Evidence Links Cocaine Abuse And Parkinson’s Disease
- St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital
- Adults who abuse cocaine might increase their risk of developing Parkinson’s disease , and pregnant women who abuse cocaine could increase the risk of their children developing PD later in life, according to results of laboratory studies performed by investigators at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital.
Adults who abuse cocaine might increase their risk of developing Parkinson’s disease , and pregnant women who abuse cocaine could increase the risk of their children developing PD later in life, according to results of laboratory studies performed by investigators at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital.
The study’s findings are important because there are currently more than 2 million cocaine abusers in the US today, the researchers said. Many individuals who abused the drug during the height of the cocaine abuse epidemic of the 1970s and 1980s are now entering their older years, when symptoms of PD are likely to emerge.
A report on this work appears in the online, prepublication edition of Neuroscience.
The St. Jude team showed in laboratory models of both the adult and fetal brains that exposure to cocaine alters the nerve bodies in the region of the brain called the substantia nigra. This damage made the neurons more susceptible to MPTP, a toxin known to cause symptoms of PD.
The other author of the current article is C. J. Faherty, Ph.D. This work was supported in part by ALSAC.
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The Condensation On The Can The Tingle On The Tongue I Love You Diet Coke
When it comes to my favourite soft drink, someone could make a lot of money opening a rehab clinic
At significant risk of giving a multinational corporation publicity it does not need please feel free to Google oligopoly markets after reading this piece I am going to extol the virtues of a long-term love: Diet Coke. Someone has to, given Cristiano Ronaldos rejection of the drink in a Euro 2020 press conference and a recent plummet in its share price.
There are two types of people: those who can tell the difference between Coke and Pepsi, and those whose taste buds are clearly compromised. Confusing the two is basically like downing a glass of red and proclaiming: Love a sauvignon blanc!
I almost certainly started drinking Coca-Cola products too young, my gateway drug being regular Coca-Cola. Now I cant abide the stuff it feels as I imagine it would to brush ones teeth with sugar. But Diet Coke? Someone could make a lot of money opening a rehab clinic.
That exultant hiss of freed fizz is merry music indeed. The pretty patterns of the bubbles rising to the surface. The exquisite tingle on the tongue.
There is a hierarchy of receptacles. I maintain that Diet Coke tastes better from a glass bottle, poured over crushed ice. A recyclable straw added to the mix. Next is the pop of a cool can straight from the fridge, diamonds of condensation glittering on silver.
Stroke Dementia And Alzheimers Disease
People drinking diet soda daily were almost three times as likely to develop stroke and dementia as those who consumed it weekly or less. This included a higher risk of ischemic stroke, where blood vessels in the brain become obstructed, and Alzheimers disease dementia, the most common form of dementia, reported a 2017 study in Stroke.10
- See also: Boston University School of Medicine video of the study by neurologist Matthew Pase, Daily Consumption of Sodas, Fruit Juices and Artificially Sweetened Sodas Affect Brain.
- Study links diet soda to higher risk of stroke, dementia, by Fred Barbash, Washington Post
In the body, the methyl ester in aspartame metabolizes into methanol and then it may be converted to formaldehyde, which has been linked to Alzheimers disease. A two-part study published in 2014 in the Journal of Alzheimers Disease linked chronic methanol exposure to memory loss and Alzheimers Disease symptoms in mice and monkeys.
- ethanol-fed mice presented with partial AD-like symptoms These findings add to a growing body of evidence that links formaldehyde to pathology. 11
- ethanol feeding caused long-lasting and persistent pathological changes that were related to these findings support a growing body of evidence that links methanol and its metabolite formaldehyde to pathology. 12
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Diet As A Prevention Or Treatment For Pd
Based on these data it is clear that there are several mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria, bacterial products, or bacterial metabolites and intestinal hormones can influence neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes. Therefore, it seems logical that dietary interventions targeted at modifying the intestinal microbiota structure and/or function and intestinal peptides may modify PD disease pathogenesis. Indeed, Hippocrates’ said: Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food . Diet has recently gained importance as a risk factor for developing PD and also as a potential therapeutic approach to treat PD . Below is a summary of dietary interventions that may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of PD as well as the mechanisms by which this benefit may be conferred on the brain.
Bump Up Your Fiber Intake
A high-fiber diet is a proven way to avoid constipation, a common problem for people with PD.
Parkinsons can slow down the intestines and cause constipation, Dr. Gostkowski says. Fiber helps keep things moving. There are plenty of high-fiber foods out there, so choose your favorites. Women should aim for 25 grams of fiber per day, and men should get 38 grams.
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You’re Even More Likely To Die If You Choose Diet Soda
Despite the perceptions diet drinks are a better option than regular sodas, all sweetened drinks are bad for your health, according to new research.
Drinking more thantwo soft drinks a day is associated with a higher likelihood of early death, and drinking more than two servings of artificially-sweetened soft drinks is linked to a 26% higher risk of premature death, according to a JAMA Internal Medicine study published Wednesday that sampled 451,743 people from 10 European countries.
