association at www.asha.org, or find a therapist certified in the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment by visiting www.lsvtglobal.com.
Ideally, you should see a speech therapist face-toface for a complete voice and speech evaluation and treatment. However, if a speech therapist is not available in your area, LSVT LOUD the most researched voice treatment for people with PD is virtually offered in select states. The speech therapist interacts with you in your home or office live through your computer screen.
Learn more about speech and Parkinsons by reading our free book Speech and Swallowing. Order online at Parkinson.org/Books or by calling our Helpline at 1-800-4PD-INFO .
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There Is No Cure For Parkinsons Disease But Levodopa A Natural Precursor Of Dopamine Is The Most Common Treatment
byAugust 11, 2021, 7:15 pm2.1k Views
Movement becomes increasingly difficult as Parkinsons disease progresses. There is sometimes a gradual tremor in only one hand, accompanied by barely visible symptoms, as well as tremors. People with Parkinsons disease typically experience stiffness or slowness of movement.
The face of a Parkinsons patient may be expressionless in the early stages. Walking may not involve swinging your arms. Soft or slurred speech can occur. As the diseases progress, the symptoms worsen.
You might find medication to significantly improve the symptoms of Parkinsons disease, even though it cant be cured. Surgery is sometimes recommended by your doctor to retrain certain brain regions and improve your symptoms.
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What Is Parkinsons Disease
At the most basic level, Parkinsons Disease is a disorder of the nervous system. PD causes vital nerve cells in the brain to deteriorate, significantly decreasing the bodys stores of dopamine and other essential neuro-chemicals responsible for controlling movement.
This results in the tremors that are classically associated with PD.
Tremors, however, are only one of the varied and unpredictable symptoms of PD.
Persons with PD may also experience muscle rigidity or weakness. Movement may be slowed and problems with balance and coordination are common.
Additionally, PD can lead to challenges in thinking, concentrating, or remembering. Patients may even experience hallucinations, delusions, or paranoia as a result of changes in the brain.
Its estimated that more than 10 million people worldwide have PD, with more than 95% of patients diagnosed after the age of 50.
Do You Frequently Feel Frustrated And Socially Isolated From Your Loved Ones
Voice changes can impact your ability to perform job duties, talk on the phone and have conversations with friends and family. These changes cause increased frustration with your communication and lead to isolation and withdrawal.
Over a decade of research shows that your speech volume and clarity can improve by targeting increased speech volume or loudness. SpeechVive, a Parkinsons speech device does precisely that targets speech volume just like the other leading Parkinsons speech therapy programs.
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Why Is It Important To Know About Parkinsons Speech Problems
At the heart of it, you need to know what symptoms you may expect during the progression of your Parkinsons disease. Its often said that everyone has their own unique experience when it comes to Parkinsons, but frequently speech problems are part of that. In fact, Linda Ronstadt claims that changes to her singing voice were one of her earliest signs of the disease.
Speech problems often lead to feelings of loneliness and isolation. Struggling to be understood takes effort. The increased effort and frequent communication breakdowns routinely lead to a decline in communicating. It can be easier to let your carepartner take on the brunt of the speaking. While that can be effective for some communication such as scheduling appointments on the phone and ordering in a restaurant, for the types of communication that create and strengthen our connections with others, you can feel like youre fading away.
At the heart of it, speech problems are motor problems just like the changes to walking and moving that you experience with Parkinsons. Being able to name and identify your symptoms is the first step toward seeking treatment.
Speech And Communication Problems
Speech and communication problems are common for people with Parkinsons.
They can include problems with your voice, body language, making conversations and small handwriting. But with the right help and support there are lots of ways you can improve any symptoms.
Changes in the brain in people with Parkinsons mean that your movements become smaller and less forceful than before. This can lead to problems with your speech and communication.
Issues may relate to making sure your voice is loud enough, making your pronunciation clear enough and getting the right tone to your voice.
Problems creating movements that are powerful enough can also affect chewing and safe swallowing. Because of this you may find mealtimes more difficult, with an increased risk of food going down the wrong way.
Find out more: see our information on eating, swallowing and saliva control.
Other communication issues in people with Parkinsons are linked to the way you think. Brain changes mean you may not be able to process thoughts as quickly as you need to.
This includes difficulty finding the right words you need or understanding what other people mean straight away. It also includes problems getting your thoughts together quickly enough to respond to someone in the flow of a conversation. In particular, this can happen when you have to do several different things at once .
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How Do I Know If I Have A Speech Or Voice Problem
- My voice makes it difficult for people to hear me.
- People have difficulty understanding me in a noisy room.
- My voice issues limit my personal and social life.
- I feel left out of conversations because of my voice.
- My voice problem causes me to lose income.
- I have to strain to produce voice.
- My voice clarity is unpredictable.
- My voice problem upsets me.
- My voice makes me feel handicapped.
- People ask, “What’s wrong with your voice?”
What Causes Sudden Slurred Speech
Parkinsons and other neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, or Bells palsy affect speech. A detailed physical examination is needed to determine the precise cause of speech problems.
Difficulty speaking can be the result of a migraine, brain tumor, or an allergic reaction . Brain infections such as encephalitis or meningitis are further possible causes. A swelling in the throat, or muscle and nerve problems, can also lead to slurred speech. Early speech therapy can sometimes help with diagnosis, as subtly different speech problems can indicate different causes.
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What Is Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication, also called augmentative and alternative communication , is a method of communicating without spoken words.
When communication needs cannot be met through speech, the following techniques can help:
- Make the best use out of what speaking ability is left.
- Use expressions and gestures to communicate.
Non-verbal communication can help people with speech difficulties actually speak better by:
- Reducing the frustration and stress of being unable to communicate.
- Alleviating the pressure to speak.
- Allowing the person to be more relaxed and come across in a more understandable manner.
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There are multiple established ways in with Parkinsons disease is known to impact speech. In most cases it can cause slurred words and mumbling, causing people to speak quietly with limited enunciation. In other cases, it can produce rapid speech with stutters and stammers. Both are the result of non-motor symptoms that impair the memory and thinking that are used to construct speech.
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How Can Levodopa Treat Parkinsons Disease
A host of symptoms are associated with Parkinsons disease , such as slow movement, loss of dexterity, tremors, rigidity, and freezing gait, in addition to other motor and cognitive deficits. There is no cure for Parkinsons disease, but levodopa a natural precursor of dopamine is the most common treatment. It can, however, easily enter the brain and send signals to the brain, unlike dopamine.
PD and neurorehabilitation specialist Giuseppe Frazzitta at the Moriggia-Pelascini Hospital in Italy describes levodopa as the best drug for rigidity and bradykinesia in PD. It is ineffective for parkinsonism symptoms of tremors and slowness of movement. When symptoms of gait and posture dysfunction begin to develop, levodopa no longer proves effective. In rare cases, levodopa may worsen these symptoms and have an adverse affect on cognitive function.
In some patients with typical parkinsonism who are resistant to levodopa, physicians who may use drugs with differential half-lives, as well as different methods of administration, such as intramuscular or nasal administration, may be able to help them. A nasal delivery system increases absorption of the drug into the bloodstream, allowing it to reach the brain quicker since the drug is not absorbed through the intestines. One possible option is an intramuscular injection of apomorphine . Apomorphine is a fast-acting, short-lived medication.