Intestinal Dysbiosis Metabolic Derangement And Obesity
Artificial sweeteners can induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota, according to a 2014 study in Nature. The researchers wrote, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage Our findings suggest that NAS may have directly contributed to enhancing the exact epidemic that they themselves were intended to fight.32
- See also: Artificial Sweeteners May Change our Gut Bacteria in Dangerous Ways, by Ellen Ruppel Shell, Scientific American
A 2016 study in Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism reported, Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index and glucose tolerance consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.33
According to a 2014 rat study in PLOS ONE, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria34
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Intestinal Peptide And Intestinal Gluconeogenesis Mechanisms
Influence of diet and the intestine on brain function is not necessarily limited through intestinal microbiota. The intestine produces a number of substances that directly or indirectly influence the brain. These substances are produced in response to dietary components but also are produced in response to bacterial metabolites. Bacterial products, SCFA and secondary bile acids, can both promote the production of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide by L-cells of the GIT . GLP-1 and GIP impact a number of cell types that can directly or indirectly affect neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in PD.
Stay At A Healthy Weight
Malnutrition and weight loss are often problems for people with Parkinsonâs. So itâs good to keep track of your weight.
Weigh yourself once or twice a week, unless your doctor says to do it more often. If you are taking diuretics or steroids, such as prednisone, you should step on the scale daily.
If you gain or lose weight noticeably , talk to your doctor. They may want change your food and drinks to manage your condition.
If you need to gain weight:
Ask your doctor if nutritional supplements are right for you. Some can be harmful or interfere with your medication.
Avoid low-fat or low-calorie foods unless youâve been told otherwise. Instead, use whole milk, whole milk cheese, and yogurt.
Stroke Dementia And Alzheimers Disease
People drinking diet soda daily were almost three times as likely to develop stroke and dementia as those who consumed it weekly or less. This included a higher risk of ischemic stroke, where blood vessels in the brain become obstructed, and Alzheimers disease dementia, the most common form of dementia, reported a 2017 study in Stroke.10
- See also: Boston University School of Medicine video of the study by neurologist Matthew Pase, Daily Consumption of Sodas, Fruit Juices and Artificially Sweetened Sodas Affect Brain.
- Study links diet soda to higher risk of stroke, dementia, by Fred Barbash, Washington Post
In the body, the methyl ester in aspartame metabolizes into methanol and then it may be converted to formaldehyde, which has been linked to Alzheimers disease. A two-part study published in 2014 in the Journal of Alzheimers Disease linked chronic methanol exposure to memory loss and Alzheimers Disease symptoms in mice and monkeys.
- ethanol-fed mice presented with partial AD-like symptoms These findings add to a growing body of evidence that links formaldehyde to pathology. 11
- ethanol feeding caused long-lasting and persistent pathological changes that were related to these findings support a growing body of evidence that links methanol and its metabolite formaldehyde to pathology. 12
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Foods That Are Hard To Chew
Many people with Parkinsons have difficulty with chewing and swallowing foods. A person needs medical help if this is the case. A speech and language therapist may be able to help a person overcome this issue.
However, if a person is finding certain foods hard to chew and swallow, they may wish to avoid these foods.
Such foods include:
- dry, crumbly foods
- tough or chewy meats
If a person does wish to eat chewy meats, they could try using gravy or sauce to soften them and make eating easier.
They could also try chopping meat into smaller pieces or incorporating meat into casseroles, which can make it more tender.
Having a drink with a meal can also make chewing and swallowing easier.
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What Is Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons disease is a condition of the nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine. The condition results from the gradual degeneration of these nerve cells that control body movements. The first signs are often nearly unidentifiable and may include weakness or stiffness in one limb or fine trembling in one hand. Additional symptoms include depression, cognitive issues and other mental or emotional conditions.
Mediterranean Diet As A Treatment
The main components of the Mediterranean diet include: daily consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and healthy fats weekly consumption of fish, poultry, beans, and eggs moderate consumption of dairy products and limited intake of red meat . Adherence to the MedD is associated with decreased risk of PD . One of the most dramatic differences between the traditional Western diet and the MedD is dietary fiber intake. Consumption of dietary fiber is typically very low in Western societies, but high in those who consume a Mediterranean diet . It makes sense then that the Mediterranean diet-associated microbiome is characterized by a high relative abundance of bacteria that can utilize fiber as an energy source such as SCFA-producing bacteria . Indeed, microbiota communities from subjects consuming a Mediterranean diet are enriched in SCFA-producing bacteria . Fiber can also be administered experimentally to alter the microbiota structure and function including an increase in the relative abundance of fiber-fermenting bacteria as well as increased production of SCFA .