One of the study’s authors, Dr. Amy Mullee, professor at the University College Dublin Institute of Food and Health, wrote to the Washington Examiner that the results don’t necessarily mean that drinking soft drinks cause early death, but rather that there is a link. “There are other factors which may be behind the association we observed,” she said. “For instance, high soft drink consumption may be a marker of overall unhealthy diet.”
Even diet drinks, those that are artificially sweetened with low- or no-calorie chemicals, such as aspartame, stevia, or sucralose, are tied to gastrointestinal diseases. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, or non-diet drinks, were associated with Parkinsons and cardiovascular disease.
Researchers did not only focus on sodas. They define the drinks as low calorie or diet fizzy soft drinks, fizzy soft drinks, eg cola, lemonade.
This study paints an inaccurate picture of the important role of these products for consumers,” Rankin said.
Intestinal Peptide And Intestinal Gluconeogenesis Mechanisms
Influence of diet and the intestine on brain function is not necessarily limited through intestinal microbiota. The intestine produces a number of substances that directly or indirectly influence the brain. These substances are produced in response to dietary components but also are produced in response to bacterial metabolites. Bacterial products, SCFA and secondary bile acids, can both promote the production of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide by L-cells of the GIT . GLP-1 and GIP impact a number of cell types that can directly or indirectly affect neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in PD.
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The Link To Heavy Metals
In addition to aspartame, Parkinsons disease is also linked with heavy metal exposure, a topic near to my heart as I battled for years with debilitating mercury toxicity caused by amalgam fillings . When watching old Michael J. Fox films you can observe a mouthful of fillings when he laughs. The perfect storm of aspartame consumption and mercury fillings likely gave rise to his disease. Research has shown that abnormal or excessive exposure to heavy metals is associated with various neurologic and movement disorders, since the metals encourage free radical formation.
Restricting Diet May Reverse Early
A new Oregon Health & Science University and Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center study suggests that early-stage Parkinson’s disease patients who lower their calorie intake may boost levels of an essential brain chemical lost from the neurodegenerative disorder.
The study by Charles Meshul, Ph.D., associate professor of behavioral neuroscience in the OHSU School of Medicine and the VAMC’s Neurocytology Lab, shows that dietary restriction reverses a Parkinson’s-induced drop in glutamate, a brain neurotransmitter important for motor control, function and learning, in a mouse model for the disease’s early stages.
The results, presented today at the Society for Neuroscience’s 35th annual meeting in Washington, D.C., are the first to show that a restricted diet can disable neurochemical changes in the brain occurring in early-stage Parkinson’s even after those changes are observed.
“In the early stages of the disease, we see certain markers in the brain that are changing that may be indicative that dietary restriction is helpful,” Meshul said.
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive, degenerative disorder affecting a region of the brain called the substantia nigra where movement is controlled. Symptoms such as tremor or shaking, muscular stiffness or rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with balance appear when about 80 percent of cells in the body that produce the neurochemical dopamine die or become impaired.
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Combine Exercise With Diet
Dr. Gostkowski says if you want to feel your best, combine a healthy diet with exercise. Research has shown that regular exercise can improve PD symptoms.
Do exercise that raises your heart rate, Dr. Gostkowski says. Aim for about 30 minutes a day, five days a week. Dont worry about specific exercises. Do an activity you enjoy, as long as it gets your heart rate up. Try brisk walking or biking or more advanced exercise for veteran athletes. I recommend seeing an occupational therapist. They can tailor an exercise program to your needs.
How Do Diet Exercise And Supplements Affect Parkinsons Disease Progression
Laurie Mischley, ND, PhD, MPH
Prior studies have found that people who consume green tea, coffee, and blueberries and avoid dairy may have a lower risk of Parkinsons disease. Whether nutrition is associated with rate of disease progression in patients with Parkinsons disease, however, is not known.
To evaluate whether diet, exercise, and supplements are associated with rate of Parkinsons disease progression, Laurie Mischley, ND, PhD, MPH, Assistant Research Scientist at Bastyr University Research Institute in Kenmore, Washington, and Richard Lau, MPH, a PhD student in the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University in Corvalis conducted an Internet-based natural history study. A total of 1,024 patients participated in the study. Participants had a mean age of 60.7 and had been diagnosed with Parkinsons disease for an average of 6.7 years.
The researchers used the Patient-Reported Outcomes in Parkinsons Disease scale to assess Parkinsons disease severity. Disease progression was defined as PRO-PD score adjusted for age and years since diagnosis. They used baseline food frequency questionnaires to quantify dietary intake in the cross-sectional analysis.
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Acetylcholine Involvement In Early Brain Development Emotional Status And Learning
Previously, it was mentioned that aspartame could cause changes to acetylcholine production. It is known that at a lowered level of oxidative metabolism and low glucose levels in the cells, pyruvate would not be converted into acetyl CoA necessary for production of acetylcholine in synapses. Acetylcholine is one of the major neurotransmitters of importance in the brain for cortical activation, attention, reward and pain. The cholinergic system is thought to play a role in memory and learning by maintaining neuron excitability. Death of acetylcholine neurons and decrease in acetylcholine in the neocortex are thought to be related to Alzheimer’s disease , as it has a major role in the control motor tone and movement and probably counterbalances the effect of dopamine . In addition, acetylcholine is of major importance for the development and the control of autonomic functions, and alterations to the cholinergic system might result in major changes in cortical structure. These changes can be correlated to cognitive deficits but do not affect motor behaviour .