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Implications Of Aspartame Consumption For Early Brain Development And Everyday Living
Ingestion of aspartame results in a craving for carbohydrates, which will eventually result in weight gain, especially because the formaldehyde stores in the fat cells, particularly in the hips and thighs therefore, aspartame is believed to cause problem in diabetic control. . In addition, prenatal consumption of aspartame might result in mental retardation, impaired vision, birth defects and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease furthermore, it is implicated in disruption of learning and emotional functioning due to its involvement in alteration of certain neurotransmitters. The earlier research findings show that aspartame consumption might affect early brain development and neurotransmitter systems, which might result in specific emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties as discussed below.
Vitamin B12 And Folate Deficiency
Some people who take levodopa may have lower levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin B9 . Symptoms of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can include pins and needles , a sore, red tongue, mouth ulcers and disturbed vision.
If youre worried about any symptoms youre experiencing, you should speak to your specialist or Parkinsons nurse.
Eating a well-balanced diet will give you a good amount of vitamins and minerals.
For many vitamin and mineral supplements, theres no clear scientific evidence they have any health benefits .
So, if you feel you need more of a particular vitamin or mineral, it is advisable to try to eat more of the foods containing it, rather than to buy expensive vitamin and mineral supplements.
You also need to be aware that some vitamins, when taken in large doses, can have side effects.
Some supplements, for example vitamin B6 and iron supplements, may also affect the absorption of your Parkinsons medication.
Before purchasing any over the counter mineral and vitamin supplements from chemists or health food shops, consult your GP, specialist, Parkinsons nurse or registered dietitian for advice.
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How Do Diet Exercise And Supplements Affect Parkinsons Disease Progression
Laurie Mischley, ND, PhD, MPH
Prior studies have found that people who consume green tea, coffee, and blueberries and avoid dairy may have a lower risk of Parkinsons disease. Whether nutrition is associated with rate of disease progression in patients with Parkinsons disease, however, is not known.
To evaluate whether diet, exercise, and supplements are associated with rate of Parkinsons disease progression, Laurie Mischley, ND, PhD, MPH, Assistant Research Scientist at Bastyr University Research Institute in Kenmore, Washington, and Richard Lau, MPH, a PhD student in the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University in Corvalis conducted an Internet-based natural history study. A total of 1,024 patients participated in the study. Participants had a mean age of 60.7 and had been diagnosed with Parkinsons disease for an average of 6.7 years.
The researchers used the Patient-Reported Outcomes in Parkinsons Disease scale to assess Parkinsons disease severity. Disease progression was defined as PRO-PD score adjusted for age and years since diagnosis. They used baseline food frequency questionnaires to quantify dietary intake in the cross-sectional analysis.
Foods High In Saturated Fat
The role that foods high in saturated fats play in Parkinsons progression is still under investigation and is often conflicting. We might eventually discover that there are certain types of saturated fats that actually help people with Parkinsons.
But in general, foods that have been fried or heavily processed alter your metabolism, increase blood pressure, and impact your cholesterol. None of those things are good for your body, especially if youre trying to treat Parkinsons.
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Eating To Ease Symptoms
For some Parkinson’s symptoms, the first step in treatment is to adjust your diet.
- Constipation: Drinking more fluids and eating more fiber can help maintain regularity. Aim to drink six to eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day. Warm liquids, especially in the morning, can stimulate bowel movements. Dietary sources of fiber consist of fruits , vegetables, legumes, whole grain breads and cereals. Most of these are high in antioxidants, as well.
Talk to your doctor or a dietitian to craft a diet that helps you manage your Parkinson’s symptoms and feel energized and healthy.
Serotonin Involvement In Early Brain Development Emotional Status And Learning
Tryptophan, independently utilized for synthesis of serotonin in the brain, is transported across the BBB via NAAT. Therefore, if NAAT is saturated with phenylalanine, tryptophan will not be adequately carried over the BBB and serotonin production can ultimately be compromised. In addition to its role in regulating maturation of terminal areas, serotonin can set its own terminal densitya phenomenon termed autoregulation of development.
Serotonin , like other monoamine neurotransmitters, has been shown to play a role in regulating brain development before the time it assumes its role as a neurotransmitter in the mature brain . This neurotransmitter is concentrated in the raphe nucleus of the brain, and is also present in platelets. Serotonin and serotonergic neurons are localized in the midbrain, the pineal gland, the substantia nigra, the hypothalamus and the raphe nuclei of the brain stem . The 5-HT neurons have widespread projections, making it possible to coordinate complex sensory and motor behavioural conditions. Serotonin is also involved in inducing sleep, sensory perception, temperature regulation and control of mood therefore, serotoninergic activity was found to be highest during waking and arousal and absent during active or rapid eye-movement sleep .
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Linked To Specific Diseases
Not only was soda linked to an increased risk of death, but it was also associated with various diseases.
The study found a difference in the type of disease depending on whether you drank sugar beverages or beverages that were artificially sweetened.
A higher risk of death from circulatory diseases was linked with drinking two or more glasses daily of artificially sweetened soft drinks.
There is a higher risk of death from digestive diseases associated with drinking one or more glass daily of sugar-sweetened soft drinks.
Drinking increased amounts of both sugary and sugar-free soft drinks was associated with the risk of death from Parkinsons disease.
The study used data, including soft drink consumption, collected on food questionnaires and in interviews between 1992 and 2000. The researchers followed up with the participants an average of 16 years later. Study participants were in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Spain, and Sweden.
This findings of this study are similar with a previous study recently published by Harvard researchers in the journal Circulation that found that people who drink two or more sugar-sweetened drinks a day whether its a soda, a sports drink, or any other sweet beverage have a 31% higher risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease.
Sweetened drinks are the biggest source of added sugar in Americans diets, according to the American Heart Association
And The Protein Redistribution Diet
Until now, for Parkinsonians with on-off syndrome, the best dietary advice was to follow a Protein Redistribution Diet . The PRD allowed for the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein , 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram body weight, approximately 45-55 grams for an average weight female or male. The catch was that it limited the total daytime protein intake to only 7 grams. Thats the amount of protein in less than one cup of milk or one slice of deli meat. The remaining protein allowance was to be consumed in the evening meal.
There are several drawbacks to the PRD. It is very difficult to plan and to follow. Daytime meals would contain mostly fruits and vegetables, but omit dairy products, eggs and meats. Costly low protein products, such as breads and pastas are essential as is a good repertoire of low protein recipes. High motivation is essential to adhere to this rigid plan.
Furthermore, once protein intake increases in the evening, patients typically turn off. The logical solution is to self restrict protein, resulting in an inadequate total protein intake and potentially malnutrition. In addition to a protein deficiency, patients are more at risk for inadequate calcium, riboflavin, vitamin D and iron, the consequence of reducing dairy products and meats.
In contrast, the 7:1 diet allows for normal daytime meals.
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Nlrp3 Inflammasome Activation Mechanism
There is a substantial amount of data demonstrating the importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in PD. Recent post mortem studies in PD patients show that the NLRP3 inflammasome is significantly upregulated in the SN of PD patients . This upregulation in NLRP3 was also observed in mouse models of PD and AD and it appears to be important in disease pathogenesis. Specifically, inhibition of NLRP3 protects against neurodegeneration in all rodent models of PD tested including injection of pre-formed -Syn fibrils , rotenone, and MPTP models . Similarly, knocking out NLRP3 in an AD animal model protects mice from developing AD-like behavior and brain pathology . Thus, activated NLRP3 inflammasome appears to be a key driver of neuroinflammation in PD . In addition, NLRP3 levels also appear to increase with other factors such as age and consumption of a Western diet, it could be that the increase in NLRP3/IL-1b reduces the resiliency of the brain to respond to a secondary insult such as gut-derived endotoxemia from microbiota dysbiosis and/or intestinal barrier dysfunction .
The Key To Restoring Brain Health
So what do we do? As I always say, an illness will never heal until the origin or . Once the offending source, or sources, of illness are eliminated, the body can begin to heal itself as God designed. Stop consuming aspartame immediately, and tell everyone you know and care about to do the same. Also, share this article and video with others who need to hear the truth. I hope and pray that Mr. Fox recognizes the reality of the true cause of his disease, and uses his fame to expose the truth of the deleterious effects of aspartame to the world.
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Norepinephrine Involvement In Emotional Status And Learning
Aspartame may also cause a change in norepinephrine. Compared with dopamine systems, which restrict their outputs to the reptilian brain and frontal cortex, the projections of the caudally situated noradrenaline systems are more widespread. The cell bodies of the noradrenergic neurons are concentrated in the brain stem, particularly in the locus coeruleus within the caudal pons . Five major noradrenergic tracts originate from the locus coeruleus that disperse through the whole brain. There are also clusters of noradrenergic cell bodies in the nucleus tractus solitarius and in the lateral ventral tegmental field . Fibres from these nuclei intermingle with those from the locus coeruleus. The A6 noradrenaline cell group, well known as the locus coeruleus, controls higher brain activity through the dorsal noradrenaline pathway. This group sends inputs to the cortex, hypothalamus, cerebellum, lower brain stem and spinal cord, thereby exerting control over cortical arousal and attention, fear and anxiety, and learning and memory. The ventral noradrenaline pathway infiltrates the hypothalamus and the limbic system .
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Eat Plenty Of Protein But Not With Levodopa Medications
If youre taking a levodopa medication, your doctor may tell you to avoid protein when taking your meds. Both animal and plant protein can interfere with the absorption of levodopa medications.
But you should still eat plenty of protein. Just be strategic with the timing. Dont take levodopa medications with meals, Dr. Gostkowski says. Its best to take it on an empty stomach either 30 minutes before your meal or an hour after eating.
If you get nauseous from the medication, eat a small amount of starchy food with it, such as crackers. Make sure whatever you eat with your medicine doesnt have protein. Its a misunderstanding that people with Parkinsons should avoid protein, Dr. Gostkowski says. You definitely need protein in your diet. Just dont eat it when youre taking your levodopa medication.