Foods High In Saturated Fat
The role that foods high in saturated fats play in Parkinsons progression is still under investigation and is often conflicting. We might eventually discover that there are certain types of saturated fats that actually help people with Parkinsons.
But in general, foods that have been fried or heavily processed alter your metabolism, increase blood pressure, and impact your cholesterol. None of those things are good for your body, especially if youre trying to treat Parkinsons.
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Vitamin B12 And Folate Deficiency
Some people who take levodopa may have lower levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin B9 . Symptoms of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can include pins and needles , a sore, red tongue, mouth ulcers and disturbed vision.
If youre worried about any symptoms youre experiencing, you should speak to your specialist or Parkinsons nurse.
Eating a well-balanced diet will give you a good amount of vitamins and minerals.
For many vitamin and mineral supplements, theres no clear scientific evidence they have any health benefits .
So, if you feel you need more of a particular vitamin or mineral, it is advisable to try to eat more of the foods containing it, rather than to buy expensive vitamin and mineral supplements.
You also need to be aware that some vitamins, when taken in large doses, can have side effects.
Some supplements, for example vitamin B6 and iron supplements, may also affect the absorption of your Parkinson’s medication.
Before purchasing any ‘over the counter’ mineral and vitamin supplements from chemists or health food shops, consult your GP, specialist, Parkinson’s nurse or registered dietitian for advice.
Intestinal Dysbiosis Metabolic Derangement And Obesity
Artificial sweeteners can induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota, according to a 2014 study in Nature. The researchers wrote, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage Our findings suggest that NAS may have directly contributed to enhancing the exact epidemic that they themselves were intended to fight.32
- See also: Artificial Sweeteners May Change our Gut Bacteria in Dangerous Ways, by Ellen Ruppel Shell, Scientific American
A 2016 study in Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism reported, Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index and glucose tolerance consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.33
According to a 2014 rat study in PLOS ONE, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria34
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Fatty And Sugary Foods
Fatty and sugary foods, such as cakes, biscuits, and pastries, contain lots of calories, fat and sugar. Try to reduce how often you eat them, especially if you are trying to lose weight.
If you have high cholesterol or are diabetic, you should seek further advice from a dietitian.
Generally, unless your GP, specialist or Parkinsons nurse have advised you not to drink alcohol, a small amount, such as a glass of wine or a beer every now and again, should not cause any problems.
People can respond to alcohol in different ways, so talk to your medical professional if you have any concerns.
Remember to take into account any medication you are taking for other conditions. Alcohol can also cause problems with low blood pressure.
Men and women shouldnt drink more than 14 units of alcohol a week. Keep at least 2 days each week free of alcohol and avoid binge drinking.
For more information on drinking alcohol and alcohol units, visit the NHS website.
It is important for everyone to maintain a healthy weight, as being overweight or underweight can affect your health. You can find out more about what your healthy body weight is by speaking to your GP.
When Should I Take My Parkinsons Medication
When you take your Parkinson’s medication should always be discussed with your GP, specialist or Parkinsons nurse.
Some people with Parkinsons may feel sick after taking medication, especially if they take it on an empty stomach.
Having a snack, such as a plain cracker or biscuit, at the same time as taking your medication can help ease this side effect. Or you may find taking medication with plenty of water can help to reduce nausea.
Your GP can also prescribe anti-sickness tablets if you do feel sick after taking your medication.
Talk to your GP, specialist or Parkinson’s nurse if you have difficulty swallowing your medication. It may help to take your medication with a cold drink, such as water, squash or fruit juice, or with yoghurt.
You may also benefit from a referral to a speech and language therapist.
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Large European Study Links Soda Consumption To Greater Risk Of Mortality Including From Parkinson
A population-based study examining soda consumption in 10 European countries found that soft drinks were linked to a greater risk of death, as well as the chance of dying from Parkinson disease, although that connection needs additional research.
A population-based study examining soda consumption in 10 European countries found that soft drinks were linked to a greater risk of death, as well as the chance of dying from Parkinson disease.
The study, published in JAMA Internal Medicine, included both sugar- and artificially-sweetened drinks. The study group included 451,743 men and women from Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, comparing those who drank 2 or more glasses per day with those who drank less than 1 glass per month. There was a higher risk of death from all causes during an average follow-up of 16 years, in which 41,693 deaths occurred.
The authors said the findings support public health efforts to limit soft drink consumption Tuesday’s study follows one published earlier this year in JAMA that found excise taxes on soda sales in Philadelphia reduced overall sales by 38%.
The data came from the ongoing European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition trial. Among other factors, participants were excluded if they had reported cancer, heart disease, stroke, or diabetes at baseline, as well as if they had missing soft drink consumption or follow-up information.